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Ser.2 ,va 


fWlfiffllffiMWfi LIBRARY 

3 1833 011010193 

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Article Page 

I. Continuation of Johnson's Wonder-working Providence - 1 

II. Anecdote of the soldiers of Arnold - . - 51 

III. Election of Leverett as President of Harvard College 64 

IV. Account of Earthquakes - - - .70 
"V. Bill of mortality for Amherst, N. H. for ten years - 73 

VI. Catalogue of ministers in New Hampshire, 1767 - 78 

VII. History of Free Schools in Plymouth Colony 79 

VIII. Progress of Vaccination in America - - 97 

IX. Russian Voyage of Discovery - - , 98 

X. Note on Paper Money - - - 99 

XI. Contribution for building First Vessel at Plymouth - 99 

XII. Non-Conformist's Oath, 1666 104 

XIII. New England's Jonas cast up at London - - 107 

XIV. White's Letter to Govemour Winthrop - - 198 

XV. Deposition of Odlin and others about purchase of Boston 202 

XVI. Gage's Instructions and Narrative, &c. - . 2d4 

XVII. Letter on Episcopacy in Connecticut - * 297 

XVIII. Sacred Musick in Churches - - 301 


XIX. Memoir of Joshua Scottow - Ji 6367*6 10 ° 

Relating to the Indians. 

XX. Remarks on Report of Schermerhorn concerning Western 

Indians ----- 65 

XXL Correction of an errour as to number of, in Plymouth 302 

Topography and Local History. 

XXII. Topographical and Historical Description of Sudbury 52 

XXI [I. do do East Sudbury 60 

XXIV. Note on a former note on Billerica 76 

XXV. Historical Sketch of Haverhill - 121 

XXVI. Topographical and Historical Sketch of Freeport 176 

XXVII. do do Saco - 184 

XXVIII. Historical Sketch of North Hampton, N. H. - 189 

XXIX. do of Tyngsborough - - 192 

XXX. History and Description of Scituate - - 219 

XXXI. Topography and History of Rochester - - 250 

XXXII. History and Description of Plympton - - 267 

XXXIII. Description of Carver ... 271 

XXXIV. Notes on Halifax ... 279 

XXXV. History of Plympton, (Carver and part of Halifax 

inclusive) - ■ - - 283 



XXXVI. Topography and History of Wareham - - 285 

XXXVII. Addenda to several articles on towns in Plymouth 

County 302 

Relating to the Society, 

XXXVIII. Note on newly discovered Manuscript Journal of 
Governour Winthrop - 200 

XXXIX. Donations to the Society - - 304 



xxx. xxxvii. 




















xxxiii. xxxv. 




xxxi. xxxvii. 




xxii. xxiii. 









1780 ii. 
























ix. XX. XXL 





Being a Relation of the first planting in New England, in the Yeare, 


[^Continued from p. 161 of the third volume, second series.]] 

chap, xxxviii. — Of the placing down of many Souldiers of Christ, 
aud gathering the Church of Christ at Sandwitch in Plimouth 
patten, and further supply for the Churches of Ipswich and Linne. 

1 HIS yeare 1636. Sir Henry * Vaine, was chosen Gov- 
ernour, and John Winthrope Esquire Deputy Governour, 
the number of Freemen added were about eighty three. 
This yeare came over the much honoured Mr. Fenwick, 
a godly and able instrument to assist in helping to uphold 
the civill Government of the second, and third Colonies 
here planted, by the Divine Providence of the most high 
God,, hee having purchased the Plantation of Saybrooke 
Fort, became a good incourager to the Church of Christ 
at Hartford, where the reverend Mr. Hooker, and Mr. 
Stone were Officers. In remembrance of whom a few 
lines take here. 

Fenwick amoog this Christian throng, to wildernesse doth flee : 

There learn'd hast thou, yet further how, Christ should advanced be. 

"Who for that end, doth back thee send, their Senator to sit ; 
In native soile, for him still toile, while thou hast season fit, 

His Churches peace, do thou not cease, with their increase to bring, 
That they aDd thee, in lasting Glee, may Hallelujah sing. 

* Vane. 
% VOL. IV. 


The beginning of this yeare was spent in accommo- 
dating these new come Guests in the former yeare, whose 
numbers was neer about three thousand, and now they 
began to be perswaded they should be a setled people, 
not minding the present dangers they were in, as you 
shall hear anon, onely in the meane time take notice of 
further supply the Lord Christ was pleased to send be- 
fore the cattell increased to its strength, among whom 
the aged, and long continued Souldiers of Christ Jesus 
Mr. * Partrich, as also Mr. Nathaniel Rogers an able dis- 
putant, whose mouth the Lord was pleased to fill with 
many arguments for the defence of his truth, Mr. Sam- 
uel Whiting, who hath also, with keeping to the patterne 
of sound and wholesome Doctrine, much stopped the 
spreading Leaven of the Pharises, Mr. Partrich was call- 
ed to Office at a Towne then named Dukes Berry in 
Plimoth Government, scituated upon the Sea Coast, 
where the people of Christ being gathered into a Church, 
Ordained him to be their Pastor. 

In thine owne soile well rooted in the truth, 

Thou didst stand fast by Prelates power unbow'd, 
But Laude layes load on Gods fblke to his Ruth, 

By whom thou mayst, no longer, be alow'd. 
Then Partrich thou thy wings begins to spread 

Of Faith and Love to flie these long Seas o're, 
To wildernesse where thou Christs Lambes hast fed ; 

With's sincere Milke this fourteene yeare and more. 
But noAv with age thy Almon Tree doth flourish, 

Yet spreading like the Palme Tree dost thou stand, 
I'th house of God Christ Roote thy Boughs do nourish ; 

And for thy head he hath a Crowne in s hand. 

Mr. Nathaniel Rogers being landed, after a long and 
tedious Voyage at Sea, was welcomed by the Church of 
Christ at Ipswitch, where the Reverend and Judicious 
Mr. Nathaniel Ward, although a very able Preacher, and 
much desired, yet for some naturall infirmity (himselfe 
being best privy unto ) desired to be unbound of his in- 
gagement with his people in point of Office : that being 
left to his liberty, hee might Preach more seldom, in 
whose stead the Church called to Office this Reverend 

• Patridge. 


and Holy Man of God Mr. Nathaniel Rogers, whose la- 
bours in this Westerne World, have been very much : a 
very sweet heavenly minded man, of whom the Author 
is bold to say as followeth : 

Through boystrous Seas thy brittle frame of Man 

It safely is in Christ's sweet armes infold, 
JNo wonder then thou weake dust stotly can 

Preach Christs in's truths, why he doth thee uphold ? 
Why Rogers he thee over Sea hath fett 

Against the day of Battell, now at hand, 
jNo soouer are thy feet one those shores set 

But Leaders do Christ truth withstand. 
Undaunted thou these Westerne Fields dost enter, 

Filld with the spirits ready sword at hand, 
Ingage thou wilt thy selfe, 'mongst hardships venter ; 

Valiant thou foughtst under thy Christ's command. 
And yet with all men wouldst have peace thy aicie, 

If deepe to wound, and sweetly then to say, 
Come to my Christ hee'l heale your wounds againe ; 

Canst but submit hee'l never say thee nay. 
With learned Method thou Gods Word divides : 

Long labouring that each soule may take his part, 
Thy gratious speech with grave impression bides ; 

Thus Christ by thee is pleas'd to win the heart. 
My Muse lament, Nathaniel is decaying : 

Why dost thou grutch him Heaven, such toile hath had, 
In Christ his Vineyard rather be thou praying ; 

That in Christs armes he resting may be glad. 

Mr. Samuel Whiting was well welcomed by the 
Church of Christ at *Cawgust, which Towne, being now 
of age to receive an English name, was called Linne, 
where this Reverend man now hath his aboade. 

Thy ardent Love, the countlesse Oceans measure 

Q,uench cannot, for thy love on him is set, 
Who ot true love hath aie the depthlesse Treasure, 

Doth thine increase, least thou should'st, his forget. 
Love Christ in's truths my Whiting thou hast done ; 

Thou wilt not suffer with their leaven sower, 
False Doctrines 'mongst thy tender flock to run ; 

Timely cut off wilt thou all those devour. 
Samuel mourne not thy strength in Desart's spent : 

Rather rejoyce thy Christ makes use of thee 
Soules to convert, his Kingdomes large extent 

From East to West shall shortly setled be. 

* Saugus. .;, £f 


Thine Eyes and Eares have seen and heard great things 
Done by thy Christ, shewes he thy toile accepts, 

Through thy weake flesh weaker to dust hee'l bring ; 
Thy quickued spirit increast in his joy leaps. 

chap, xxxix. — Of the first appearing in the Field, of the enemies of 
Christs people in point of Reformation. 

And now to follow our first simile of a Souldier, the 
Lord Christ having safely landed many a valiant Souldier 
of his on these Westerne shores, drawes hither also the 
common enemies to Reformation, both in Doctrine aid 
Discipline ; But it was for like end, as the Lord sometime 
drew Sisera the Captaine of Jabins army to the River 
Kishon for their destruction, onely herein was a wide 
difference ; there Sisera was delivered into the hands of a 
Woman, and here Sisera was a woman ; their weapons 
and warre was carnall, these spirituall ; there Jabin was 
but a man, here Jabin was the common enemy of mans 

In the yeare 1636. the Angels of the several Churches 
of Christ in N. England sounding forth their silver 
Trumpets, heard ever and anon the jarring sound of ratling 
Drums in their eares, striking up an alarum to the bat- 
tell, it being a frequent thing publikely to oppose the 
pure and perfect truths of Christ (delivered by the mouth 
of his Ministers) and that by way of question as the Phar- 
ises, Sadduces and Herodians did Christ. But to bring 
this disorderly worke of theirs into some order, for as- 
suredly could the Author come up to relate the full of 
the matter in hand, it would through the mercy of Christ 
make much for the good of Gods people the World 
throughout, and helpe to discover the last ( I hope } but 
most subtile practises of Satan to hinder the Restauration 
of the purity of Christs Ordinances in his Churches in all 
places ; As also used by him and his instruments to di- 
vert the hands of those, to whom it belongs, from pulling 
downe Antichrist, to which end he stirreth up some of 
his instruments ( well educated in the Masking schoole 
of Hippocrisy ) to take upon them this long Voyage, giv- 
ing them in charge by all meanes to carry it more close, 


then his Jesuites had done, and for their paines they 
should have the honours to be counted such, as were of 
a sharper sight, and deeper discerning then any others. 
Satan, knowing right well that at the fall of Antichrist 
hee must be chained up for a thousand years, strives 
with all the wicked craft his long experienced malicious- 
nesse could possibly invent, to uphold the same, having 
already perswaded many that his Kingdome was wholy 
ruinated with our English Nation, and so diswaded them 
a long time from further prosecuting against him. But 
Antichrists Kingdome, as it plainly appeares by Scrip- 
ture, consists chiefly in two parts, his deceaveible Doc- 
trines, and his Kingly power. The first of these being 
in measure abolished, the latter was still retained by the 
Prelacy, and some Lording Presbytery in greater or les- 
ser measure, as they could attaine unto it. 

Now Satan, who is daily walking to and fro compas- 
sing the Earth, seeing how these resolved Souldiers of 
Christ in New England, with indefatigable paines labour- 
ed, not onely the finall ruine of Antichrist, in both, but 
also the advance of Christs Kingdome, in setting up daily 
Churches according to his first institution. Wherefore 
he sets upon a new way to stop ( if it were possible) this 
worke of Reformation, and seeing no other way will 
serve, he stirs up instruments to cry down Antichrist as 
much as the most, I and more too, but by this project 
they should leade people as much out of the way on the 
other hand, and in the Doctrinall part of Antichrists 
Kingdome, fall to more horrid Blasphemies then the Pap- 
ist ( as God willing ) you shall heare some of them did, 
namely the Gortenist, who most blasphemously professe 
themselves to be personally the Christ ; and as for the 
other part of his Kingdome, namely the power or Do- 
minion of the beast, this they should with all violence 
batter downe also, but it must be none other then to 
make way for their owne exaltation, and pay them 
their wages in the former page promised them, as also 
withall to overthrow the authority Christ hath ordained 
to be continued in his Churches, in and under him, and 
furthermore to lock up the Sword of Civill Government 


for ever, especially in matters that concerne the foure 
first Commands of God, a cunning way to save the beasts 
head whole. 

You have now heard of the intention, you shall now 
see their actions. The Lord Christ in his boundlesse 
mercy give all his people eyes to see, and hearts to be- 
lieve, that after they have in measure escaped the filthy 
pollutions of the beast, they may not againe be intangled 
with these damnabled Doctrines, stealing away their hearts 
by degrees, under a seeming shew of pulling down Anti- 
christ. The Embassadors of Christ Jesus, having full 
liberty to deliver their masters minde, Preach unto all 
the Doctrine of Free grace, beseeching them to be re- 
conciled unto God in Christ, and that the revealed will 
of God is, that ail should be saved, and come to the 
knowledge of the truth, and that God hath given his 
onely begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him 
should not perish, but have everlasting Life. Yet with- 
all minding them that Faith is the gift of God, and none 
can come unto Christ, but such as the Father drawes, 
and withall that the whole will not see any need of the 
Phisitians, but the sick, adding also, that none can come 
to the sight of his sicknesse or dead condition but by 
the Law of God, unlesse they be quicker sighted then 
the Apostle ; They indevour also to build up others in 
their holy Faith, that they might come to see the Love 
of God in Christ, which passeth knowledge, and to this 
end they shew them the fruits of Faith which worketh by 
love, and that love will be obedient to all the commands 
of Christ, who saith, if you love me keepe my Commande- 
ments ; And further that Faith purines the heart, and 
that a constant supply must be had from Christ. With 
these and the like sound and wholsome truths the Min- 
isters of Christ feeds their severall flocks in New En- 
gland, drawing their Doctrines plainly from their Text, and 
substantially backing them with store of Scripture, and 
undeniable reason, and then delivering to every Man his 

But this good old way would not serve the turne with 
certaine Sectaries that were hither come, who like cun- 


ning Sophisters, seeing the bent of the peoples hearts 
(after so many mercies received) was to magnifie the 
rich Grace of God in Christ ; they began to tell the peo- 
ple ( yet very privately ) that the most, if not all the Min- 
isters among them Preached a Covenant of workes, either 
course or fine, and with a what doe you say to this. 
They begin to spread their Errors and Heresies, laying 
the foundation of them as nere the truth as possible they 
can, the easier to deceive, but in the prosecution, to be 
sure they ran far enough from it, but to begin ; First, 
they quarrell with the Doctrine of Faith in Christ, and 
say, a Soule is justified without it. 

chap. xl. Of the cunning policy of Satan in that machcvillian Prin- 
ciple, divide and overcome, and of the two first dividing Principles, 
by which many errors were brought in. 

And verily Satans policy here (as in all places where 
the Lord Christ is acknowledged) was to keepe men 
from that one right way, by the which hee applies him- 
selfe to the soule, no marvell then if so many Errours 
arise, like those fained heads of Hidra, as fast as one is 
cut off two stand up in the roome, and chiefly about the 
uniting of a soule to Christ by Faith. Their Errors iri 
this point they reported to be the judgement of the Rev- 
erend and Judicious Mr. John Gotten ; But hee having 
spoken for himselfe in his answer to Mr. Baily, I for- 
beare, onely this by the way, take notice of these subtili 
Projectors, the Erronist I meane, who perceiving this 
holy man of God Mr. Cotten was, and yet is in great es- 
teeme with the people of God, for the great grace Christ 
hath bestowed upon him in his deepe discerning the 
mysteries of godlinesse, as also discerning some little 
difference betweene him, and the other Elders about 
this point, comment upon it, and inlarge at their pleasure, 
and then in daily venting their deceivable Doctrines, like 
subtili Logicians, bring in this as their strongest argu- 
ment in the last place. Pie tell you Friend, Neighbour, 
Brother, if you will forbeare to speake of it till you hear 
farther, this k the judgement of Mr. Cotten, when he, it 
may be had never heard of it, or at least wise, when they 


brought this their bastardly brat to him, they put another 
vizard on the face of it : but that you may understand 
their way of broaching their abominable errors, it was in 
dividing those things the Lord hath united in his worke 
of conversion continued, carrying on a Soule to Heaven 
in these foure Particulars. 

First, in dividing betvveene the word and the 
beiw^ln d !hl word, under pretence of a legali Gospell, per- 
Word, and swading the people their Ministers were legali 
the word. p reacherSj teaching them little better then 
Popery, and unfit for Gospel Churches, denying them to 
be any Ministers of Christ that Preach any preparation 
worke, by shewing men what the Law requires. Here's 
nothing sayes one of them, but Preaching out of the Law 
and the Prophets, truly sayes another of them I have not 
heard a pure Gospell Sermon from any of them, but sure 
they were both troubled with the Lethargy, or read not 
the Gospell themselves, for they may finde the Apostles, 
yea, and Christ himselfe Preached good Gospell sure, out 
"of the Law and the Prophets. 

Secondly, in separating Christ and his Gra- 
2. Christ ces, in manifesting himselfe to be in the Soule, 
Graces! and this they say makes much for the magnify- 
ing of Free grace, and indeed they made it so 
free, that the soule that receives it shall never taste any of 
it by their consent, but remaine still a dry branch as be- 
fore ; these legali Pharises, sayes one of them, tell us of 
a thing they call inherent grace, and of a man being made 
a new creature, but I am sure the best of them goe on in 
their legali duties and performances still, sorrowing for 
sinne hearing of Sermons, observing duty Morning and 
Evening, and many such like matters. Tush man sayes 
another of them, you shall hear more then this, I was dis- 
coursing with one of their Scholasticall Preachers Disci- 
ples, a professed convert, and yet when he came to pray, 
he beg'd for forgivenesse of his sins, I asked him why he 
used that vaine repetition, since hce did believe he was 
justified by Christ already, and hee made me an answer 
not worth repeating, but when I told him God could see 
no sinne in his people, no more then I could see that whicfy 


was covered close from my eye sight ; hee told mee I 
spake little lesse then blasphemy, so ignorant are these 
men, and their learned guides also ; who perswade them 
the more they have of the in-dwelling of the Spirit of 
Christ, the better they shall be inabled to these legal! 
duties. Nay, quoth the other, I can tell you more then 
all this, they make it an evidence of their good estate, 
even their sanctification, and yet these men would make 
people believe they are against Popery. 

By this discourse of theirs, you may see the manner 
how these Erronious, and Hereticall persons batter off 
the fruit from the goodly branches of Christs vines & 
make bare the flourishing trees planted in the house of 
the Lord, and yet professe themselves to be Schollars of 
the upper forme, that have learned as far as their Masters 
can teach them, but let me tell you friends you'l prove 
but trewants if you fall thus to Robbing of Orchards, 
and its an offence far beyond petty Larceny, to rob Christs 
Garden, let your pretences be what they will : can it pos- 
sible be for the magnifying of Christs Grace that the 
branches growing upon his root should remaine fruit- 
lesse f no assuredly, herein God is glorified that his peo- 
ple bring forth much fruit, yet many of these new Gos- 
pellers had another plea, hypocrites have a seeming shew 
of Saints graces by which they deceive themselves and 
others ; And therefore because Felons and Traytors 
coyne counterfeit Gold, therefore true Gold should not 
passe for current, but the intent of the Author is to pros- 
ecute the History, these errours being confuted already 
by the able servants of Christ, whom the Lord in his 
mercy brought hither for that purpose. 

chap. xli. Of the two latter dividing Principles under ■which these 
Erronists fought. 

The third dividing tenent, by which these 
Word T ami P ersons prosecuted their errors at this time, was 
the spirit, betweene the Word of God, and the Spirit oif 
God, and here these Sectaries had many prety Knacks to 
delude withall, and especially to please the Femall Sex, 

3 VOL. IV. 


they told of rare Revelations of things to come from the 
spirit ( as they say ) it was onely devised to weaken the 
Word of the Lord in the mouth of his Ministers, and 
withall to put both ignorant and unlettered Men and Wo- 
men, in a posture of Preaching to a multitude, that they 
might be praised for their able Tongue. Come along 
with me sayes one of them, i'le bring you to a Woman 
that Preaches better Gospeil then any of your black- 
coates that have been at the Ninneversity, a Woman of 
another kinde of spirit, who hath had many Revelations 
of things to come, and for my part, saith hee, I had rath- 
er hear such a one that speakes from the meere motion 
of the spirit, without any study at all, then any of your 
learned Scollers, although they may be fuller of Scrip- 
ture ( I ) and admit they may speake by the helpe of the 
spirit, yet the other goes beyond them. Gentle Reader, 
thinke not these things fained, because I name not the 
parties, or that here is no witnesse to prove them, should 
I so do : neither of both is the cause I assure you, but 
being somewhat acquainted with my own weakenesse, 
should the Lord withdraw the light of his word, and also 
I verily believe some of them are truly turned againe to 
the truth, the which I wish to all., yet by relating the 
story all men may see what a spirit of giddinesse they 
were given up to, and some of them to strong delusions, 
even to most horrid and damnable blasphemies, having 
itching eares, or rather proud desires to become Teach- 
ers of others, when they g? osly erred in the first Princi- 
ples of Religion themselves. There was a man in one 
of the farthest Townes of the Mattacusets Government, 
where they had no Ministers for the present, he being 
much desirous to shew himselfe some body in talking to 
as many as hee could get to hear him one the Sabbath 
day, missing some. of his Auditors, he meets with one of 
them some few days after, they passing over the water 
together, where were you quoth he' on the Sabbath 
day that you were not at the meeting? we had a notable 
piece of Prophecy, quoth the man that was missing, who 
was it that Preached? The other replying not: his Wife v 
being in presence, answered ; it was" my husband, nay 


wife, quoth he thou shoulds not have told him, teach 
him to stay at home another time. 

By this and divers other such like matters, which 
might be here inserted, you may see how these Sectaries 
love the preheminence, and for this end seeke to deprive 
the Ministers of Christ inveigling as many as they can in 
the head, that they take to much upon them (just like 
the rebellious Korath, Dathan, and Abiram ) scoffing at 
their Scoller-like way of Preaching, wherein the grosse 
dissimulation of these erronious persons hath appeared 
exceedingly, as for instance first of a Woman, even the 
grand Mistris of all the rest, who denied the Resurrec- 
tion from the dead, shee and her consorts mightily ray- 
ling against learning, perswading all they could to take 
heed of being spoyied by it, and in the meane time, shee 
herselfe would dispute ( forsooth ) and to shew her skill 
that way, here is a falacy quoth she in this syliogisme : 
as also one of the Gortonists, as shallow a pated Scoller 
as my seife, far from understanding Latine, much lesse 
any other Language the Scriptures were writ in, yet 
when hee would hold out some of the best of his false 
Doctrines, as namely, that there were no other Devills 
but wicked men, nor no such thing as sin. Quoth he 
that place in the fourth Psalme, where men commonly 
read, stand in awe and sin not, in the originail it is read 
stand in awe and misse not. But to go on, at this time 
there were many strange Revelations told both of Men 
and Women, as true some of them said as the Scripture, 
so that surely had this Sect gone on awhile, they would 
have made a new Bible, and their chief Mistris when she 
was shipt for N. England, what will you say quoth she, 
and it hath beene revealed to me that we shall be there in 
six weekes, and one of the femall Gortonists said, she 
was a Prophetesse, and it was revealed unto her, that 
shee must prophecy unto the People in the same words 
the Prophet Ezekiel did, as also a lusty big man to de- 
fend this tenent held forth to his Pastor before the whole 
Congregation, that the spirit of Revelation came to hiflf| 
as he was drinking a pipe of Tobacco. 


The fourth dividing way to bring in their 
and iS ir or- Heresies, was to devide betweene Christ and 
dinances. hi s Ordinances, and here they plaid their game 
to purpose, even to casting down of ail Ordi- 
nances as carnall, and that because they were polluted by 
the Ordinance of man, as some of these Sectaries have 
said to the Minister of Christ, you have cast off the crosse 
in Baptisme, bat you should do well to cast off Baptisrne 
it seife ; as also for the Sacrament of the Lords Supper, 
for to make use of Bread, or the juce of a silly Grape to 
represent the Body and Bioud of Christ, they accounted 
it as bad as Negromancy in the Ministers of Christ to 
performe it. But seeing there will be occasion to bring 
in a*bedroule of these Blasphemies in the yeare (43) and 
( 44 ) take the lesse here ; onely minde that these persons 
being first bewildred in the deniall of Infants being Bapti- 
zed, could neither finde right faith to be Baptized into, 
nor yet any person rightly constituted to Baptize remain- 
ing. Seekers they came to this, but yet here must not 
be omitted the slights these Erronists had to shoulder 
out the Officers Christ hath ordained, and set up in his 
Churches ; and verily in this point they sided directly 
with the Papist and Prelates, although in most of the 
other they went directly out of the way on the other hand. 
Ignorance say the Papist is the Mother of devotion, its 
better say the Protestant Prelates to have ( a blind sir 
John ) one that cannot tell how to Preach, provided he 
will conforme to our Ceremonies, than to have one that 
will Preach constantly, and not conforme also : these 
Erronist, shewing themselves to be whelps of the same lit- 
ter, Cry out against a learned Presbitery, as the onely way 
to captivate liberty, and herein the transformed Devill 
came to shew his Homes, for why, his errors would not 
take where the people were followers of their seeing guids, 
and if it be well noted, here is the Master-piece of all 
their knavery, the which comes in after this manner, The 
Lording Pielaey, Popes, Cardinalls, Bishops, Deanes, 
&x. Were ordinarily brought up at the University to 
learning, and most tyrannically abused it : usurping 
over the people of Christ, and exercised most inhumane 

• bf-ud-rol? ? 


and barbarous cruelty upon them ; as also the Presbyte- 
rian Kirke by these Provinciall Classes, men of learning 
having robbed the particular Congregations of their just 
and lawfull priv Hedges, which Christ hath purchased for 
them. Each Congregation of his being invested with 
full power to Administer all the Ordinances he hath or- 
dained, in and toward their owne Members ; and further 
learned men in some places, feeding the people for their 
Tith-sake in a Parishioniall way, desire the upholding 
thereof, lest their fat Benefices should grow leane. 

Now the Redemption of the people of Christ out of all 
these bondages, being full of difficulty to attaine, as is 
abundantly witnessed in the great hardship Gods people 
have undergon in this Wildernesse-worke ; as also much 
more by that bloudy war so long continued in our Na- 
tive Country, and the two adjacent Kingdomes. This 
makes a very faire bottome for those to build upon, who 
would have the sluce of authority in the Officers of Christs 
Churches plucked up, that so their errors might flow in 
like a fioud ; And therefore they impannell a Jury of their 
own Sectaries to passe upon all such as put a higher es~- 
teem upon their Pastors and Teachers ( in point of dis- 
cerning the holy things of God ) then upon other men, 
who returne in their Verdit as finding them guilty of the 
crime above expressed, either as party, or privy abetters 
unto them, upon this the Vote goes for advancing such 
men as will let them out line enough for such as will 
worke without wages, and give to every man liberty to 
exercise a large conscience, provided it be his own, and 
as for authority they would have none used, as being a 
thing two opposite to liberty. My friend cast off as 
much of thy owne power as thou canst, and beware of 
Lording it over Gods Heritage, but I pray thee let Christ 
alone with his, which he hath given to his Pastors and 
Teachers in administring the holy things of God, pecu- 
liar to their Office, and tremble all you Presbyterians, 
who to please the people prostrate the authority Christ 
hath put upon the Eldrs of his Churches as Officers, to 
the resolute liberty of man : the people may and ought 
to call them to Office, to the which Christ hath united 


double honour and authority, and appointed them to he 
had in high esteeme for their worke sake, being Embas- 
sadors of Christ Jesus. This may no man take from 
them, nor yet they themselves cast off, and yet all this 
makes nothing for the Papall, Prelaticall, Classicall or 
Parishionall authority of the Presbitery, for it holds onely 
in their ruling well, while they rule for Christ, they must 

and shall have the power hee hath put upon 
E^^derived tne i r Office. From these foure dividing 
iVom these tour Tenents by the cunning? art of these deceivers, 
spread abroad were forescore grosse errours broached secret- 
in n. England. 1^ siting in the darke like the Plague, prov. 

ing very infectious to some of the Churches 
of Christ in their Members. 

chap. lxii. Of sad effects of the pitifull and erronious Doctrines 
broached by the Sectuaries. 

The number of these infectious persons increasing 
now, haveing drawn a great party on their side, and some 
considerable persons they grow bold, and dare question 
the sound and wholesome truths delivered in publick by 
the Ministers of Christ. Their Church-meetings are full 
of Disputes in points of difference, and their love-Feasts 
are not free from spots, in their Courts of civill Justice 
some men utter their Speeches in matters of Religion 
very ambiguously, and among all sorts of persons a great 
taike of new light, but verily it proved but old darknesse, 
such as sometime over-shadowed the City of Munster ; 
But blessed be the Lord Christ, who now declared him- 
selfe to be a helpe at hand for his pbore New England 
Churches, being now in their infancy, whose condition 
at present was very dolorous, and full of difficulties^ in- 
somuch that the better part of this new transported peo- 
ple stood still many of them gazing one upon another, 
like Sheepe let loose to feed on fresh pasture, being stop- 
ped and startled in their course by a Kenneli of devour- 
ing Wolves. The weaker sort wavered much, and such 
as were more growne Christians hardly durst discover 
the truth they held one unto another, the fogs of errour 
increasing the bright beames of the glorious Gospell of 


our Lord Christ in the mouth of his Ministers could not 
be discerned through this thick mist by many, and that 
sweete refreshing warmth that was formerly felt from the 
spirits influence, was now turned ( in these Erronists ) to 
a hot inflamation of their owne conceited Revelations, ul- 
cerating and bringing little lesse then frenzy or madnesse 
to the patient, the Congregation of the people of God be- 
gan to be forsaken, and the weaker Sex prevailed so farre, 
that they set up a Priest of their own Profession and 
Sex, who was much thronged after, abominably wrest- 
ing the Scriptures to their own destruction : this Master 
piece of Women s wit, drew many Disciples after her, 
and to that end boldly insinuated her selfe into the favour 
of none of the meanest, being also backed with the Sor, 
eery of a second, who had much converse with the 
Devill by her own confession, and did, to the admiration 
of those that heard her, utter many speeches in the Lat- 
ine Tongue, as it were in a trance, this Woman was 
wonted to give drinkes to other Women to cause them 
to conceive, how they wrought I know not, but sure 
there were Monsters borne not long after, as you shall 
hear in the following History. 

Oh yee New England Men and Women, who hath 
bewitched you that you should not obey the truth ? And 
indeed Satan, to make sure worke with semblance of 
Preaching the Doctrine of Free grace by his instruments, 
makes shew of out- bidding all the Orthodox, and godly 
Ministers in the Countrey, pretending their Preaching to 
be but a Covenant of workes, supposing by this meanes 
to silence them without a Bishop, and lest the civill pow- 
er should stand up for their aid, they threaten them with 
the high displeasure of Christ for persecuting his people, 
which as they said these erronious persons with their 
new light, w T ere the onely Men and Women that were 
pure Gospell Preachers. Thus the poore people of 
Christ, who kept close to his antient truths invironed 
with many straites, having expended their Estates to voy- 
age far through the periiious Seas, that their eyes might, 
behold their Teachers, and that they might injoy the 
protection of a godly civill Government, began to deeme 


themselves in a more dolorous condition then when they 
were in the Commissaries Court, and Prelates Prisons, 
the hideous waves in which their brittle Barques were 
sometimes covered, as they passed hither, were nothing 
so terrible in the apprehension of some as was this floud 
of errors violently beating against the bankes of Church 
and civili Government, the wants of this Wildernesse, 
and pinching penury in misse of Bread, put them to no 
such paine by gnawing on their empty stomacks, with 
feare of famishing, as did the misse of the Administra- 
tion of Christ in his Word and Ordinances, leaving the 
soule in a languishing condition for want of a continuall 
supply of Christ in his Graces. 

chap, xliii. Of the sorrowful! condition of the people of Christ, 
when they were incountred with these erronists at their first land- 

But to end this dismall yeare of sixteene hundred 
thirty six, take here the sorrowfuil complaint of a poorfe 
Soule in misse of its expectation at landing, who being 
incountered with some of these Erronists at his first land- 
ing, when he saw that good old way of Christ rejected by 
them, and hee could not skill in that new light, which 
was the common theame of every mans Discourse, hee 
betooke him to a narrow Indian path, in which his seri- 
ous Meditations soone led him, where none but sence- 
lesse Trees and eccohing Rocks make answer to his heart - 
easeing mone. O quoth he where am I become, is this the 
place where those Reverend Preachers are fled, that 
Christ was pleased to make use of to rouse up his rich 
graces in manv a drooping soule ; here have I met with 
some that tell mee, I must take a naked Christ. Oh, 
woe is mee if Christ be naked to mee, wherewith shall I 
be cloathed, but methinks I most wonder they tell me 
of casting of all godly sorrow for sin as unbeseeming a 
Soule, that is united to Christ by Faith, and there was a 
little nimbled tongued Woman among them, who said 
she could bring me acquainted with one of her own Sex 


that would shew me a way, if I could attaine it, even 
Revelations, full of such ravishing joy that I should 
never have cause to be sorry for sinne, so long as I live, 
and as for her part shee had attained it already : a com- 
pany of legall Professors, quoth she lie poring on the 
Law which Christ hath abolished, and when you breake 
it then you breake your joy, and now no way will serve 
your turne, but a deepe sorrow. These and divers other 
expressions intimate unto men, that here I shall finde 
little increase in the Graces of Christ, through the hear- 
ing of his word Preached, and other of his blessed Ordi- 
nances. Oh cunning Devill, the Lord Christ rebuke 
thee, that under pretence of a free and ample Gospell 
shuts out the Soule from partaking with the Divine Na- 
ture of Christ, in that mysticall Union of his Blessed 
Spirit creating, and continuing his Graces in the Souie : 
my deare Christ, it was thy worke that moved me hither 
to come, hoping to finde thy powerful! presence in the 
Preaching of the Word, although admiuistred by sorry 
men, subject to like infirmities with others of Gods peo- 
ple, and also by the glasse of the Law, to have my sinfull 
corrupt nature discovered daily more and more, and my 
utter inabillity of any thing that is good, magnifying 
hereby the free grace of Christ ; who of his good will 
and pleasure worketh in us to will, and to doe working 
all our works in us, and for us. 

But here they tell me of a naked Christ, what is the 
whole life of a Christian upon this Earth? But through 
the power of Christ to die to sinne, and live to holinesse 
and righteousnesse, and for that end to be diligent in the 
use of meanes : at the uttering of this word he starts up 
from the greene bed of his complaint, with resolution to 
hear some one of these able Ministers Preach ( whom 
report had so valued ) before his will should make choyce 
of any one principle, though of crossing the broade Seas 
back againe, then turning his face to the Sun, he steered 
his course toward the next Town, and after some small 
travell hee came to a large plaine, no sooner was hee en- 
tred thereon, but hearing the sound of a Drum he was 
directed toward it by a broade beaten way, following this 

4? VOL. IV. 


rode he demands of the next man he met what the sig- 
nal! of the Drum ment, the reply was made they had as 
yet no Bell to call men to meeting ; and therefore made 
use of a Drum, who is it, quoth hee, Lectures at this 
Towne. The other replies, I see you are a stranger, 
new come over, seeing you know not the man, it is one 
Mr. Shepheard, verily quoth the other you hit the right, 
I am new come over indeed, and have been told since I 
came most of your Ministers are legall Preachers, onely 
if I mistake not they told me this man Preached a finer 
covenant of workes then the other, but however, I shall 
make what hast I can to heare him. Fare you well, ihen 
hasting thither hee croudeth through the thickest, where 
having stayed while the glasse was turned up twice, the 
man was metamorphosed, and was faine to hang down 
the head often, least his watry eyes should blab abroad the 
secret conjunction of his affections, his heart crying loud 
to the Lords ecchoing answer, to his blessed spirit, that 
caused the Speech of a poore weake pale complectioned man 
to take such impression in his soule at present, by applying 
the word so aptly, as if hee had beene his Privy Counsel- 
ler, cleering Christs worke of grace in the soule from all 
those false Doctrines, which the erronious party had 
afrighted him withall, and now he resolves (the Lord 
willing) to live and die with the Ministers of New Eng- 
land ; whom hee now saw the Lord had not onely made 
zealous to stand for the truth of his Discipline, but also 
of the Doctrine, and not to give ground one inch. 

chap, xliiii. The Congregational! Churches of Christ are neither 
favourers of sinfull opinions, nor the Lords over any, or many 
Churches, or mens Consciences. 

And here Christian Reader the Author according to 
Ills former practice, must minde thee of the admirable 
providence of Christ toward his New England Churches, 
in preserving them from these erronious spirits, that have 
hitherto in ail places dog'd the sincere servants of Christ, 
when ever they have set upon a through Reformation, 
as stories doe abundantly testify, which thing the rever- 
end Calvine and divers others, have declared. But see- 
ing the boasting Prelates in these times are ready to say 


their Lordly power kept these errours under, its plaine 
otherwise : for Satan saw while people were under their 
yoake of humane inventions, they were far enough from 
exalting the Kingdome of Christ ; And therefore he re- 
served these errours, for his last shifts, and further you 
shall see in the following story that the Lord Christ re- 
served this honour for those, whose love hee had iniarged 
to follow him in a dezart wiidernesse, even with the 
sharpe sword of the Word, timely to cut off the heads of 
this Hidra ; but yet there are two sorts of persons in our 
Native Country, whom the Elders and Brethren here do 
highly honour in Christ, and prefer before themselves, 
namely the godly Presbyterian party, and the Congrega- 
tionall sincere servants of Christ, both which the Author 
could wish, (that with bowelis of compassion, sweet sim- 
pathising affection of Brethren knit together in that tran- 
scendent love of Christ, which couples all his distanced 
flocks together) they would seriously ponder this History, 
which through the Authors weakenesse wants much of 
measure, but nothing of the truth of things, so far as a 
shallow capacity can reach. Of the first sort named, I 
could wish the Reverend Mr. Ruterford, Mr. Bayle, 
Mr. Rathbone, Mr. Paget, Mr. Bail, &c. would but in- 
forme themselves further by the truth of this History, 
supposing they cannot chuse but in a good measure be 
satisfied already with the pacificatory and rneeke answers 
of as many Reverend and godly Elders of ours. 

Now that I would they should take notice of is, that 
the Churches of Christ in New England, and their Offi- 
cers have hitherto been so far from imbracing the erro- 
nious Doctrines of these times, that through the powers 
of Christ they have valiantly defended the truth, and cut 
down all deceiveable Poctrine ; the like hath not been 
done for many ages heretofore. Reverend and beloved 
in Christ, could your eyes but behold the efficacy of lov- 
ing counsell in the Communion of congregationall 
Churches, and the reverend respect, honour and love, 
given to all Teaching Elders, charity commands me to 
thinke you would never stand for Classicall injunctions 
any more, neither Diocesan, nor Provincial! authority 
can possible reach so far as this royall Law of love in 


communion of Churches : verily its more universall then 
the Papall power, and assuredly the dayes are at hand, 
wherein both Jew and Gentile Churches shall exercise 
this old Modell of Church Government, and send their 
Church salutations and admonitions from one end of the 
World unto another, when the Kingdomes of the Earth 
are become our Lord Christs ; Then shall the exhorta- 
tion of one Church to another prevaile more to Reforma- 
tion, then all the thundering Bulls, excomunicating 
Loidly censures, and shamefull penalties of all the Lord- 
ing Churches in the World, and such shall be, and is the 
efficacy of this intire love one to another, that the with- 
drawing of any one Church of Christ, according to the 
Rule of the word from those that walke inordinatly, will 
be more terrible to the Church or Churches so forsaken, 
then an Army with Banners ; yea, and it may be added, 
because civil! Government is like to turne nurse in more 
places then one, this royall Law of love shall become the 
Law of Nations, and none will suffer their subjects to re- 
bell against it ; but to our beloved brethren m England 
on the other hand, the Reverend Mr. Burroughs, Mr, 
Goodwin, &c. 

This seemeth you have apprehended our Churches 
and civill Government, to be too strict in dealing with 
persons for their sinfull opinions, I wish the offenders be 
none of your intelligencers, who to be sure will make the 
worst of things, I know you are in charity with us; 
And therefore a few words will satisfie, which I hope you 
want jiot from your good friends our Reverend Elders, 
who could wish you as much happinesse as our selves to 
escpell error before it grew to that height to cry downe 
the sound and wholesome truths : casting durt on our 
Orthodox and godly Ministry, I wish you open your 
mouths wide enough to be filled with this blessing, the 
Lord hath done great, and unexpected things for you, 
and why not this ? one and twenty yeares experience 
hath taught us that Errors and Heresies are not broached, 
and held out here by tender consciences, such as are 
weak in the Faith, but by such as think them Scholers 
of the upper forme, such as would teach the most ablest 
Christian among us another Gospell, and further we finde 


our Erronist wanting a common enemy to contend with- 
all, as you have fallen foule of our godly Magistrates and 
Ministers, and will not suffer us quietly to injoy the 
Ordinance of Christ, for which wee hither came, buz- 
zing our people in the eare with a thing they call liberty, 
which when any have tasted a smack of, they can no 
more indure to hear of a Synod or gathering together of 
able, and Orthodox Christians, nor yet of communion of 
Churches, but would be independant to purpose, and as 
for civill Government they deem Religion to be a thing 
beyond their Sphere, 

chap. xlv. Of the civil! Government in K. England, and their 
nurture of the people upon their tender knees. 

The vernall of the yeare 1637. being now in his prime, 
and as the season of the yeare grew hotter, so the minds 
of many were hot in the eager pursuite of their selfe con- 
ceited opinions, and verily had not authority stept in, it 
was much to be doubted they would have proceeded 
from words to blowes, great hold and keepe there was 
about choice of Magistrates this yeare, the choyce being 
retarded by a paper call'd a Petition, but indeed a meere 
device to hinder the election, till the erronious party were 
strengthened, their number increasing daily, but the Lord 
Christ gratiously providing for the peace of his people 
toward the end of the day the honoured John Winthrope 
Esquire, was chosen Governour, and Thomas Dudly 
Esq. Deputy Governor : the number of free-men added 
this yeare was about 125. 

Here according to promise the Reader shall have an 
accoumpt of the civill Government of this little Common- 
wealth, as their whole aime in their removall from their 
Native Country, was to injoy the liberties of the Gospell 
of Christ, so in serving up civill Government, they daily 
direct their choice to make use of such men as mostly 
indeavour to keepe the truths of Christ pure and unspot- 
ted, and assuredly they can digest any wrongs or injuries 
done them in their estates, or trade, better then the wrest- 
ing of their right in the freedome of the Gospell, out of 
their hands, and this the Erronist knowing right well 
(to save their heads whole) perswade men it is not for 


civill Government to meddle with matters of Religion ; 
and also to helpe out with their damnable Doctrines, they 
report it in all places, where they be come, that New 
England Government doth persecute the people and 
Churches of Christ ; which to speake truth they have 
hitherto beene so far from, that thev have indeavoured to 
expell all such beasts of prey, ( who will not be reclaim- 
ed ) that here might be none left to hurt or destroy in all 
Gods holy Mountaine, and therefore are ready to put the 
Churches of Christ in miade of their duty herein ; yea, 
and sometimes going before them in their civill censures 
that they may not onely professe the truth, but also hate 
every false way, not that they would com pell men to be- 
lieve by (he power of the Sword, but to indeavour all 
may answer their profession ; whether in Church Cove- 
nant or otherwise, by knowing they beare not the Sword 
in vaine. Neither doe they exercise civill power to bring 
all under their obedience to a uniformity in every poynt 
of Religion, but to keepe them in the unity of the spirit, 
and the bond of peace, nor yet have they ever mixed 
their civill powers with the authority peculiarly given by 
Christ to his Churches and Officers of them, but from 
time to time have laboured to uphold their priviledges, 
and only communion one with another. 

The chiefe Court or supreame power of this little 
Commonwealth, consists of a mixt company, part Aris- 
tocracy, and part Democracy of Magistrates, that are 
yearly chosen by the major Vote of the whole body of 
the Free-men throughout the Country ; and Deputies 
chosen by the severall Townes, they have hitherto had 
about 12. or 13. Magistrates in the Colony of the Matta- 
cusets, the other Colonies have not above five or six, 
they have hitherto beene Volunteers, governing without 
pay from the people, onely the Governor of the Mattacu- 
setts hath some yeares 1001. allowed him, and some years 
lesse, many of the Magistrates are already remembred, 
yet with some of the first came hither Mr. Simon Erode - 
street, in this short Meeter is he remembred. 

JNow Simon yong, step in among, these worthies take thy place : 
AJ1 day to toile in vinyard, while Christ thee upholds with grace, 


Thee wisdom grave betime he gave, and tongue to utter it, 

That thou mightst be a blessing free, and for this calling fit. 
Thy counsel! well, advis'd dost tell, with words ordered compleat, 

Thy memory, doth amplifie, meeting with matters great. 
Broad liberty, do thou deny, Brodstreet Christ would thee have, 

For's truth contend, strong reason spend, it from aspersion save. 
He furnish't thee, with these gifts free, to last he must them make, 

Still adding more, to thy old store, till he thee to him take* 

The Lord was pleased to furnish these his people 
with some able instruments in most of their Townes, 
that were skilFd in Common- wealth work, out of which 
they chose their Deputies, whose number was ordinarily 
between 30. and 40. some of them there will be occasion 
to speake of among their Military Men, but see here the 
Wonder-working Providence of Sions Savour, appears 
much in gathering together stones to build up the walls 
of Jerusalem (that his Sion may be surrounded with Bul- 
workes and Towres) with a whispering word in the eares 
of his servants, he crosses the Angles of England from 
Cornewali to Kent, from Dover to Barwick, not leaving 
out Scotland and Wales ; Wise men are pers waded to 
the worke without arguing like Elisha, when Elias cast 
his mantle on him, so these men make no stop, but say 
suffer me onely to sell my inheritance, and I will away 
for New England. And now I could wish our Brethren 
in England would not be angry with us for making such 
hast. Brethren you know how the case stood with our 
Ministers, as it was with Gideon, who could thresh out no 
Corne, but hee must doe it secretly to hide it from the 
Midianites, who spread the Land like Grashoppers, no 
more could they thresh and cleane up any Wheate for 
the Lords Garner, but the Prelates would presently be 
upon their backs, and plow long furrowes there, and you 
may believe it, if you will (for it is certaine) many, had 
not this little number gone forth to blow their Trum- 
pets, and breake their Pitchers, making the brightnesse 
of their Lamps appeare, surely the host of the Midian- 
ites had never been put to fight, and if still any of our 
Brethren shall contend with us, wee answer with Gid- 
eon, the Lord hath delivered into your hands the chiefs 
Princes of Midian, and what were we able to do in com- 
parison of you ; yet shall we not cease to follow on the 


worke of Reformation, although weake and faint, till the 
Lord be pleased to free his Israel from all their enemies ; 
and verily England hath not wanted the Prayers of the 
poore people of Christ here. And also some of our 
chiefe heipes both for Church- worke, Military and com- 
mon- wealth- worke ; yet through the Lords mercy, we 
still retaine among our Democracy the godly Captaine 
William Hathorn, whom the Lord hath indued with a 
quick apprehension, strong memory, and rhetorick, vol- 
ubillity of speech, which hath caused the people to make 
use of him often in pubhck service, especially when they 
have had to do with any forrein Government, Mr. Nath- 
aniel Duncan learned in the Latine and French tongue, 
a very good accountant. Wherefore he is called to the 
place of Auditor General for the *County. Mr. John 
f Glovar a man strong for the truth, a plaine sincere godly 
man, and of good abilities. Captaine Daniel JGogkin, 
who was drawen hither from Virginia, by having his af- 
fection strongly set on the truths of Christ, and his pure 
Ordinances ; being indued by the Lord with good un- 
derstanding Captaine William J Tinge, sometime Treas- 
urour for the ^County, but being absent for some space 
of time in England, Mr. Richard Russell was chosen in 
his roome, Mr. Edward Rawson a young man, yet im- 
ployed in Common-wealth affaires a long time, being 
well beloved of the inhabitants of Newbery, having had 
a large hand in her Foundation ; but of late he being of 
a ripe capacity, a good || yeoman and eloquent inditer, 
hath beene chosen Secretary for the Country, Mr. Wil- 
liam Hubbard of Iphshwich, a learned man, being well 
read in state matters : of a very affable and humble be- 
haviour ; who hath expended much of his Estate to 
heipe on this worke ; although he be slow of speech, 
yet is hee down right for the businesse, Captaine IfUm- 
phry Atherton, one of a cheerfull spirit, and intire for the 
*County, Mr. Edward Jackson, one who cannot indure to 
see the truths of Christ trampled under foot by the erro- 
nious party, Eleazar Lusher one of the right stamp, and 
pure mettle, a gratious, humble and heavenly minded 

• country ? f Glover. * Gookin. § Tyng. |J penman ? 1[ Humphrey. 


man Mr. Joseph Hill, a man active for to bring the 
Lawes of the ^County in order, Mr. Whipple, one whose 
godly sincerity is much approved, Mr. Francis Norton, 
one of a cheermll spirit, and full of love to the truth, Mr. 
Robert Paine, a right godly man, and one whose estate 
hath holpe on well with the worke of this little Common- 
wealth, Mr. William Tony a good penman and skild in 
the Latine tongue, usually Clarke of the Deputies, the 
Survayor Generall of the Armies of the Country, John 
Johnson, of an undanted spirit, Mr. William Parker, a 
man of a pregnant understanding, and very usefull in his 
place. Many more would be named, but for tedious- 
nesse, neither will it please the men more to be named* 
then not, for all are very willing to acknowledge their 
inability for the worke, and the best are not without many 
imperfections i 

The Authors end in naming some few is for none 
other end, but to make good the title of this Book & to 
incourage all the servants of Christ for time to come, 
wholely to rely upon him, when thty go about any diffi- 
cult work, which may tend to the glory of his Name. 
Who could have told these men, being scattered abroad 
throughout the Island of Great Brittaine, they should 
meete on a Wildernesse nine hundered Leagues remote, 
and there keep Court together to study the preservation 
of Christs poore scattered flockes ? nay brethren, when 
you first tooke book in hand to learne your Letters, you 
would have been very dull pates* but for this worke ; 
assuredly, how you came by large inheritances, some 
of you, and estates of hundreds* and thousands, your 
selves best know, but believe it, the Lord intended it for 
this very work, The Earth is the Lords, and the fulnesse 
of it, then let none of the people of Christ mourn that 
they have spent their wealth in this Wildernesse, if it 
have holpe on the worke, rather rejoyce that Christ hath 
betrusted thee to be Steward for the King of Kings, & 
that in so noble an achievment the worthiest worke that the 
memory of our selves, and our fore-fathers can reach unto. 

And brethren, as for the good parts and gifts the Au- 
thor hath commended you for, but for the edifying of 

5 VOL. IV. 

• country ? 


the body of Christ, and assisting his people in this work, 
you had been empty of ali good. 

And now seeing it is the opinion of many in these 
dayes of Reformation, that all sorts of Sectaries (that ac- 
knowledge a Christ) should be tolerated by civill Gov- 
ernment, except Papist, and this Government hath hither- 
to, and is for future time resolved to practice otherwise 
(the Lord assisting) having met already with more blas- 
phemous Sectaries, then are Papists ; wherefore it will 
not be amisse if our Countrymen be acquainted with the 
one and twenty yeares experience of this Wildernesse 
worke, in point of Government. First, it is their judg- 
ment, and that from Scripture taught them, that those, 
who are chose to place of government, must be men tru- 
ly fearing God, wise and learned in the truths of Christ, 
(if so) as hitherto it hath been New Englands practice, 
then surely such will be utterly unfit to tolerate all sorts 
of Sectaries, as because they have taken up Joshuas re- 
solution, to serve the Lord, & a man cannot serve two 
Masters, much lesse many Masters ; Then surely such 
as would have all sorts of sinfull opinions upheld by the 
civill government, must be sure to make choise of the 
most Atheisticall persons they can finde to governe,. 
such as are right Gallios : for N. E. hath found by ex- 
perience that every man will most favour his own way 
of Profession, and labor tooth & naile to maintaine it, 
and if any have complied with other that have been of a 
contrary sinfull opinion to their own, it hath been, be- 
cause they would have their own scape scot free, but as- 
suredly the Lord Christ will allow of no such wayes for 
the favouring the professors of his truths, nor may any 
Magistrate doe evill that good may come of it, in favour- 
ing dangerous and deceiveable doctrines, that others may 
favour the true servants of Christ, neither is there any 
such need, for it is their honours (if the will of God be 
so) to suffer, nor can the people of N. England (I meane 
the better part) be perswaded to set up any other to gov- 
erne, but such as are zealous for the maintainance of the 
truths of Christ ; yet of late there is a buzzing noise, as 
if it were injury to the Churches for civill power to me- 


die in matters of Religion, but to be sure there are many 
that strive for a Toleration, yet the people of Christ, who 
are the naturall Mothers of this Government, resolve nev- 
er to see their living child so divided, looking at such a 
government to be no better to them, a living child divi- 
ded in twaine ; and therefore desires their loving Coun- 
tymen to beare with them in this point, and if any not- 
withstanding shall force it to be so, we shall shew our 
natural affection, and leave all to them, chusing rather to 
dwell on the backside of this Desert (a place as yet un- 
accessible) knowing assuredly our God will appeare for 
our deliverance. Yet let them also know the Souldiers 
of Christ in N. E. are not of such a pusillanimous spirit, 
but resolve as that valiant Jeptha did to keep in posses- 
sion, the Towns his God had given them, so we are re- 
solved (the Lord willing) to keepe the government our 
God hath given us, and for witnesse hee hath so done, 
let this History manifest : for we chose not the place for 
the Land, but for the government, that our Lord Christ 
might raigne over us, both in Churches and Common- 
wealth, and although the Lord have been pleased by an 
extraordinary blessing upon his peoples industry to make 
the place fruitfull (as at this day indeed it is) yet all may 
know the land in it selfe is very sterriil, but the upholding 
of the truths of Christ, is chiefe cause why many have 
hitherto come : and further if the servants of Christ be 
not much mistaken, the downfall of Antichrist is at hand, 
and then the Kingdome of the Earth shall become the 
Kingdome of our Lord Christ in a more peculiar man- 
ner, then now they are, and surely godly civill govern- 
ment shall have a great share in that worke, for they are 
exhorted to fill her double of the Cup, shee hath given 
to them ; and also know our magistrates, being con- 
scious of ruling for Christ, dare not admit of any bask 
ardly brood to be nurst up upon their tender knees, 
neither will any Christian of a sound judgement vote 
for any, but such as earnestly contend for the Faith, al- 
though the increase of Trade, and traffique may be a 
great inducement to some. 


Wonder-Working Providence of Sions Saviour* 

in New England, 


chapter i- — The beginning of the relation of the Pequot war, and 
the great slraitts these "wandering Jacobites were in. 

1 HE great Jehovah, minding to manifest the multitude 
of his Mercies to the wandering Jacobites, and make an 
introduction to his following wonders, causeth the darke 
clouds of calamities to gather about them, presaging some 
terrible tempest to follow, with eyes full of anguish, they 
face to the right, upon the damnable Doctrines, as so 
many dreadfull Engines set by Satan to intrap their poore 
soules ; Then casting forth a left hand looke, the labour 
and wants accompaning a Desert, and terrible Wilder- 
nesse affright them, their memories minding them of 
their former plenty ; It much aggravated the present 
misery, when with thoughts of retreating, they turne 
their backs about the experienced incumbrances, and 
deepe distresses of a dangerous Ocean hinders their 
thoughts of flight, besides the sterne looke of the Lordly 
Prelates : which would give them a welcome home in a 
famishing prison. Then purposing to put on more 
stronger resolution, facing to the Front, behold a Mes- 
senger with sorrowfull tidings from their fellow brethren, 
that inhabited the bankes of the River Canectico, who 
having audience, informes them of the great insolency, 
and cruell murthers committed by a barbarous and bloudy 
people called Peaquods, upon the bodies of their indear- 
ed friends, these savage Indians lying to the South-west 
of the Mattacusets, were more warlike then their Neigh- 
bouring Nations, the Narrowganzet or Niantick Indians ; 
although they exceeded them in number, also Mawhig- 
gins (who were the best friends of the English, and a 


chiefe instrumentall means of their sitting down there) 
stood nmch in feare of these Peaquods, which were big, 
swollen with pi ide at this time ; facing the English Fort 
built on the mouth of the River in their large Cannowes, 
wiih their Bowes and long Shafts, the English being then 
but weake in number and provision, were unable to 
manage the war against so numerous a company, being 
above thirty to one, yet their desires being beyond their 
meanes, they made some shot at them, forcing them to 
hast away faster then they willingly would. These In- 
dians trusting in their great Troopes, having feasted their 
corps in a ravening manner, and leaving their fragments 
for their Sqavves, they sound an alarum with a full mouth, 
and lumbring voyce, and soorie gather together without 
presse or pay, their quarrell being as antient as Adams 
time, propagated from that old enmity betweene the 
Seede of the Woman, and the Seed of the Serpent, who 
was the grand signor of this war in hand, and would very 
glacHy have given them a large Commission, had not his 
owne power beene limited, neither could he animate 
them so much as to take off the gastly looke of that King 
of terror, yet however at his command they arme them- 
selves : casting their quiver at their backs with Bowes 
ready bent, they troope up some of them, being extraor- 
dinarily armed with Guns, which they purchast from the 
Dutch (who had assuredly paid deare for this their cour- 
teous humour, not long since, had not some English 
Volunteers rescued them from the Indians hands) the 
most of them were armed also with a small Hatchet ou 
a long handle, they had a small number of Mawhawkes, 
Hammers, which are made of stone, having a long pike 
on the one side, and a hole in the handle, which they tie 
about their wrists, they neede not provisions follow their 
Camp; because they are continually at home, but for 
their mats to shelter them from Raine or Snow, the 
Woods are as wellcome to them as their Wigwams, fire 
they can make in all places by chafing two sticks togeth- 
er. Their food is ready drest at all times, parching In- 
dian Corne in their fire they pound it to meale, and with 
foure or five spoonfull of it cast into their mouths, and 


a sup or two of water, which they take up with a leafe of 
a Tree, this is their common repast, and indeed their 
chiefe viaticum. Thus furnisht for the war they troope 
away without any goodly equipage to effect, as they sup- 
pose, some great designe, but within some few Miles of the 
Towne of Hartford, they were discovered by one of the 
English, who having with him a good Horse, hastens 
away to give intelligence of their approach, and by the 
way meeting with foure or five persons, hee advises them 
to haste away with all speed, for the Peaquods were at 
hand, the weaker Sex among them, being at this time 
not so credulous as they should have been, began to dis- 
pute the case with him, demanding what Peaquods they 
were, and questioning how they should come there ; The 
horseman deeming it now no time for words, when the 
battell followed him so hard at the heeles, rod on his way, 
and soone after the sudden approach of the Indians forced 
them with feare to Scale to the truth of this evill tidings, 
and some of them with their dearest bloud ; three Woe- 
men-kinde they caught, and carried away, but one of them 
being more fearfull of their cruell usage, afterward then 
of the losse of her life at present, being borne away to 
the thickest of the company, resisted so stoutly with 
scratching and biting, that the Indian, exasperated there- 
with, cast her downe on the Earth, and beate out her 
braines with his Hatchet, the other two maids they led 
away and returned, their Commission reaching no farther 
at present, having taken these two prisoners they did not 
offer to abuse their persons, as was verily deemed they 
would, questioned them with such broken English, as 
some of them could speak, to know whether they could 
make Gunpowder. Which when they understood they 
could not doe, their prize proved nothing so pretious a 
Pearle in their eyes as before ; for seeing they exceeded 
not their own Squawes in Art, their owne thoughts in- 
formed them they would fall abundantly short in indus- 
try, and as for beauty they esteeme black beyond any 

Wherefore their Sqawes use that sinfiill art of paint- 
ing their Faces in the hollow of their Eyes and Nose, 


with a shining black, out of which their tip of their Nose 
appeares very deformed, and their cheeke bone, being of 
a lighter swart black, on which they have a blew crosse 
died very deepe. 

This is the beauty esteemed by them, but yet their 
pride was much increased by this hostile Act of theirs, 
and the English were more and more contemned of them, 
notwithstanding the Dutch, who traded with these Indians, 
procured the Maides liberty againe. 

chap. ii. — Of the couragious resolutions, the Lord indued these his 
People withall, being iuvironed with many deepe distresses. 

After this Message delivered, these brood of Trav- 
ilers being almost Non plus't in their grave and sollid 
Counsells ; deem it now high time to follow their old 
way, of making their complaint to the supreame judge of 
all the World, by way of Petition, who they knew right 
well, stood not as an idle spectator beholding his peoples 
Ruth, and their Enemies rage ; But as an Actor in all 
actions to bring to naught the desires of the wicked, *but 
period to their power, divert their stroaks from his, to 
their own heads, bring glory to his Name, and good to 
his people from their most wicked malignity, having also 
the ordering of every weapon in its first produce, guid- 
ing every shaft that flies, leading each bullet to his place 
of setling, and Weapon to the wound it makes ; yet he 
most righteous and holy in all his actions to this great 
Lord Peramount, had these poore afflicted people accesse 
through the intercession of their Lord Christ, whose 
worke (though very weake to performe) they were now 
about, wherefore casting themselves down at his feet in 
the sense of their owne unworthinesse, fthat desire him to 
doe his owne worke in them, and for them, that the 
Mountaines in the way of Zerubbabel may become a 
plaine, and then laying open the great straites they were 
in to him, who knew them far better then themselves, 
they had this answer returned them, which if men dare 
deny, the Lord from Heaven hath, and shall further wit- 
nesse it ; But before it be declared, let all men lay downe 

• pat > t they ? 


their interest they suppose they may have in procuring it„ 
both English and others, that the glory of our Lord Christ 
may appeare in its splendor, to the danting of every proud 
heart, and for the perpetuall incouragement of all the 
Souldiers of Christ, even the meanest in his Armies : 
for the day of his high Power is come, yea ; his appoint- 
ed time to have mercy upon Sion is at hand, all you 
whose eyes of pity so see her in the dust, streame down 
with pear-like drops of compassion, a little mixture of 
the unconcei veable joy for the glorious worke of Christ. 

Now, now ; 1 now in hand for the exalting of his glo- 
rious Kingdome, in preparing his Churches for himselfe, 
and with his own blessed hands wiping away the teares 
that trickel downe her clieekes, drying her dankish eyes, 
and hushing her sorrowfull sobs in his sweete bosome. 
This rightly believed, and meeting in the soiile of any 
poore Christian, will make the narrow affections of his 
body too little to containe the present apprehensions of 
the Soule ; And therefore wanting a vacuum to containe 
the strength of this new Wine, wonder not if it vent it 
selfe with swift thrilling teares from the most tender part 
of the vessell. And here the Author must needs intreate 
the charitable Reader to enlarge in the Closset of his own 
heart, for his folly hee confesses in medling so meanly 
with such waighty matters, being blinded by eager affec- 
tion, hee lost the sight of his great inability to the worke. 
When hee first set Pen to Paper, as the Lord surrounded 
his chosen Israel with dangers deepe to make his miracu- 
lous deliverance famous throughout, and to the end of 
the World, so here behold the Lord Christ, having egg- 
ed a small handfull of his people forth in a foriorne Wil- 
dernesse, stripping them naked from all humane helps, 
plunging them in a gulph of miseries, that they may 
swim for their lives through the Ocean of his Mercies, 
and land themselves safe in the armes of his compassion. 

chap. in. — Of the Lords great deliverance of his New England Peo- 
ple, from the flouds of Errors that were bursting in among them. 

As for the great Mountaine of proud erronious judge- 
ment on your right hand, the prayer of Faith shall re- 


move them, and cast them into the depth of the Sea, and 
for the strengthning of your faith herein ; because tho^ 
Lord will have you depend on him in the use of his 
meanes, not miracle, hee hath purposely pitcht out for 
this very worke, some of his most orthodox servants, and 
chiefe Champions of his truth, able through his mercy to 
*weld that bright Weapon of his Word prepared by the 
spirit for this purpose, to bring to the block these Tray- 
tours to his truths one by one, and behead them before 
your eyes, and for this very end they are to gather to- 
gether as one Man in a Synodicall way, with a decisive 
power to undoe all the cunning twisted knots of Satans 
Malignity to the truths of Christ, opening the Scriptures 
by the power of his spirit, cleering Scripture by Scrip- 
ture, that nothing but the pure Word of God may take 
place, and that you may assuredly believe the Lord hath 
purposely called his Servants, and Souldiers to this place 
by his Providence to cut off this cursed spirit of Errours 
and Heresies, which hath but at first dog'd all Reformed 
Churches of Christ. There are for your further aid 
herein many more of these sincere Souldiers floating upon 
the great Ocean toward you, who will be with you be- 
fore this Synod is set, that you may declare it in the Eares 
of all posterity, to be the very Finger of God in catching 
the proud in their ovvne craftinesse, who had hatch't 
their devices, thus to cast all the Ministers of Christ, 
except some one or two, under this censure of being 
prejudiced against their persons, and for the little rem- 
nant to labour with flattery to blinde their eyes, that at 
least they might not be against them ; Seeing the}^ could 
not procure them to take their part, (to be sure when the 
grossenesse of their Errors where made known, they 
would not) by this meanes having their hopes exalted (in 
their owne apprehensions at least) to gaine the most of 
the people on their side. 

The Lord casts them downe from the proud Pinacle 
of their Machiavilian Plot, by bringing in more men of 
courage uninterested : yea, unknown to most of their 
persons, but for their errors, as strong to confute them as 
any, and more fit to wipe off the filme from the eyes of 

6 VOL. IV. 


some of their brethren, which these Erronists by their 
Syccophancy had clouded. 

The time for the meeting of this Synod was to be in 
the seventh month following, commonly called Septem- 
ber, the civill government well approving of their desires 
herein, were very willing to further them all they could, 
and in the meane time it was the worke of these valiant 
of the Lord, to search out, not for men and Womens 
persons, but their errors, which they gathered up from 
all parts, willing all that would or could defend them to 
use their best meanes, like as Jehu when he was to exe- 
cute the judgements of the Lord upon Ahabs bloudy 
household, would have had his servants defend their 
Masters Children if they could, onely you must under- 
stand there was but 70. Sons, and here was 80. Errors^ 
of which you shall further hear when the time comes. 

chap. iv. Of the abundant mercies of Christ in providing liberall 
supply for his New England People, in regard of their outward 
man, Food, Rayment and all other necessaries and conveniences. 

Now for the hardships on the left hand, they had as 
good an answer as in the former ; their Christ had not 
saved their lives from the raging Seas to slay them in 
the Wildernesse with Famine ; your life is much more 
pretious in the eyes of the Lord then food, and your bod- 
ies then rayment: yea, the Lord of Heaven, who hath 
honoured you so far as to imploy you in this glorious 
worke of his, knowes you must have these things, and 
it was not you, deare hearts, that chose this place, but 
the Lord, as seeing it most fit to doe his worke in, know- 
ing that had you met with a Rich Land filled with all 
plenty, your heart would have beene taken off this worke, 
which he must have done. But to strengthen your Faith 
in this point also, you shall see hee who commanded the 
Fruits to spring out of the Earth, when none were, can 
much more cause this corner of the Earth to be fruitful! 
to you, and this you shall attaine by meanes, although 
hee have caused the Foules of the Aire, and Grasse of 
the Field to depend upon him in a more immediate man- 
ner, yet you hath he taught to Sow, Reape, carry into 


Barnes, and Spin, and indeed herein the Lord hath an- 
swered his people abundantly to the wonder of all that 
see or hear of it ; And that whereas at their first com- 
ming it was a rare matter for a man to have foure or five 
Acres of Corne, now many have four or five score, & to 
prevent men from Sacrificing to their Nets, the Lord 
hath taught them to labour with more ease : to great ad- 
miration also inlarg'd it, for it was with sore labour that 
one man could Plant, and tend foure Acres of Indians 
Graine, and now with two Oxen hee can Plant and tend 
30. Besides the Lord hath of late altered the very course 
of the Heavens in the season of the weather, that all kinde 
of graine growes much better then heretofore ; Insomuch 
that Merchandizing being stopped at present, they begin 
question, what to do with their Corne. * * PO"?*^^ 

chap. v. Of the wonderfull deliverance wrought by the Lord Christ, 
for his prore New England Churches, in freing them from the fear 
of their Maligoant adversaries, who forc't, them to this Wildernesse. 

And now to the third and great distresse, which lay 
behind them by reason of their back friends, the Lording 
Bishops, and other Malignant adversaries^ being daily 
exasperated against them, and in especiall at this time by 
one Morton, who named himselfe the Host of Merri- 
mount, who wanted not malice, could he possible have 
attained meanes to effect it ; But the Lord Christ pre- 
vented both him and his Masters, whom with flattery he 
sought to please with scurrillous deriding the servants 
of Christ, to bring them into contempt, yet the Lord 
prevented all, and delivered this wretched fellow into his 
peoples hands againe after all this, who dealt as favoura- 
bly with him as David did with Shimmei. Besides this, 
the evill usage that many of the beloved servants of 
Christ had from the hands of those in office at their de- 
parture, declared plainely, that there were some, who 
would willingly have pursued them to bring them under 
bondage againe, herein their answer was that they should 
stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord, who was 
now resolved to fight for them against his and their im- 
placable enemies ; although more mighty than they : and 


indeed all meanes of resistance in the hand of man being 
so smali, that it could not possible bee discerned by any 
mortall eye ; yet will the Lord worke by means and 
not by miracle ; when the Lord called forth Joshua to fight 
with Amaleek, his Moses must be in the Mount at Pray- 
ers ; seeing this answer deeply concernes the dearly be- 
loved of our Lord Christ remaining in England, let them 
listen to the answer. 

Also how came it to passe that the Lord put it into 
your hearts to set upon a Reformation, was it not by 
prayer attained ? You are not excluded, although the 
Churches of Christ here are for the present in the Mount, 
and you in the Valiy fighting, yet surely they had neede 
of helpe to hold up their hands, whereas the nerenesse 
of the danger to you in the enemies overcoming, is a 
great motive to keepe up yours stedy, yet may you say 
rightly to the Churches of Christ here, as Mordachy to 
Hester the Qucene, if you hold your peace deliverance 
shall come another way, and thinke not to escape, be- 
cause you are in New England ; Assuredly the Lord is 
doing great things, and waites for the prayers of his peo- 
ple that he may be gratious unto them, and verily the 
poore Churches of Christ heere cannot but take notice 
of the great workes the Lord hath done for you of late, 
which are famous throughout the whole World ; And 
should they not take them as an answer of these weake 
prayers, they feare they should neglect to magnify his 
mercy toward you, and them : the noble acts of the 
Lord Christ, for the freedome of his people from that in- 
tolerable Prelaticall bondage, are almost miraculously 
committed to memory by the able servants of Christ, 
whom hee hath stirred up for that very end, yet must 
you not shut out the valiant souldiers of Christ (disci- 
plin'd in this unwonted Wildernesse) from having share 
with you in the worke, yet no farther but that Christ 
may be ail in all : who hath caused the Midianites to 
light against Midian, till the true Israelites had gathered 
themselves together, hee it is that hath brought the 
counsells of the wicked to naught, hee it is that hath dis- 
covered the secret plottings of the King of Assyria, even 


in his Bed chamber ; Hee it is that hath declared him- 
self to be with your mighty men of valour, and assuredly 
all you valiant Souldiers of Christ, both in one England 
and the other, the Lord hath shewed you as great signes 
and wonders for the strengthning of your faith, as was 
the wetting and drying of the fleece to Gedeon, oneiy 
beware of setting up an Ephod in the latter end ; Let the 
Churches of Christ be set up according to his first insti- 
tution, or you will make double worke, for all may see 
by what is done already, there is nothing too hard for 
him, hee will downe with all againe and againe, till his 
Kingdom alone be exalted, for the which all the Israel of 
God fight, wrastle, pray, and here you may see the ser- 
vants of Christ fighting at 900 leagues distant. 

Oh you proud Bishops, that would have all the World 
stoope to your Lordly power, the heathen Romans your 
predecessors, after they had banished John to the Isle of 
Pathmos, suffered him quietly to enjoy the Revelation of 
Jesus Christ there ; here is a people that have betaken 
themselves to a newfound World, distanced from you 
with the widest Ocean the World affords, and yet you 
grudge them the purity of Christs Ordinances there. No 
wonder then, nay wonder all the World at the sudden 
and unexpected downfall of these domineering Lords, 
who had Princes to protect them, armes to defend them, 
and almost three whole Kingdomes at their command ; 
and no enemy of theirs in sight onely, there appeares a 
little cloud about the bignesse of a mans hand out of the 
Westerne Ocean, I but the Lord Christ is in it, out of 
Sion the perfection of beauty hath God shined. Our 
God shall come, and shall not keepe silence, a Fire shall 
devour afore him, and mighty tempests shall be moved 
round about him. Now gather together you King-like 
Bishops, and make use of all the Kingly power you can, 
for the cloud is suddenly come up, he rode upon Cherub 
and did flie. And now let the Children of Sion rejoyce 
in their King, for the Lord hath pleasure in his people, 
hee will make the meeke glorious by deliverance ; And 
that the whole Earth may know it is the Lords owne 
worke, the Arch-prelate and his complices must begin to 


waff with the Scots, and that implacably, the Prelates de- 
sire a Parliament thinking to establish iniquity by a Law, 
but the iniquity of the Ammorites is already full, and all 
your cunning counseils shall but contrive your owne de- 
struction ; They remonstrant against all Acts of Parlia- 
ment that passe without their Vote, and, by this means 
wind out themselves for ever voting more, they devise 
how they may have such persons committed to prison as 
favour not their proceeding. 

But the Lord turned their mischiefe they had conceiv- 
ed upon their own pates, and they themselves were sent 
to prison by halfe a score at a time ; And such was the 
unsavourynesse of this seeming salt, that it was good for 
nothing, but to Lord it over others, their tyranny being 
taken out of their hands, they could not indure to be 
commanded by any ; And therefore unfit for the war 
which they stirred up, to recover the people againe under 
their bondage, yet such was the madnesse of some, that 
they loved their servitude so well as to fight for it ; but 
surely such had never rightly knowne the service of the 
Lord Christ, which is perfect freedome, from all such 
tyrannous yoaks, and verily just it is with the Lord to 
cause such to be servants unto Shishak, that they may 
know the service of the Lord, and the service of the 
Kingdomes of the Country. But however an Army is 
raised to defend their Lordly dignity ; Let the Saints be 
joy full with glory, let the high Acts of God be in their 
mouths, and a two edged Sword in their hands, to bind 
their Kings in chaines, and their Nobles in fetters of 
Iron, the Charets of the Lord are twenty thousand thou- 
sands of Angells, the Lord is among them as in Sinai, 
Kings of Armies did flee apace ; and now you that have 
borne such a wicked spirit of malignity against the peo- 
ple of Christ, can your hearts indure, and your hands 
wax strong in the day that he shall have to doe with 
you ? Oh you proud Prelates that boast so much of your 
taking the Kings part, miserable partakers are you ; in 
stead of obeying him, you have caused him to obey you, 
its writ in such great capitall letters that a child may read 
it : what was the cause of the first raising war against the 


Scots which occasioned the Parliament, when you saw 
they would not further the war as you would have them, 
they were soone traytors in your account, and prosecuted 
against with Army after Army, and was not all this to 
make the Scots receive your Injunctions, a very fayer 
bottom to build a bloudy war upon, that the Prelattical 
power might Lord it in Scotland, as they of a long time 
had done in England : it was your Fithagorian Phyloso- 
phy that caused the King to loose his Life, by per s wad- 
ing him his Kingly power lived in your Lordly dignity, 
as a thing subordinate unto it, and he so deeply taken 
with this conceit, that it cost the lives of many thousands 
more then ever hee, or his Father would doe for saving 
or recovering the Pallatine Country. 

Experience hath taught the savage Indians, among 
whom we live, that they may and doe daily bring Wolves 
to be tame, but they Cannot breake them of their rave- 
ning nature, and I would your Royalist would iearne of 
them to know, that as your Lord Bishops, Deanes, Pre- 
bends, &c. be right whelps of the Roman litter, so let 
them be never so well tam'd, they will retaine their na- 
ture still, to Lord it over all kinde of Civill Govern- 
ment ; But woe and alasse that ever any of our Country- 
men should be so blind, that after they are delivered 
from so great a bondage by such Wonder-working 
Providence of the Lord Christ ; Ever and anon to in- 
deavour to make a Captaine over them, that they may re- 
turne againe into Egypt, as appeares by the plots which 
have beene discovered, and broken in pieces by the right 
hand of the most high, and yet for all this their's such a 
hankering after somewhat of the Prelaticali greatnesse ; 
by the English Clergy, and the Scottish Classis, that ma- 
ny of them could afford to raise another war for it. But 
brethren I beseech you be more wiser, lest when you are 
growne hot in your quarrell, the Malignant party come 
and set you agreed, stablish peace in righteousnesse, and 
let the word be your rule, heare one another with meeke- 
nesse, and the Lord wil 1 cleare up the whole truth unto 
you in his due time ; rind now to declare plainly how 


far the Lord hath beene pleased to make use of any of 
his people in these Westerne parts, about this Worke, 
for to say truth they have done nothing in holes and cor- 
ners, but their workes are obvious to all the World : if 
the sufferings of the Saints be pretious in the eyes of 
Christ, so as to provoke him in displeasure to cut off the 
occasioners thereof, then thus his poore unworthy people 
here have had a great stroake in the downfall of their ad- 
versaries to the present possessed truths of Christ, for 
this wildernesse worke, hath not beene carried on with- 
out sighthings that have come before him, and Groanes 
that have entred his eares, and Teares treasured up in his 
bottles (againe) if the ardent and strong affections of the 
people of God, for his glorious comming to advance his 
Kingdome in the splendor, and purity of his Gospell, as 
to cry with the holy Prophet, Oh that he would breake 
the Heavens and come down ; be regarded of the Lord 
Christ, so as to remove with his mighty power the very 
Mountaines out of the way, and hurle them into the deepe ; 
Then hath these weake wormes instrumentaliy had a 
share in the great desolation the Lord Christ hath wrought. 
For this History will plainely declare with what zeale and 
deepe affection, and unresistable resolutions these Pil- 
grim people have endeavoured the gathering together his 
Saints, for the edifying the Body of Christ, that he may 
raign both Lord and King for ever. 

Yet againe, if the prayers of the faithfull people of God 
availe any thing for the accomplishment of his promises, 
in the destruction of Antichrist, for the subduing of Ar* 
mies without striking one stroake ; Then assuredly these 
Jacobites have wrestled with the Lord, not onely (with 
that good King Jehoshaphat) proclaiming one Fast, but 
many Fasts, they, their Wives and little ones standing 
before the Lord ; Oh our God wilt thou not judge them 
for we have no might, &c. Lastly, if the Lord himselfe 
have roared from Sion, (as in the dayes of the Prophet 
Amos) so from his Churches in New England, by a 
great and terrible Earthquake (which happened much 
about the time the Lordly Prelates were preparing their 


injunctions for Scotland) taking rise from the West, it 
made its progresse to the Eastward, causing the Earth to 
rise up and dovvne like the waves of the Sea ; having the 
same effect on the Sea also, causing the Ships that lay in 
the Harbor to quake, the which, at that very time was 
said to be a signe from the Lord to his Churches, that he 
was purposed to shake the Kingdomes of Eu ropes Earth, 
and now by his providences brought to passe, all men 
may reade as much and more : as if he should have said 
to these his scattered people (yet now againe united in 
Church Covenant) the Lord is now gathering together 
his Armies, and that your faith may be strengthened, 
you shall feele and heare the shakings of the Earth by 
the might of his power : yea, the Sea also, to shew he 
will ordaine Armies both by Sea and Land to make Bab- 
ilon desolate ; Things thus concurring as an immediate 
answer of the Lord to his peoples prayers and endeav- 
ours, caused some of this little handfull with resolute 
courage and boldnesse to returne againe to their native 
Land, that they might (the Lord accepting and assisting 
them in their endeavours) be helpfull in advancing the 
Kingdome of Christ, and casting down every strong 
house of sinne and Satan. It matters not indeed who be 
the instruments, if with the eye of faith these that go forth 
to fight the Lords Battailes, can but see and heare the 
Lord going out before them against their enemies, with 
a sound in the tops of the Mulbery Trees. Here are as- 
suredly evident signes that the Lord Christ is gone forth 
for his peoples deliverance, and now Frogs, Flies, Lice 
or Dust, shall serve to destroy those will yet hold his 
people in bondage, notwithstanding the Lord will honour 
such as hee hath made strong for himselfe ; And there- 
fore hee causeth the worthies in Davids time to be re- 
corded, and it is the duty of Gods people to incourage 
one another in the worke of the Lord, then let all whose 
hearts are upright for the Lord, ponder well his goings 
in his Sanctuary, that their hands may be strengthened 
in the work they goe about, onely be strong and of a 
good courage. 



chap. vi. Of the gratious gosdnesse of the lord Christ, in saving his 1 
New England people, from the hand of the barbarous Indians. 

LAStly, for the frontispiece of their present distressed 
namely the Indian war, they with much meeknesse and 
great deliberation, wisely contrived how they might best 
helpe their fellow brethren ; hereupon they resolved to 
send a solemne Embassage to old Cannonicus, chiefe 
Sachem of the narrow Ganset Indians, who being then 
well stricken in yeares had caused his Nephew Mianti- 
nemo to take the Government upon him, who was a very 
sterne man, and of a great stature, of a cruell nature, 
causing all his Nobility and such as were his attendance 
to tremble at his speech, the people under his Govern- 
ment were very numerous, besides the Niantick Indians, 
whose Prince was of neare aliance unto him ; They were 
able to set forth, as was then supposed 30000. fighting 
men, the English sought by all meanes to keepe these at 
least from confederating with the Pequods, and under- 
standing by intelligence, that the Pequots would send to 
them for that end, endeavoured to prevent them. Fit 
and able men being chosen by the English, they hast them 
to Cannonicus Court, which was about fourescore miles 
from Boston. 

The Indian King hearing of their comming, gathered 
together his chiefe Counsellors, and a great number of 
his Subjects to give them entertainment, resolving as 
then that the young King should receive their message* 
yet in his hearing, they arriving, were entertain'd royally, 
with respect to the Indian manner. BoiJ'd Chesnuts is 
their White bread, which are very sweet, as if they were 
mixt with Sugar ; and because they would be extraor- 
dinary in their feasting, they strive for variety after the 
English manner, boyling Puddings made of beaten corne, 
putting therein great store of black berryes, somewhat 
like Currants. They having thus nobly feasted them, 
afterward give them Audience, in a State-house, round, 
about fifty foot wide, made of long poles stuck in the 
ground, like your Summer-houses in England, and cov- 
ered round about, and on the top with Mats, save a small 


place in the middle of the Roofe, to give light, and let 
out the smoke. 

In this place sate their Sachim, with very great atten- 
dance ; the English comming to deliver their Message, to 
manifest the greater state, the Indian Sachim lay along 
upon the ground, on a Mat, and his Nobility sate on 
the ground, with their legs doubled up, their knees 
touching their chin : with much sober gravity they at- 
tend the Interpreters speech. It was matter of much 
wonderment to the English, to see how solidly and wisely 
these savage people did consider of the weighty under- 
taking of a War ; especially old Canonicus, who was 
very discreet in his answers. The young Sachem was 
indeed of a more lofty spirit, which wrought his mine, 
as you may heare, after the decease of the old King. 
But at this time his answer was, that he did willingly 
embrace peace with the English, considering right well, 
that although their number was but small in comparison 
of his people, and that they were but strangers to the 
Woods, Swamps, and advantagious places of this Wii- 
dernesse, yet withali he knew the English were advanta- 
ged by their weapons of War, and especially their Guns, 
which were of great terror to his people, and also he had 
heard they came of a more populous Nation by far than 
all the Indians were, could they be joyn'd together. Also 
on the other hand, with mature deliberation, he was well 
advised of the Peaquods cruell disposition and aptnesse 
to make War, as also their neere neighbourhood to his 
people, who though they were more numerous, yet were 
they withali more effeminate, and lesse able to defend 
themselves from the sudden incursions of the Peaquods, 
should they fall out with them. Hereupon hee denies it 
most conducing to his owne, and his peoples safety to 
direct his course in a middle way, holding amity with 
both. The English returne home, having gained the old 
Kings favour so farre, as rather to favour them then the 
Pequods, who perceiving their Neighbouring English 
had sent forth aid to the Mattacu setts government, 
thought it high time to seeke the winning all the Indians 
they could oa their side, and among others they make 


their addresse to old Cannonicus, who, insteed of taking 
part with them, labours* all he can to hush the War in 
hand, laying before them the sad effects of War ; soiaie- 
tin es proving sad and mournfull to the very Victors 
the.- seives, but aiwayes to the vanquished, and withall 
tells them what potent enemies they had to contend with, 
whose very weapons and Armor were matter of tenor, 
setting their persons a side ; as also that English man 
Mas no much hoggery yet, and therefore they might 
score appease them, by delivering into their hands those 
persons that had beene the death of any of them, which 
were much better than that the whole Nation should per- 

For the present the Pequods seemed to be inclinable 
to the old Sachims counsell, but being returned home 
againe among their rude multitude (the chief place of 
cow,.iidJy boasting) they soone change their mindc ; yet 
the old Sachim sends the English word he had wrought 
with them, and in very deed, the English had rather make 
choice cf Peace then Warre, provided it may stand with 
r l ruth and Righteousnesse : and therefore send forth a 
band of Souidiers, who arriving in the Peaquod Country, 
address themselves to have a Treaty with them about 
delivering up the murtherers; they making shew of will- 
ingness so to do, bade them abide awhile and they would 
bring them, and in the mean time they were conversant 
among the Souidiers, and viewing their Armie, pointed 
to divers places where they could hit them with their 
Arrowes for all their Corslets. But their greatest num- 
ber h ing the while at the other side of a great hill, and 
anon appearing on the top of the hill, in sight of the En- 
glish : those Indians that were among the English with- 
drawing toward them ; no sooner were they come to 
their Companions, but all of a suddaine they gave a 
great shout, and shewed the English a fair pair of heels, 
who seeing it, would not availe any thing to follow them 
(they being fane swifter of foot than the English) made 
their returne home againe. 

This bootlesse voyage incouraged the Indians very 
much, who insulted over them at the fort, boasting of 


this their deluding them, and withall, they blasphemed 
tie Lord, saying, Englishmans God was all one Flye, 
and that English man was ail one Sqawe, and themselves 
all one Moor- hawks. Thus by their horrible pride they 
fiutd themselves for destruction. The English hearing 
this report, were now full assured that the Lord would 
deliver them into their hands to execute his righteous 
judgement upon these blasphemous murtherers; and 
therefore raised fresh Souldiers for the warre, to the num- 
ber of fourscore, or thereabout, out of the severall towns 
in the Matachuse'ts, and although they were but in their 
beginnings, yet the Lord, who fore-intended their work, 
provided for all the ir wants, and indeed it was much that 
they had any bisket to carry with them in these times of 
scai city, or any vessels to transport their men and ammu- 
nition : yet all was provided by the gracious hand of the 
most high ; and the Souldiers, many of them, not onely 
armed with outward weapons, and armour of defence, but 
filled with a spirit of courage and magnanimity to resist, 
not onely men, but Devils ; for surely he was more then 
ordinaryly present with this Indian army, as the sequell 
will shew : as also for their further incouragement, the 
reverend and zealously affected servant of Christ, Mr. 
John V\ ilson, went with the army, who had treasured up 
heaps of the experiaientall goodnesse of God towards his 
people. Having formerly passed through perils by Sea, 
perils by Land, perils among false brethren, &c. he fol- 
lowed the warre purposely to sound an alarum before the 
Lord with his silver trumpet, that his people might be 
remembred before him : the Souldiers ariviug in safety 
at the towne of Hartford, where they were encouraged 
by the reverend Ministers there, with some such speech 
as followes. 

Fellow- Souldiers, Country-men, and Companions in 
this wiidernesse-worke, who are gathered together this 
day by the inevitable providence of the great Jehovah, 
not in a tumultuous manner hurried on by the floating fan- 
cy of every high hot headed braine, whose actions prove 
abortive, or if any fruit brought forth, it hath beene rape, 
theft, and murther, things inconsisting with natures light, 


then much lesse with a Souldiers valour ; but you, my 
deare hearts, purposely pickt out by the godly grave 
Fathers of this government, that your prowesse may 
carry on the work, where there Justice in her righteous 
course is obstructed, you need not question your author- 
ity to execute those whom God, the righteous Judge of 
all the world, hath condemned for blaspheming his sa- 
cred Majesty, and murthering his Servants : every com- 
mon Souldier among you is now installed a Magistrate ; 
then shew your selves men of courage : I would not 
draw low the height of your enemies hatred against you, 
and so debase your valour. This you may expect, their 
swelling pride hath laid the foundation of large concep- 
tions against yqu, and all the people of Christ in this 
wiidernesse, even as wide as Babels bottome. But, my 
brave Souldiers, it hath mounted already to the clouds, 
and therefore it is ripe for confusion ; also their crueltie 
is famously knowne, yet all true brtd Souldiers Preserve 
this as a common maxime, cruelty and cowardize are 
^inseparable companions ; and in briefe, there is nothing 
wanting on your enemies part, that may deprive you of 
a compleat victory, onely their nimbleness of foot, and 
the unaccessible swamps and nut-tree woods, forth of 
which your small numbers may intice, and industry com- 
pel! them. And now to you I put the question, who 
would not fight in such a cause with an agile spirit, and 
undaunted boldnesse ? yet if you look for further en- 
couragement, I have it for you ; riches and honour are 
the next to a good cause eyed by every Souldier, to main- 
tain your owne, and spoile your enemies of theirs ; although 
gold and silver be wanting to either of you, yet have you 
that to maintaine which is farre more precious, the lives, 
libertyes, and new purchased freedomes, priviledges, and 
immunities of the indeared servants of our Lord Christ 
Jesus, and of your second selves, even your aftectionated 
bosom-mates, together with the chiefe pledges of your 
love, the comforting contents of harmlesse pratling and 
smiling babes : and in a word, all the riches of that good- 
nesse and mercy that attends the people of God in the in- 
joyment of Christ, in his Ordinances, even in this life ; 

* preserve ? 


and as for honour, David was not to be blamed for enquir- 
ing after it, as a due recompence of that true valour the 
Lord had bestowed on hirn : and now the Lord hath pre- 
pared this honour for you, oh you couragious Souldiers 
of his, to execute vengeance upon the heathen, and cor- 
rection among the people, to binde their Kings in chaines, 
and Nobles in fetters of Iron, that they may execute upon 
them the judgements that are written ! this honour shall 
be to all his Saints, but some of you may suppose deaths 
stroke may cut you short of this : let every faithfull Soul- 
dier of Christ Jesus know, that the cause why some of 
his indeared Servants are taken aWay by death in a just 
warre (as this assuredly is) it is not because they should 
fall short of the honours accompanying, such noble de- 
signes, but rather because earths honours are two scant 
for them, and therefore the everlasting Crown must be 
set upon their heads forthwith, then march on -with a 
cheerfull Christian courage in the strength of the Lord, 
and the power of his might, who will forthwith inclose 
your enemies in your hands, make their multitudes fall 
under your warlike weapons, and your feet shall soon be 
set on their proud necks. 

After the Ministers of Christ had, through the grace 
that was given them, exhorted and encouraged these 
Souldiers appointed for the work, they being provided 
with certaine Indian guides, who with the close of the 
day brought them to a small river, where they could per- 
ceive many persons had been dressing of fish ; upon the 
sight thereof, the Indian guides concluded they were 
now a feasting it at their fort, which was hard at hand ; 
the English calling a Councill of warre, being directed 
by the speciallest providence of the most high God, they 
concluded to storm the fort a little before break of day ; 
at which time they supposed the Indians being up late in 
their jolly feasting, would bee in their deepest sleepe ; 
and surely so it was, for they now slept their last ; the 
English keeping themselves as covertly as they could, 
approached the fort at the time appointed, which was 
builded of whole Trees set in the ground fast, and stand- 
ing up an end about twelve foot high, very large, having 


pitcht their Wigwams within it, the entrance being on 
two sicks, with intricate Meanders to enter. The chiefe 
Leaders of the English made some little stand before 
they offered to enter, but yet boldly they rushed on, and 
found the passages guarded at each place with an Indian 
Bow-man, ready on the string, they soone let fly, and 
wounded the formost of the English in the shoulder, yet 
having dispatch'd the Porters, they found the winding 
way in without a Guide, where they soone placed them- 
selves round the Wigwams* and according to direction 
they made their first shot with the muzzle of their Mus- 
kets downe to the ground, knowing the Indian manner is 
to lie on the ground to sleep, from which they being in 
this terrible manner awakened, unlesse it were such as 
were slaine with the shot. 

After this some of the English entred the Wigwams* 
where they received some shot with their Arrowes, yet 
catching up the fire-brands, they began to fire them, and 
others of the English Souldiers with powder, did the 
same : the day now began to break ; the Lord intending 
to have these murthe ers know he would looke out of 
the cloudy pillar upon them : and now these women and 
children set up a terrible out- cry ; the men were smitten 
down, and slaine, as they came forth with a great slaugh- 
ter, the Sqawes crying out, oh much winn it English- 
man, who moved with pitty toward them, saved their 
lives : and hereupon some young youth cryed, I squaw, 
I squaw, thinking to finde the like mercy. There were 
some of these Indians, as is reported, whose bodyes were 
not to be pierced by their sharp rapiers or swords of a 
long time, which made some of the Souidiers think the 
Devil was in them, for there were some Powwowes 
among them, which work strange things, with the help 
of Satan. But this was very remarkable, one of them 
being wounded to death, and thrust thorow the neck 
with a halbert ; yet after all, lying groaning upon the 
ground, he caught the halberts speare in his hand, and 
wound it quite round. After the English were thus 
possessed of this first victory, they sent their prisoners to 
the pinnaces, and prosecute the warre in hand, to the 


next Battalia of the Indians, which lay on a hill about 
two miles distant, and indeed their stoutest Souldiers 
were at this place, and not yet come to the fort ; the En- 
glish being weary with their night worke, and wanting 
such refreshing as the present worke required, began to 
grow faint, yet having obtained one victory, they were 
very desirous of another : and further, they knew right- 
well, till this cursed crew were utterly rooted out, they 
should never be at peace ; therefore they marched on 
toward them. Now assuredly, had the Indians knowne 
how much weakned our Souldiers were at present, they 
might have born them downe with their multitude, they 
being very strong and agile of body, had they come to 
handy-gripes ; but the Lord (who would have his people 
know their work was his, and he onely must order their 
Counsels, and war-like work for them) did bring them 
timely supply from the vessels, and also gave them a sec- 
ond victory, wherein they slew 7 many more of their ene- 
mies, the residue flying into a very thick swamp, being 
unaccessible, by reason of the boggy holes of water, and 
thick bushes ; the English drawing up their company 
beleagered the swamp, and the Indians in the mean time 
skulking up and down, and as they saw opportunity they 
made shot with their Arrowes at the English, and then, 
suddainly they would fall flat along in the water to defend 
themselves from the retalliation of the Souldiers Muskets. 
This lasted not long, for our English being but a small 
number, had parted themselves far asunder, but by the 
providence of the most high God, some of them spyed 
an Indian with a kettle at his back going more inwardly 
into the swamp, by which vhey perceived there was some 
place of firm land in the midst thereof, which caused 
them to make way for the passage of their Souldiers, 
which brought this warre to a period : For although 
many got away, yet were they no such considerable 
number as ever to raise warre any more ; the slaine or 
wounded of the English were (through the mercy of 
Christ) but a few : One of them being shot through the 
body, neere about the breast, regarding it not till of a 
long time after, which caused the bloud to drv aqd thick- 
8 Vol. v. 


en on eitheir end of the arrow so that it could not be 
drawne forth his body without great difficulty and much 
paine, yet did he scape his life, and the wound healed. 
Thus the Lord was pleased to assist his people in this 
warre, and deliver them out of the Indians hands, who 
were very lusty proper men of their hands, most of them, 
as may appear by one passage which I shall here relate : 
thus it came to passe, As the Souldiers were uppon their 
march, close by a great thicket, where no eye could pen- 
etrate farre, as it often falls out in such wearisom wayes, 
where neither men nor beast have beaten out a path ; 
some Souldiers lingering behinde their fellowes, two In- 
dians watching their opportunity, much like a hungry 
hauke, when they supposed the last man was come up, 
who kept a double double double distance in his march, 
they sudden and swiftly snatched him up in their tallens, 
hoising him upon their shoulders, ran into the swamp 
with him ; the Souldier unwilling to be made a Pope by- 
being borne on mens shoulders, strove with them all he 
could to free himselfe from their hands ; but, like a care- 
full Commander, one Captaine Davenport, then Lieuten- 
ant of this company, being diligent in his place to bring 
up the reare, coming up with them, followed with speed 
into the swamp after him, having a vtry severe cutlace 
tyed to his wrist, and being well able to make it bite sore 
when he set it on, resolving to make it fall foui on the 
Indians bones, he soone overtook them, but was prevent- 
ed by the buckler they held up from hitting them, which 
was the man they had taken : It was matter of much 
wonder to see with what dexterity they hurled the poore 
Souldier about, as if ».hey had been handling a Lacedae- 
monian shield, so that the nimble Captaine Davenport 
could not, of a long time, fasten one stroke upon them ; 
yet, at last, dying their tawny skin into a crimson colour, 
they cast downe their prey, and hasted thorow the thick- 
ets for their lives. The Souldier thus redeemed, had no 
such hard usage, but that he is alive, as I suppose, at 
this very day : The Lord in mercy toward his poore 
Churches, having thus destroyed these bioudy barbarous 
Indians, he rcturnes his people in safety to their vessels, 


where they take account of their prisoners : the Squawes 
and sorru young youths they brought home with them, 
and finding the men to be deeply guilty of the crimes 
they undtrtooke the warre for, they brought away onely 
their heads as a token of their victory. By this means 
the Lord strook a trembling terror into ail the Indians 
round about, even to this very day. 

[To be continued. 3 

Anecdote of the Soldiers of Arnold. 

W HEN the Traitor Arnold deserted his post at West 
Point on Hudson's River, he was rowed in his barge to 
the British Sloop of war, " the Vulture," then lying near 
Tappan Bay. On leaving the shore from his quarters, 
which were on the East side of the river, about two 
miles below the point, the Cockswain of the boat put 
the bow of the boat up the river as usual, for the point. 
Arnoid ordered him to put the boat about and go down 
the river with all possible expedition, adding, that he 
was going on board the " Vulture" on business of the 
greatest importance. After about an hour and an half 
or two hours the barge reached- the Vulture. Arnold 
went on board and ordered the crew to corne on board. 
They did so. After some time Arnold came on deck 
from the cabin, and toid the crew that he had quit the 
rebel service and joined the standard of his Biitannick 
Majesty ; that he should have orders to raibe a brigade in 
that service, and addressing himself to the corporal and 
eight privates, which constituted his barge's crew, added, 
"if you will join me, my lads, I will make Serjeants or 
corporals of you all ; and for you James," turning to the 
jcorporal, " I will do something more." Surprized and 
indignant the corporal replied, " No sir, one coat is 
enough for me to wear at a time." Two of the barge- 
men who had been British deserters remained with Ar- 
nold, the others with their cockswain, the corporal, re- 
turned to their duty, not in the barge they had rowed 
down ? but in an ordinary inferior boat, Arnold having 


the meanness to steal the barge, which he probably kept 
for his own use. 

The name of the corporal was James Lurvey or Lar- 
vey (it is presumed Lurvey.) He belonged to the 
Massachusetts regiment, commanded by Rufus Putnam, 
and it is believed came from the county of Worcester, 
either from Brookfield or some neighbouring town. 

The circumstances were related to me by Lurvey, 
who was well known to me, and confirmed by the other 
bargemen on their return in the old boat, who heard 
James make the reply to Arnold. 

As an instance of virtue on the part of Lurvey, and as 
a cutting reproach on Arnold, I have always had a de- 
sire to see the anecdote on record. It is possible Lur- 
vey may still be alive, in which case his evidence may 
afford more particulars than my recollection at this dis- 
tance of time can supply. One of the bargemen by the 
name of Hawkes belonged to the same district with 
Lurvey, but from the state of his health at the time 
it is doubtful whether he is alive. 

According to y®ur request I have stated the principal 
fact, and am with respect, 

Dear Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Dr. R. Webster. 

A Topographical Description and Historical 
Accuunt of Sudbury, in the County of Mid- 
dlesex and Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 


OUDBURY (which included East Sudbury) lay on 
both sides of Sudbury, or Concord River, and was in- 
corporated as a town, September 4th, 1639 : it was then 
bounded east by Watertown ; north, northeast and east- 
erly on Concord : on the south and west, there were no 
incorporated towns : no locations or grants of land near 


it : all beyond was then a dreary, pathless wilderness, in- 
habited by the savage Indians and wild beasts. This 
was a favourable settlement for the people in the infancy 
of the country, particularly as the river furnished them 
with a great variety and rich abundance of fish ; and the 
extensive meadows afforded their cattle a good supply 
of feed in summer, and a sufficiency of hay for the win- 
ter. The first settlers fixed down on the east side of the 
river, and there was the place for publick religious wor- 
ship for all the inhabitants on both sides, until the divis- 
ion of the town into two parishes. 

The present bounds of Sudbury (since the incorpora- 
tion of the easterly part into a separate town, April 10th, 
1780, by the name of East Sudbury) are as follow. 
Beginning at a stake and stones at Sudbury river, being 
the northeast corner of Sudbury, which is the corner 
also between Sudbury, East Sudbury and Concord ; 
from thence rurning northwesterly 1177 rods to a stake 
and stones, at Concord and Acton corner : thence the 
same course on Acton 146 rods to the river Assabet : 
from thence up in the middle of said river, between Sud- 
bury and Stow 530 rods, to a stake and stones ; thence 
turning and running more westerly 852 rods to a pine 
tree, a bound between Sudbury, Stow and Marlborough ; 
thence between Sudbury and Marlborough, southwest- 
erly, 826 rods to Framingham line : thence on said line 
southeasterly, 1457 rods to Sudbury river: thence down 
said river, northerly, 238 rods : thence, leaving said 
river to the cast, runs between Sudbury and East Sud- 
bury northwesterly, 401 rods : thence northeasterly to 
Sandy Hill, so called, on the east side of Worcester road, 
75 rods : thence, by various short angles, to Sudbury 
river : thence down the middle of said river northerly, be- 
tween Sudbury and East Sudbury, 1527 rods, to the first 
mentioned bounds. This tract contains 18030 acres. 

The town of Sudbury is a remarkably level, cham- 
paign tract of land. On the east side, as we leave the 
river meadows, the lands rise considerably for a mile or 
more in width, on both the Worcester and Lancaster 
roads, and then, by an easy descent, become a plain 


from the southeast, southwest, northwest, north and 
northeast. This is several miles wide ; but much long- 
er. It is not properly a pine plain, though there be 
much of that growth of wood thereon ; but there is a 
large quantity of hard wood, as oak of the various sorts 
for fuel or timber, also walnut ; not much chesnut. The 
town is exceedingly well wooded. This immense plain 
is pretty free from stone ; while the hilly part on the east 
s:de, next the river meadows, is very rocky, uneven, 
rich, good land, and affords many excellent farms. The 
plain land is rather of a loose, sandy soil, easy to culti- 
vate ; and yields good crops of grain: and, indeed, by 
reason of the many rivulets interspersed all over it, on 
which are valuable meadows, it makes considerable 
farms. But the best farms are every where on the out- 
skirts of the town. 

Rivers, brooks, ponds, &c. 
Sudbury river enters this town at the southwesterly 
part and passes off northeasterly into Concord, and then 
takes the name of Concord river, and uniting there with 
the river Assabet, empties its waters into Merrimac river 
between Biilerica and Chelmsford. It is between seven 
and eight rods wide in Sudbury, and abounds in excel- 
lent fish, as pickerel, perch, &c. &c. Shad and alewives 
are taken here in the months of April and May. The 
meadows on this river, in Sudbury and East Sudbury, 
are very good and extensive : but, as this river is with- 
out falls and the waters sluggish, these meadows are 
sometimes overflowed about the time for cutting the 
grass, to the damage and loss of the people ; reducing 
them to great straits for the support of their cattle in the 
winter season. The bridges over this river are two, and 
not long. One is over a canal, made for the quicker 
draining of the water. But the causeway over the mea- 
dows is a singularity : it is in length upwards oi half a 
mile. It is crooked ; more than fifty years a, go it was 
but little elevated, and, of course, overflowed in autumn, 
winter and spring, so as to render it, many times, impas i 
sable : it was rebuilt, repaired and raised upwards of 


thirty years past, by a lottery granted for the purpose ; 
still passing over it is unsafe in certain freshets. This 
is now supported and kept in repair by Suc'bury and 
East Sudbury in the manner following. East Sudbury 
maintains a little more than half of it, Sudbury the re- 

There are several brooks and rivulets in Sudbury, 
but the; most considerable and worthy of notice is that 
beautiful stream which is twice crossed by the post road 
to Worcester, between Sudbury causeway and Marlbo- 
rough line. This enters Sudbury at the southwes cor- 
ner of the town, where it is about two yards wide. Near 
this, and nigh the great road, on the south side is a grist 
mill, where 2100 bushels of grain were ground in 1811. 
This stream takes a circuitous route through the wester- 
ly part of the town, then turns its course southeasterly, 
crosses the great road again, where there are corn and 
saw mills erected near said road, about two miles west of 
the causeway. In the grist mill were ground 13,000 
bushels of grain, in the year 1811; and 70,000 feet 
of boards, plank and slitwork were cut at the saw mill in 
the same year. About two miles above these mills is a 
sawmill where much work is done annually. Above 
this saw mill, at some distance, is a corn mill which 
grinds annually about 2,00 bushels. On this stream 
there is much meadow or intervale land. This brook 
runs into Sudbury river in the southeast part of the town, 
where it is about five yards wide. This is called, at its 
mouth, West lirook ; but as you proceed up it has dif- 
ferent names, as Lanham, Mill, Hop, Wash, and Snake 

Ponds there are three, situated in the westerly part of 
the town. The largest is called Willis's Pond, and con* 
tains 96 acres, abounding with good fish. The next in 
size is called Pratt's Pond, containing about 36 acres. 
The smallest is called Bottomless Pond, and contains 
about 12 acres : it is said to have no bottom, whence it 
derived its name. 

Mines or ores* 

In the northerly part of the town is a mine, supposed 
to be of silver and copper. Much time and money have 


been expended in digging for this expected valuable 
treasure : already have they dug into a rock 72 feet in 
depth. Whether the proprietors will ever be repaid 
their expenses time only can determine. 

Indian Wars* 

This was, in the infancy of the English settlements, a 
plantation much exposed to depredations from the In- 
dian savages of the wilderness. When settlements com- 
menced on the west side of the river, they were in fear 
and danger from them, and built a fort for their resort 
and defence on an eminence west of the causeway, where 
troops were stationed : but we learn of no mischief done 
here until after the incorporation of towns westerly, 
as Marlborough, Lancaster, Oxford and Brookfield : 
none until the time of king Philip's war, so called. All 
which can be found, in any history of those times, is 
given as follows : Several attempts were made on Sud- 
bnry, as well as Marlborough, Lancaster and other 
places. On the first of February, 1676, one Thomas 
Eames who had a farm in Sudbury, but lived three or 
four miles from the body of the people, had his house 
assaulted while he was from home : the Indians killed 
his wife and carried off his children captives, previously 
however, burning all the buildings on the farm with all 
therein, corn, hay, cattle, &c. One of his children es* 
caped from the Indians in May following, travelling 
thirty miles in the woods alone, without any relief, until 
he came to an English town. What became of his 
other children history gives us no account. The inhab- 
itants of Sudbury with a lieutenant Jacobs and his men, 
about forty in all, townsmen and soldiers, March 27, 
1676, discovered the Indians, towards day, laying along 
by their fires, and discharged their guns several times 
upon them, wounded thirty of them, fourteen of whom 
died that day, or soon after, while the English lost not 
one man. 

On the 18th of April, 1676, the Indians, supposed to 
be several hundreds, made a violent assauh upon Sud- 
bury. They burned several houses and barns, and kill 


ed and captivated ten or twelve men, who came from 
Concord, about five miles distant, to the relief of Sud- 
bury. This was in the forepart of the day. In the af- 
ternoon, Captain Wadsworth, who had been sent with 
fifty men for the relief of Marlborough, hearing the In- 
dians were gone through towards Sudbury, marched 
back for their defence ; and being come within a mile of 
the inhabitants, espied a party of Indians, who drew them 
into an ambush in the woods, when suddenly a large body 

4 of them surrounded the English, drove them back to the 
top of an hill, where our people manfully fought them : 
but night coming on, and some of his men fleeing, he 
was forced to retreat, pursued by the enemy, when this 
brave captain with near thirty men were killed. This 
was near two miles west of the causeway, and used to 
be called Green Hill, by reason of the body of evergreens, 
which formerly grew thereon. It was on the west side 
of the hill where these men were slain, about a mile 
south of Sudbury meeting house, and not quite so much 
north of the Worcester road, a little east of a town way 

( leading from said road to the meeting house, where a 
monument, erected about eighty years ago, may be seen, 
the inscription whereon is still legible, and is as fol- 
lows : 

Capt- Samuel Wadsworth of 

Milton, his lieut Sharp of 

Brookline, capt. Brocklebank 

of Rowley, with about 

twenty six other Soldiers 

fighting for the defence of 

their country, were slain 

by the Indian enemy April 18, 

1676 ; and lye buried in this place. 

This monument was erected by captain Wadsworth's 
son, the Rev Benjamin Wadsworth, who graduated at 
Harvard University in 1690, was a minister of the first 
church in Boston from September 8th, 1696, to March 
16th, 1737, when he died, aged 68 years. He was also 
president of said college from 1725 to 1736. This is 
asserted by governour Hutchinson, in his history of 
9 Vol. IT. 


Massachusetts, who graduated at Cambridge during the 
presidency of Mr. Wadsworth. 

Ecclesiastical History. 
The ecclesiastical history of Sudbury is as follows, 
and imperfect for want of records. It is probable none 
were kept until the Rev. Mr. Loring's day. If any 
there were they are irrecoverably gone. The Rev. Ed- 
mund Brown was the first minister of Sudbury. He 
was ordained in August, 1640, at which time the church 
was, probably, embodied. This was the eighteenth 
church gathered in Massachusetts. Mr. Brown died on 
the 22d of June, 1677 ; having been their minister 
almost thirty seven years. This gentleman received his 
education in England, whence he came into this country. 
He was a worthy and good character ; a man of emi- 
nence and distinction in his da^y. 

The Rev. James Sherman preached to this people that 
same year, 1677, in which Mr. Brown died. He was 
ordained ; but the venerable Loring never could ascer- 
tain the date of his ordination from any records, nor from 
the memory of any living when he came to Sudbury. 
Mr. Sherman was dismissed from his pastorate May 22, 
1705, and died March 3, 1718. He received no colle- 
giate education in this country ; if any where it was 
probably in England, whence the first settlers here chief- 
ly emigrated. He undoubtedly had a good education ; 
for the inhabitants then were careful to provide for them- 
selves teachers who possessed considerable degrees of 

The Rev. Israel Loring, who graduated at Harvard 
University in 1701, succeeded Mr. Sherman, and was 
ordained November 20, 1706 ; being the third pastor in 
succession, of the church and town of Sudbury, while 
they yet remained one religious society. The meeting 
house was then on the east side of the river, in what is 
now East Sudbury ; and Mr. Loring lived a number of 
years in that part of the town. In his day Sudbury was 
divided into two parishes, by an act of the General 
Court, bearing date [uncertain] When this took place, 


Mr. Loring had his option, which of the two parishes 
should be his particular charge ; and as the majority 
of the church and people then lived on the west side of 
the river, he chose that part, and when they had builded 
a meeting house, he removed thither, and built him a 
dwelling near where their large new meeting house 

The Rev. Israel Loring died on the 9th of March, 
1772, in the 90th year of his age, and in the 66th year of 
his ministry. He continued his publick ministrations to 
the very last ; and would have preached the Sabbath 
preceding his death, but had occasional help. On 
Monday he prayed at the annual March meeting ; was 
taken unwell at the meeting house, was carried to his 
house in a sleigh, and died before' the next Sabbath. 
The writer of this memoir had some personal acquaint- 
ance with him the last four or five years of his life. He 
was venerable not only on account of his great age, but 
his piety and goodness. He was well furnished for the 
pastoral office ; and was an able, faithful, useful minister. 

He preached the election sermon before the General 
Court in May 1737, which, no doubt, was printed : Al- 
so he preached a sermon before the Convention of the Con- 
gregational Ministers in May, 1742. This was not 

He was succeeded in the ministry at Sudbury by the 
Rev. Jacob Biglow, who graduated at Harvard Universi- 
ty 1766, and was ordained November 11, 1772, only 
eight months and two days after the death of Mr. Lor- 
ing. Mr. Biglow being taken off from his publick min- 
isterial labours for some time, by various bodily infirmi- 
ties, the people at length invited Mr. Timothy Hilliard 
to settle with them, as colleague pastor with the Rev. 
Mr. Biglow, and he was accordingly ordained June 1, 
1814. He graduated at Harvard University in 1809. 

Persons who received a publick education from Sudbury. 

Noyes Paris graduated at Harvard University, 

1721, was settled minister at [uncertain] William 

Brintnat, at Yale College, 1721. Received also a mas* 


ter's degree at Harvard. Thomas Frink, at Harvard, 
1722, first settled minister at Rutland, resettled at se- 
cond church at Plymouth, and afterwards again settled 
at Barre, and dismissed a third time. John Loring, at 
Harvard, 1729, son of Rev. Israel Loring. Jonathan 
Loring, at Harvard, 1738, son of Rev. Israel Loring, 
was a lawyer, lived and died at Marlborough. William 
Cooke, at Harvard, 1748, son of Rev. William Cooke. 
William Baldwin, at Harvard, 1748, lived and died in 
what now is East Sudbury, was a worthy man, and a dea- 
con of that church, and a justice. Gideon Richardson, at 
Harvard, 1749, was a settled minister at [uncert.] Samuel 
Baldwin, at Harvard, 1752, and brother of William above 
named, was a settled minister at Hanover. Abraham 
Wood, at Harvard, 1767, settled in the ministry at 
Chesterfield in New Hampshire state, still living. Na- 
hum Cutler, at -Harvard, 1773, died at Sudbury many 
years ago. Asahel Goodenow, at Harvard, 1774, lived 
in Sudbury, and still lives, not in publick life. Jude 
Damon, at Harvard, 1776, settled in the ministry at 
Truro, county of Barnstable, still living. Reuben Puf- 
fer, D. D. at Harvard, 1778, settled in the ministry at 
Berlin, still living. 

A Topographical Description and Historical 
Account of East Sudbury, in the County of 
Middlesex and Commonwealth of Massachu- 

AS this was originally a part of Sudbury, and remained 
so almost an hundred and fifty years, it is fitting and 
necessary that some account of this place should imme- 
diately follow that of Sudbury. 

Sudbury was incorporated as a town September 4th, 
1639. The first settlers fixed down on this east part 
of the town, for various reasons no doubt ; as they were 
few in number and not of sufficient ability to erect a 
bridge over the river, and make it comfortable passing 
over the meadows where the causeway now is ; and also 


on the east side they were more safe and seen re from the 
Indians on the west. Here they built houses for publick 
worship, in succession : and although they pretty soon 
began to settle on the west side, and had got tolerable 
passing over the river and meadows, and were become 
more numerous than they were on the east side, yet 
they continued one religious society until their third min- 
ister, in succession, had been ordained several years. In 
the year [uncert.] they were, by act of the General Court, 
divided into two parishes : the west part, being the most 
numerous, was considered as the first parish ; and by a 
most happy, harmonious agreement of the people, the two 
ministers had salaries alike, both paid out of the Town 
Treasury, and shared in the profits of the ministerial 
lands, until this east part was incorporated into a distinct 
town, which was on the 10th of April, 1780. 

The ecclesiastical history of this part, now East Sud- 
bury, should here be introduced. 

Soon after the division of the town into two parishes, 
a church was gathered in this second parish ; and the 
Rev. William Cook, (graduated at Harvard University 
in 1716,) was ordained their first pastor, March 20th, 
1723. Mr. Cook died November 12th, 1760, in the 
64th year of his age, and 37th of his ministry. He was 
a worthy man and good minister, living in much harmo- 
ny with his people, and was highly esteemed by them 
for his work's sake. ^ 

He was followed in the ministry, in this parish, by 
the Rev. Josiah Bridge, (graduated at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1758,) who was ordained their second pastor, 
November 4th, 1761. Mr. Bridge died pretty sudden- 
ly, June 20th, 1801, in the 62d year of his age, and the 
40th year of his ministry. He was a popular preacher, 
had a fine, clear and loud voice, possessed good pulpit 
talents, and spake with great animation. He was chosen 
to preach on several publick occasions. In May, 1789, 
he preached the election sermon, which was printed. In 
1792 he preached a sermon before the Convention of 
Congregational Ministers in Massachusetts, at their an- 
nual meeting, the day after the General Election. This 


was not printed. He also preached the Dudleian Lec- 
ture in Harvard University, in the year 1797. This was 
a discourse against the errors of popery, agreeable to the 
establishment of the pious founder. This was not 

Mr. Bridge was succeeded in the ministry in this place 
by the Rev. Joel Foster, (graduated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1777) Mr. Foster was installed here on the 7th 
of September, 1803, and died Friday morning, Septem- 
ber, 25, 1812, in the 58th year of his age, after having 
been nine years and eighteen days in the ministry in 
East Sudbury. He possessed excellent pulpit talents, and 
was specially gifted in prayer. He had been previously 
settled in the ministry in New Salem, in the county of 
Hampshire, where he was ordained on the 9th of June, 
1779, and dismissed January 21, 1802. The cause of 
his removal was the want of an adequate support. Va- 
rious attempts were made to compromise this point : at 
length the people proposed to give him $400, which he 
accepted, and was thereupon regularly discharged from 
his pastoral relation to New Salem, under the direction of 
an ecclesiastical council. 

On the 25th of January, 1815, Rev. John B. Wight 
was ordained their pastor, at which time, also, their new 
meeting house, built in 1814, was solemnly dedicated to 
the service of Almighty God. 

East Sudbury is bounded, northerly, on Lincoln ; east- 
erly, on Weston ; southerly, on Natick ; and westward- 
ly, partly, on Framingham, and, partly, on Sudbury. It 
contains 8123 acres, including water ; and is about seven 
miles long, north and south ; and its average breadth is 
about three miles. In this town are no noticeable hills. 
Sudbury River i-uns on the west side of the town ; Mill 
Brook, near the meeting house ; also, West Brook, with 
some others of less note. On these streams are two 
small grist mills and one saw mill. There are about 600 
acres of meadow lands in the town ; and a small propor- 
tion of orcharding. In this town there are some clay 
grounds ; and bricks have been occasionally made there- 
in. There are three ponds ; one called Town Ponci 2 


I containing about 81 acres : Dudley Pond, containing 
j about 200 acres | and Baldwin Pond of 17 acres. The 
causeway is more than half a mile in length ; and East 
I Sudbury supports rather more than one half of it. Their 
I ministerial lands are valuable ; 40 acres of woodland, 
j pasturage, &c. and 20 acres of meadow. 

Anecdote or King Philip's Gun Lock. 

Dear Sir, 

I PRESENT an old rusty gun lock to the 
Historical Society, which you will please to deposit 
among the relicks of the early wars of our country. 
The lock was given to me, a few days since, by Dr. 
Nathaniel Lothrop of Plymouth. The history of it is 
interesting. The late Isaac Lothrop, esq. of Plymouth, 
obtained it of Mr. Silvanus Cook, late of Kingston. 
Silvanus was great grandson of Caleb Cook, and Caleb 
was the soldier, placed with an Indian by Col. Church 
to watch, and if possible kill King Philip, should he at- 
tempt to escape from the swamp in Mount Hope Neck 
where he had taken shelter. When Philip was pursued, 
on the opposite side of the swamp, he endeavoured to es- 
cape at the place where Cook aud the Indian were sta- 
tioned. " Cook," as the historian relates, " snapped his 
gun, but it missed fire. He then bade the Indian fire, 
and he instantly shot him through the heart." 

The tradition is, that Cook, having a. strong desire to 
possess the gun with which King Philip was killed, re- 
quested the Indian to exchange guns with him, to which 
request the Indian consented, and the fortunate gun has 
been preserved in the family of the Cooks, to the present 
time. When the great grandson consented that Mr. 
Lathrop should take the lock, he retained the other parts, 
as memorials of the interesting event. 

With due respects to yourself, and much esteem for 
the Historical Societv, I am your most obedient servant, 

Redford Webster, Esq. 


A Paper relating to Harvard College, 170/. 

[For the following scrap, relating to the history of the University at 
Cambiidge, we are indebted to a gentleman, at Pejepscot, in the 
District of Maine, to whom our thanks are due for sending us the 
original paper in its first draught, certified by the senior fellow.] 

1 O His Excellency Jos : Dudley, Esq. Capt : Gen : and 
Governour in Chief, &c. The Humble Addresse of 
the Fellows of Harvard Coll : in Cambridge, Sheweth, 
That we have, according to the Rules of our House, 
Unanimously Declared our Desires that the future Heads 
of this Colledge may be Resident, and as Resident Presi- 
dents were aunciently wont to doe, may Govern the Stu- 
dents and Serve them with Divinity Expositions, &c. 
8c In Pursuance thereof, we have Chosen the Hon- 
orable John Leveret, Esq. Our next President ; Of 
who me we have Good Confidence that He will (when 
Accepted and Subsisted) Lay aside and Decline all In- 
terfering Offices and Imployments, and Devote Himself 
to Said Work, and By the Divine Help be a very able 
and faithfull Instrument to Promote the Holy Religion 
Here Practised and Established, by Instructing and fit- 
ting for our Pulpitis and Churches and other Publick 
and Useful Services such as shall in this School of the 
Prophets be Committed to His Care and Charge : We 
Recommend the said Honorable Person as our President 
to Your Excellency^ Favourable Acceptation and Pray 
that You would Present Him to the Honorable General 
Assembly and move for His Honorable Subsistence. 
If Your Excellency thinks fitt so we Rest 

Your Excellences most Humble Servants. 
Harvard Coll. in Cambridge Oct : 28. 1707. 

JAMES ALLEN, Senior Fellow. 

Voted. That the Revd. Mr. Allen the Senior Fellow 
Sign the Abbove Address and present the Same to his 
Excellency in the name of the fellows of Harvard Col- 
ledge and Mr. Treasurer with the Fellows living in 
Boston are desired to Accompany the Revd. Mr. Al- 
len when He Waits upon the Governour with the said 


Remarks on Mr. Schermerhorn's Report con- 
cerning the Western Indians. 

[The following letter to the Corresponding Secretary from a highly 
respected associate, correcting an article in the second volume of 
this series of our Collections, is gratefully acknowledged and 
promptly inserted — The committee for publishing the former vol- 
ume, and it is presumed that the select committee of the Society 
for propagating the gospel, by whom it was communicated, did not 
perceive the extent of the implication in the " Report ;" and it was 
probably an inadvertence on the part of he writer While the 
Society are not to be considered as in any degree pledged for the 
opinions advanced by those who furnish them with documents, it is 
their wish and intention never to give circulation to any censure, 
on individuals or associations, without the most unquestionable au- 
thority, and on some urgent necessity, for some obvious utility. 
This purpose they would particularly cherish in reference to so tru- 
ly respectable and venerated a body as the General Assembly 
of the Presbyterian Church. They therefore frankly express sin- 
cere regret at the unintentional offence which has been given. 

Philadelphia, Aug. 28, 1815. 

Rev. Sir, * 

IVIy object in the present communication is to 
correct an extraordinary inaccuracy in the report made 
" by Mr. John F. Schermerhorn to the Society for 
propagating the Gospel among the Indians in North 
America." The part of his report to which I re- 
fer relates to the Indian School established in the Chero- 
kee country, and is published in vol. 2, (second series) 
of the Historical Society's Collections, pp. 13 and 14. 
It has occurred to me but very lately, while consulting the 
Collections upon another subject J and as all the papers 
relating to the School, including Mr. Blackburn's letters 
and accounts, are in my custody, I feel it more particu- 
larly incumbent on me to state the facts ; and in doing 
this, I shall give the dates, to which peculiar importance 
attaches in the present case. 

10 VOL. IV 


The General Assembly, consisting of individuals dis- 
persed through most of the United States, and possess- 
ing property for pious uses, found great difficulty in 
managing their; pecuniary concerns : Application was 
therefore made to the Legislature of Pennsylvania for an 
act incorporating trustees for this purpose, and a law was 
accordingly passed, March 28, 1799. 

Those trustees suggested, inter alia, to the General 
Assembly, at their session in May, 1800, " the gospel- 
izing of the Indians on the frontiers of our country, — 
connected with their civilization, the want of which, it is 
believed, has been a great cause of the failure of former 
attempts to spread Christianity among them." Where- 
upon the Assembly without delay appointed agents to 
procure subscriptions to a fund for accomplishing the 
objects specified by the trustees : And in their next 
year's minutes they mention their having received " very 
pleasing intelligence of the willingness, yea, of the ardent 
desire, of the heathen tribes to have the gospel preached 
to them : And offers from some of their chief men to 
commit their sons to presbyteries and missionary socie- 
ties, in order that they may be instructed, not only in 
the arts of civilized life, but also in the principles of the 
christian religion." 

On the 17th February, 1803, " the standing commit- 
tee of missions" (appointed by the General Assembly in 
May, 1802) addressed a letter to " each of the presbyte- 
ries immediately connected with that body in the man- 
agement of missionary concerns," soliciting such in. 
formation as their experience enabled them to give, 
respecting persons suitable for " missionaries to the fron- 
tiers and to the Indian tribes, and the places or regions 
demanding missionary labours." 

The General Assembly met on the 19th May, 1803, 
when the Rev. Gideon Blackburn attended as a commis- 
sioner from the presbytery of Union ; and on the 27th 
of that month the committee of missions entered into 
conversation with him " upon the subject of a mission to 
the Cherokee s ; and on their application" Mr. Black- 
burn agreed to engage it it. They then warmly re- 


commended to the Assembly, that he should be employ- 
ed in that service for two months, and left at his discre- 
tion as to the season of the year in which it should be 
performed. They requested at the same time, that " if 
the disposition of the Indians should be found to be 
friendly, they might be allowed to establish a school to 
which the children of the natives might be sent for edu- 
cation." Upon this recommendation 4 the General As- 
sembly directed that Mr. Blackburn should be employ- 
ed " under such instructions as circumstances," in the 
opinion of the committee, " might require." For this 
missionary service he received sixty six dollars and six- 
ty seven cents, whereof one half was paid in advance, 
and the Assembly afterwards gave him a gratuity of fifty 
dollars. During that mission he took measures, " under 
the auspices of the committee of missions, for establish- 
ing a school on the borders of the Indian territory for the 
purpose of instructing the Indian youth in the English 
language, agriculture, and the mechanical arts, with 
other branches of useful knowledge. 

The school was established at Hywassee, — received 
from the Cherokees all the countenance and support 
which they could give it, — and their children made 
great proficiency. The General Assembly afforded it 
liberal patronage ; appropriating two hundred dollars for 
the first year (which Mr. Blackburn thought would be 
adequate to its support) and afterwards increased the al- 
lowance for this purpose to Jive hundred dollars : — -For 
Mr. Blackburn's further encouragement, he was em- 
ployed as a missionary to the Cherokees from A. D. 
1803 to 1809 inclusive, for two, three, (and in 1808 and 
1809) for six months in the year : And upon the whole 
he received, for the support of the school, and as a mis- 
sionary, for the above period, three thousand, nine hun- 
dred and fifteen dollars, and fifteen cents; as appears 
from a document furnished by the treasurer to the trus- 
tees of the General Assembly, now before me. 

In 1806 Mr. Blackburn applied for the institution of 
a second Indian school in the state of Tennessee ; but 
the funds of the Assembly would not admit of this addi- 


tion to their expenses, after what they were pledged to 
do for the first, and giving aid to the board of trust of 
the Synod oi Pittsburg for christianizing the Wyandots. 
Unable to afford pecuniary assistance, they adopted the 
only measure remaining in their power, by " earnestly 
recommending this school to the patronage of charitable 
and liberal individuals." Mr. Blackburn was informed 
that the General Assembly were " unable to pledge their 
funds in any degree, for the support of the second 
School :" it was, however, instituted : and this, it is 
presumed, was one cause of the embarrassment which 
" obliged him to sell his farm at Marysville." Perhaps 
another may be suggested by the following extract from 
his letter, of February 20, 1809, to the committee of 
missions : " my little farm is nearly the only mean, 
of support since the embarrassments respecting our lands, 
in connection with the embargo, has so nearly ruined my 
poor people." In another letter, dated April 12, 1811, 
from Nashville, he urges ill health as a reason for not 
''having preached on as many week-days as on other 
missions." This relates to a missionary appointment for 
three months, given him the preceding year, after he had 
given up the Hywassee School ; which has not been 
since continued under the patronage of the General As- 
sembly, as they have not yet been able to procure a 
suitable superintendant. 

The facts being such, it is evident, 

That the suggestion of a mission to the Indians 
did not originate with " Mr. Blackburn ;" but that the 
business was engaged in by the General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church, three years before that gentle- 
man became a member. 

That it was the General Assembly who " gave the ru- 
diments of a common English education to the Indian 

That Mr. Blackburn was not " obliged to forsake the 
Hywassee mission for want of support," as he has ac. 
tually been paid near four thousand dollars by the Gene- 
ral Assembly, who were under no engagements to sup- 
port any other. 


That " he was" not " five hundred dollars out of pocket" 
on that account: I add, that he has never claimed it 
from the committee of missions. 

That " the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church have" not " continued a School in the nation 
since Mr. Blackburn left the mission in 1810." 

On reading Mr. Schermerhorn's Report, any person 
unacquainted with circumstances, would suppose the 
part respecting the Cherokees to be intended to fix 
a stigma on the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church ; especially if the reflection is considered, that 
" if missionaries are left to go to this warfare at their own 
charges, the field will soon be forsaken." It will appear 
from the above statement that this contains an unjust in- 
sinuation, which the reporter ought modestly to have 
forborn, especially as he had, while in this city, a conve- 
nient opportunity for obtaining correct information by 
applying to any member of the committee of missions. 
But, why such total silence as to the Second School? 

It was not my intention to have written so much on 
this subject ; but I found, as I proceeded, that I could 
not otherwise give a clear view of it. I feel for the hon- 
our of the General Assembly ; and I feel, as a member, 
for the honour of the Historical Society ; for although 
they are not responsible for the correctness of state- 
ments made to them, their reputation will, in a degree, 
be affected by them : And I cannot doubt their readi- 
ness to rectify mistakes when pointed out ; especially 
when the moral character of so venerable and important 
a body is implicated. Under this impression, I request 
a place for this communication in the next volume of 
the Society's Collections, that those who have been mis- 
led by the Report may in future, and as early as may be, 
possess more just ideas. 

* I remain, respectfully, 
Rev. Sir, 
Your friend, and very humble servant, 


Rev. Dr. Abiel Holmes. 


Letter from Rev. T. Alben on Earthquakes. 

Meadville, 13 July, 1815. 
Rev. A. Holmes, D, D. 

Rev. and Dear Sir, 

HAVING been very careful to gain what informa- 
tion was in my power relative to the earthquakes which 
took place in Portsmouth and the parts adjacent while 
I was stationed in that town, and to make a minute rec- 
ord of the same, I gave an account of these to our late 
distinguished mutual friend Dr. Eliot. A former ac- 
count which I sent him appears in the 9th vol. Hist. 
Coll. Were it not for that circumstance, I should now 
make another disposition of the enclosed, which has 
been copied from my private MS. If worthy of a place 
in one of your future vols, it will serve to continue a 
history of earthquakes, which, probably, no other person 
has thought it worth while so minutely to notice. How- 
ever, it is at your disposal. 

Portsmouth, JV. H. 14 August, 1807. 
Rev. John Eliot, D. D. Cor. Sec. Mass. Hist. Soc. 

Rev. and Dear Sir, 

I resume my pen in order to continue to the time 
of this date, from the 2d of March, 1804, the account,* 
then submitted to the Historical Society, of earthquakes 
in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and District of Maine. 

A small shock was noticed at Augusta on Kennebeck 
river, according to several Gazettes, at about nine in 
the evening, on Wednesday, the sixth of February, 

At sundry places in the counties of Essex and Mid- 
dlesex, many people supposed that there was an earth- 
quake, at about two in the afternoon of Saturday, the 
sixth of April following. A slight jar was perceived, 
It may, however, be remarked that there were several 

* Se# 9th vol. 1st Ser, Hist. Coll. pp. #J3H*' 


claps of thunder, about that time, one of which might 
possibly ^.produce an effect, which was mistaken for that 
of an earthquake. 

On Thursday, the twenty-fifth of the same month, 
a little before sunset, there was undoubtedly an earth- 
quake of considerable extent. It was observed in all the 
lower towns of this state, and for twenty miles in a north- 
westerly direction ; but nothing of it was noticeable much 
beyond the heights of land in Deerfield and Northwood, 
as, from repeated enquiries, I have been able to ascer- 
tain. It was heard and felt, principally, in the counties 
of Essex and Plymouth and in those, which intervene, 
in Massachusetts ; as appears from intelligence received, 
soon after, at Andover, Salem, Cohasset, Marshfield, and 
Bridgewater. In the south parish of the last mentioned 
town, the tremour was so great as to stop the pendulum 
of a clock. The noise was, in some places, described 
as equal to that of the earthquake, which happened on 
the first of March, 1801. 

On Lord's day, the twelfth- of May, a little before 
eleven in the forenoon, we had a shock, which was gen- 
erally perceived in most of the towns at the northward of 
Boston, in Massachusetts ; in New Hampshire, from the 
sea coast to the middle of the state ; arid in various parts 
of the District of Maine, as far as Warren. It is wor- 
thy of remark, that, on the following day, the remains of 
a man, who fell from a gondola, about six months before, 
and was drowned in the Pascataqua river above Boiling 
Rock, so called, were found not far from the place on 
the Newington shore. The idea of some was, that they 
were brought from the bottom by the agitation of the 
water, which the earthquake occasioned. 

Must there not, probably, have been a tremendous 
earthquake at the north, early in the same year, to have 
detached from the polar regions such an immense conti- 
nent of ice, as was seen in the spring covering the ocean, 
even to the latitude of Boston ? You recollect the disas- 
ter of. the Jupiter, and the wonderful preservation of a 
part of her crew, as well as the several statements rela- 
tive to the uncommon extent of ice in the Atlantic, at 
the time to which 1 allude. 


There was a slight shock in the county of Kennebeck, 
either on, or about the thirteenth of June, 1806, the 
week before the total solar eclipse. 

On Tuesday night, not far from eleven o'clock, the 
thirteenth of January, of the present year, an earthquake, 
sufficient, in many instances, to rouse people from their 
sleep, was noticed in the counties of Rockingham, Straf- 
ford, Essex, and York. The impression, which some 
at first had, was, that their cellar walls were falling in. 
There was a distinct tremulous motion, and the nojs? 
was equal to that of a coach passing slowly over frozen 
ground. On the hill in Dover, upon which is the bu- 
rial yard, and near it, a crack, in some places six inches 
wide, and several rods in length, was said to have been 
discovered soon after this earthquake, and was supposed 
to have been occasioned by it. 

In a few towns, and particularly at North Hampton, 
two or three small earthquakes were heard, about the 
middle of the day previous to the last mentioned. 

A little after two o'clock, in the afternoon of the twen- 
ty-second of February, on the Sabbath, an earthquake 
was generally perceived throughout the District of 
Maine, the lower part of New Hampshire, and in some 
parts of the county of Essex. It appears to have been 
similar to the one we had on the first of March, 1801, 
as to its duration and effects. The sound came from 
the northward and was more noticeable in the interiour 
of Maine, than in this quarter. 

The last earthquake, which occurred in these parts, 
was on Wednesday, at sunset, the sixth of May. It 
continued for fifteen or twenty seconds and was attend- 
ed with a gentle clattering on shelves of crockery ware. 
It was observed in this and several neighbouring towns, 
but more particularly in the vicinity of Saco river. 

These earthquakes were, no doubt, more extensive, 
than, with all my endeavours, I have been able to ascer- 
tain. With regard to most of them, the producing 
cause was probably in some region north of the Pascat- 

Your respectful humble servant, 




P. S. It has been stated in our newspapers, thatj on 
the fifteenth of last April, there were two earthquakes at 
Montreal. A number of pares of glass were cracked 
in one house and, what may afford speculation for the 
curious, it is said the " cracks run uniformly in a diag- 
onal direction." T. A. 

Bill of Mortality for Amherst, N. H. fuu ten 
Years ; commencing January 1, 1805, and ending 
January i, 1815. By John Farmer. 



i i 
































.4 3 8 











2 . 

11 . 











2 4 

4: 1 





4 808 

i\ ' 




1 4 

2! 1 










• ! • 

. 1 2 










1| 3 

j ,. 





181 i 





1 3 

2 ! . 











2 • 

I 1 











3! 1 

A\ 2 











. ! ? 

1 * 







22 1 



)8 ; 20( 1 i 


J 9 


Table exhibiting 



a/* fA^er ages 










wS c 








c « 


"- 1 






«# i m 







u - 




0) " 










T3 ' -C 

a c 

CS { K 

: - 





















® i "2 













■ — 




















7 2 









5 1 











1 80S 

5 5 









4 l 







6i 4 









3 I 


































12 7 














48 j 32 










[ 10 



10 16 

, 3 




Between 95 and 100; in 1808, 1. Between 100 and 105 ; in 1805, I. 
mentioned 5. — Total 225.. 

. 11 VOL. IV. 

Ages not 


Aggregate and average of ages each year* 





of deaths. 

amt. of ages. 










































10 years. 



31 n 

31 mean average age. 

Those whose ages are not mentioned were children, and would no! 
materially affect the above result. 

Remarks. The most considerable part. of the forego, 
ing was prepared the last year and intended to accompany 
the sketch of Amherst,* published in the second volume 
of the second series of the Collections. Much care and 
attention have been bestowed to render the above tables 
correct and intelligible. It appears from the first that 
the number of deaths in June, October, and November,, 
were considerably less than in any other months, conse- 
quently we may suppose these were more favourable to 
health. The whole number which have died during the 
ten years is 225, (not including 8 strangers who have 
died in town) of whom 121 were of adult age. Of this 

* The writer would take this opportunity of correcting a few errours therein, 
occasioned by misinformation. Page 247, line 30, after Bedford, insert six miles ; 
thence running west on Bedford Same page, it is said ** the limits of the town 
were evidently more extensive than represented by the charter," &c. It was 
not till several years after the charter was granted, that Amherst acquired an 
extension of its limit6. The adjoining town of Monson was divided, and a consid^ 
erable part annexed to this town. After this addition it was " nearly ten miles 
in length and seven in width." Page 250, line 26 and 35. The Rev. Mr. Wil- 
kins was ordained September 23, 1741, O, S. and died 1783. His son graduated 


number 59 were males and 62 were females. From a 
course of observations made in the eastern part of this 
state and in several towns in Massachusetts, it is found 
that the proportion of those who die below the age of 16 
is the same as those above 16. This will not however 
apply to the number of deaths in this town during the 
above period, though it might for a longer time. Of the 
225 who have died, 100 were under the age of 16, and 
125 were above that age, leaving an excess of 25. Un- 
der the age of 20 years, 106 have died, and above 20, 119 
have died. Under the age of 25, 117 have died, and 
above, 108. Of those who attained the age of 60 years 
and upwards, 6 died in January, 4 in February, 6 in 
March, 7 in April, 7 in May, 3 in June, 6 in July, 4 in 
August, 5 in September, 4 in October, 2 in November, 
and 4 in December. Of those above seventy years, 12 
died in winter, 10 in the spring, 11 in the summer, 
and 6» in autumn. Of the above number, (225) 
the writer has ascertained as many as 40, which have 
died of consumption, and this, doubtless, is near the cor- 
rect number. Of these, 11 died in the winter, 10 in 
the spring, 13 in the summer, and 6 in the autumnal 
months. It has been remarked that complaints of the 
pulmonary kind are more frequent, and prove more fatal, 
after a winter of extreme cold. This remark is, proba- 
bly, true, if the extreme cold is succeeded by a warm and 
early spring. The human constitution, braced by cold, 
cannot with impunity bear the subsequent relaxation, es- 
pecially when there is a predisposition to such com- 
plaints. It may be interesting to examine hoiv far this 
observation will apply to the period embraced in the 
foregoing tables. The winters of 1806—7, and 1811 — 
12 were in a peculiar manner distinguished by their ex- 
treme cold. A greater degree of cold occurred in 1807, 
in several places, than had taken place for fifteen years 
previous. For more than a month the ground was cov- 
ered with ice, and the winds, wafted over so large a por. 
tion of it, were peculiarly piercing and severe. It can- 
not with truth be said, that the succeeding spring was 
forward, though it is recollected that the early part of it 


was warmer and more relaxing: in proportion to the sea- 
son, than the latter part. If we recur to the first table, 
we shall find the number of deaths 27, of which nine, 
exactly one third, died of consumption. Pulmonary 
complaints were very frequent this year. The hooping 
cough and influenza prevailed. 

The winter of 1811—12 is more fresh in our recol- 
lection. There was a greater degreev of cold this year 
than was ever before known in many places, and this 
cold continued a considerable time with but little inter- 
mission. The early part of spring was warm and pleas- 
ant. If we again recur to the foregoing Table, we shall 
find the number of deaths in 1812 to be 18, of which 
number six died of consumption ! 

Amherst, June 2, 1815. 

Amherst, N. H, June, 1815. 
Rev. Sir, * 

I beg the liberty of correcting one or two errors which 
I find in the first communication, page 162. I have 
said that " it appears from the records, that Billerica was 
granted by Henry Dunster, Richard Champney, Edward 
GofFe and John Bridge to Ralph Hill, sen. William 
French," &c. Such indeed it did appear to me, and 
might appear to any person, who cursorily examined the 
records. Upon a subsequent examination, I find that 
the former gentlemen were appointed by the town of 
Cambridge, commissioners to make propositions to the in- 
habitants of Shawshin, who had requested immunities 
and freedom from all publick rates and charges at Cam- 
bridge. The manner in which these propositions of the 
commissioners were inserted in the records led me to 
believe that they were the grantors of the town. Since 
I formed that opinion, I have obtained a transcript of the 
grant of Shawshin (Billerica) to Cambridge, of which I 
subjoin a copy. 

" At a Generall Court held at Boston on adj. 14 June, 
1642. All the land upon Shawshin river and between 
that and Concord river and between that and Merrimac 


liver (not formerly granted by this Court) are granted to 
Cambridge soe as that they erect a village there within 
live yearns and soe as that it shall not 'attend to prejudice 
Charlestown village, or the village at Cochittuate (Where 
was Cochittuate ?) nor the farmes formerly granted to the 
now Gov. of 1260 acres and to Mrs. Winthrop ; & Mr. 
Flint & Mr. Stephen Winthrop are to set out their 
head line toward Concord." 

In a subsequent grant Shawshin was granted to Cam- 
bridge without any condition of making a village there, 
provided the Church and present Elders continue at Cam- 
bridge, A few years after this grant, the inhabitants of 
Shawshin obtained of the inhabitants of Cambridge a 
deed, which is called in the records the " great deed," 
which was acknowledged by' Thomas Danforth of Cam- 
bridge, and appears to have been recorded. This is 
signed by a considerable number of the inhabitants of 
Cambridge, but it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to de- 
cypher all their names. 

With this, I communicate a Bill of Mortality for this 
town which has cost me much labour to collect and 
arrange in its present form. In discriminating their 
ages, I have been more particular than usual. I think 
we cannot be too particular in this respect. To your 
judgment, Sir, I submit the propriety of publishing it, 
with the accompanying remarks. In a note, I have cor- 
rected a few errors in the " Sketch of Amherst." I 
took much pains to have it correct, but I find a reliance 
on verbal information respecting dates cannot always be 
had. Dr. Belknap places the death of Mr. Wilkms in 
1784 and the ordination of Mr. Barnard in 1779, and 
these errours, though trivial are transmitted to a second 
edition. I am certain the boundaries with my correction 
will be correct. I have the original Charter before me. 
With much respect, 

Your verv obedient servant, 

Rev. Dr. Holmes, Cambridge. 



Catalogue op Ministers in the province of New 
Hampshire in 1767 ? with the year of their 
ordination annexed. 








Jos. Adams, Newington. 

John Adams, Durham. 

Jos. Adams, jr. Stratham. 

Moses Badger, Episcopal 
Missionary through the 

Abner Bailey, New Salem. 

Jeremy Belknap, Colleag. 
with the Rev. Mr. Cush 
isg, Dover. 

Benj. Butler, Nottingham, 

Arthur Browne, E. Portsm. 

Step. Chase, Few Castle. 

Peter Coffin, Kingston. 

Josiah Cotton, Sandown. 

Samuel Cotton, Lytchfield 

Jonathan Cushing, Dover. 

Wm. Davidson, Loudond'y. 

Seth Dean, Rindge. 

Jonathan Eames, Newton. 

Daniel Emerson, Hollis. 

Step. Farrar, N. Ipswich. 

Thos. Fessenden, Walpole. 

Ebenezer Flagg, Chester. 

Jeremy Fogg, Kensington. 

Abiel Foster, Canterbury. 

Bunker Gay, Hinsdale. 

Wm. Goddard, Westmore- 

Avery Hall, Rochester. 

Joseph S. Hastings, North 

Samuel Haven, Portsm. 

John Houston, P. Bedford. 

Joseph Kidder, Dunstable 

Samuel Langdon, Portsm. 

Micah Lawrence, Winches- 

Jona. Livermore, Wilteu. 

1737, Nath. Merrill, Notting- 
1765, Gyles Merrill, Flastow. 

1756, Sam. M'Clintock, Green* 


1 737, David M'Gregore, London- 

1 760, Mitchell, P. Pemb'ke. 

1 7,65, Amos Moody, Pelham. 

1730, John Moody, New Market. 

1 763, Nath. Noyes, S. Hampton* 

1743, Woodbridge Odlin, Exet. 

1760, Bulkley Olcott, Charlest'n, 
1 736, Samuel Parsons, Rye. 

1 763, John Page, Hawke. 
1765, Sam, Perley, P. Seabrook. 

1765, Peter Powers, Haverhill. 

1 730, James Pike, Somerswortb. 
1755, Joseph Prince, Barrington. 
1748, Daniel Rogers, Exeter. 

1757, James Scales, Hopkintoa. 

1758, Josiah Stearns, Epping. 

1761, Clement Sumner, Keene. 

1766, Eben. Thayer, Hampton. 

1 762, Amos Tappan, Kingston. 

1 752, Naihan Trask, Brentwood. 
1 752, Henry True, Hampstead. 

1731, John Tucke, Gosport. 
1761, John Tucke, Epsom. 

1 730, Timo. Walker, Rumford.* 

1765, Nathan Ward, Plymouth. 

1766, Simon Williams, P. Wind- 

1 734, John W T ilson, P. Chester. 

1763, Paine Wingate, Hampton 

1736, Aaron W T hittemore, Pern* 

* Now Concord, in Rockingham County. 


Notes. Of the aboyc catalogue, which is principally- 
derived from Mein and Fleming's Register for 1768, 
no t more than five continued in the ministry at the close 
of the century. At present, there are only two, the 
Rev. Bunker Gay, of Hinsdale, who graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1760, and the Rev. Joseph Kidder of 
Dunstable, who received a degree at Harvard in 1764. 
The number of ministers in the province in 1741 was 
about 27 ; in 1767, according to the above, 64 ; in 
1800, there were about 129, and now, (1815,) there are 
of all denominations, according to the New Hampshire 
Register, 144. The number of inhabitants in New 
Hampshire in 1767, has been estimated at 52,700. 
There were in this year, 9 regiments of foot, and 1 of 
horse guards, 80 Justices of the Peace, and 31 Repre- 
sentatives to the General Court. In 1800, when the 
number of inhabitants was 183,858, there were 31 reg- 
iments of foot, 472 Justices of the Peace, Repre- 
sentatives, and 92 attornies. In 1815, there are 37 reg- 
iments, 1004 Justices of Peace, 184 Representatives, and 
162 Attornies. 

Amherst, JV. H. Sept. 23, 1815. 

History of Free Schools in Plymouth Colony, 
and in the town of plymouth, with incidental 

NOTES. 1815. \ 

AN historical research on publick schools coming with- 
in the articles of enquiry of the Historical Society, this 
memoir on the subject respectfully awaits a place in their 
collections ; the records of Plymouth colony, and of the 
town of Plymouth, having been the principal guides in 
the enquiry. 

In the former, the first notice on the subject occurs in 
"court proceedings,' ' under the year 1663, in these 
words : 

" It is proposed by the court unto the several town- 
ships in this jurisdiction, as a thing that they ought to 
take into their serious consideration, that some course 


may be taken that in every town there may be a schoolmas- 
ter set up to train up children to reading and writing."* 

Previous to this date, therefore, it may probably be 
assumed as an historical fact, that there were not any 
publick schools in Plymouth colony ; at which period the 
incorporated towns were Plymouth, Duxbury, Scituate, 
Sandwich, Marshfield, Barnstable, Yarmouth, Taunton, 
Rehoboth, Eastham, Bridge water and Middleborough, the 
two last being then recent and very small settlements. 

Forty two years had now elapse d since the settlement 
of Plymouth. A generation had therefore attained man- 
hood, who, born in the country, had, before this era, be- 
come freemen of the colony, and who had doubtless re- 
ceived salutary parental instruction, and in some of the 
towns such as was acquired at incidental private schools. 
A settled ministry then existed in all these towns, with 
the exception of Eastham and Middleborough. f The 
whole territory was yet a wilderness, the aboriginal 
population numerous, and occasionally hostile, the 
means of subsistence precarious, the colonists as yet 
few, disperse iy seated in a savage wild, whose moral and 
whose physical features were yet to be softened and sub- 

The proposition of 1663, seems not to be acted upon 
until 1672, in the inoiith of March, in court proceedings, 
in these words : 

" Whereas at the General Court of his majesty, holden 
at New Plymouth, in June, 1670, the court upon due 
and serious consideration did freely give and grant all 
such profits as might or should annually accrue to the 
colony, from time to time, 7 for fishing with nets or seines 
at Cape Cod for mackerel, bass, or herrings (as by the 
said grant doth more fully appear) to be improved for 

*We have before us a manuscript letter, written in 1750, to Dr. Douglass, on 
the subject of his Summary History, by a person intimately acquainted with Ply- 
mouth colony, in which the writer, alluding to his remarks on Gov. Prince, says, 
*' He was not, as you say, a man of learning, but it should be added that he was a 
favourer of it, witness his encouraging and setting up a grammar school in Ply- 

f Mr. Keith, the first minister of Bridge ;vater, was ordained 1663. The fami- 
lies there were few subsequent to this date. Both that town and Middleborough 
were broken up 1676, and the latter perhaps not competent to a school until the 
close of the century, if then. 


and toward a Free School in some town of this juris- 
diction, for the training up of youth in literature, for the 
gocd and benefit of posterity, provided a beginning were 
made within one year after the said grant ; and the or- 
dering and managing the said affair was, by the Court* 
committed to the governor and assistants, or any four of 
them, and that within the time limited there hath been a 
beginning made at Plymouth, and hitherto continued, by 
God's blessing, with good success, as upon examination 
may appear. And whereas the said town in general have 
given and granted whatsoever profits may any way arise 
from or by the improvement of a considerable tract, ly- 
ing and being at Agawaam, Sepecan and places adjacent, 
for and towards the maintenance and upholding of the 
said school at Plymouth; and also since several of 
the town of Plymouth, out of their good affections, have 
freely given out of their own estate, for the erecting and 
procuring a convenient school house, not only for the 
better accommodation of the scholars, but also for the 
schoolmaster to live and reside in, as God, by his good 
providence, may please to present,* all the premises being 
considered, in hopes that God may please so to smile up- 
on this our day of small things as to make it a blessing to 
the rising generation. 

" This Court, taking themselves much obliged readily 
and gladly to accept of that trust committed unto theni by 
the aforesaid General Court, do hereby readily and cheer- 
fully accept thereof; and hope, by God's assistance, 
faithfully and carefully to use their best endeavours (what 
in them lieth) to encourage and carry on the said well 
begun work at New Plymouth, so long as God shall be 
pleased to afford any competency of means, and conve- 
nient number of scholars." And to that end do ap- 
point and constitute "our approved friend, Mr. Thomas 
Hinckley, f to take upon him the office, care and charge, 

* " Building the houses" was, we believe, a proposition merely, not carried in- 
to effect, from circumstances, until a subsequent period, perhaps, as will hereafter 
appear, about 1700. 

f Thomas Hinckley, the last governour of Plymouth colony, was the son of 
Samuel Hinckley, a freeman of the colony, 1636, who was of the Scituate church, 
and who removed with that part of it which settled Barjistable, 1639 v this sor. 
was, probably, born either at Plymouth, or Scituate. 

12 VOL. IV. 


of a steward of the said school, to demand, recover, and 
receive all such sum or sums of money due from any 
person or persons to the said school, either by revenue 
of the said grant of the court, or the grant and gift of 
the town of Plymouth, or any otherwise due. And that 
he do give a true account of all such monies received, 
once, or twice, in the year, unto the governour and mag- 
istrates, or any four of them, as it shall be required. 

" As also to make such payments and disbursements 
to any employed in or about the said work, as he shall 
be ordered by them, according to monies received by 
him from time to time ; and that he be allowed due sat- 
isfaction for any trouble or expense about the said em- 
ploy ment." 

The next article in course on this subject occurs 
in July, 1673, in these words : " It is ordered by the 
court that the charge of the free school, which is thirty 
three pounds a year, shall be defrayed by the Treasurer, 
of the profits arising by the fishing at the cape, until such 
time as that the minds of the freemen be known con- 
cerning it, which will be returned to the next court of 

1674, June. " This court having received, by the de- 
puties of the several towns, the signification of the minds 
of the major part of the freemen of this colony, that all 
the profits of the fishing at Cape Cod, granted by the 
court for the erecting and maintaining of a school, be still 
continued for that end, if a competent number of scholars 
shall appear to be deputed thereunto, which this court 
judges not to be less than eight or ten,* do, therefore, 
hereby confirm the grant of the aforesaid profits of the 
fishing at the cape, to the maintenance of the School, and 
that there be no further demands, besides the said profits 
of the cape on the country for the maintenance of the 
said school.' ' 

Soon after this period commenced the most distress- 
ing war which the New England colonists, or their de- 
scendants, ever experienced, that with Philip the sachem ; 

* That is/ as we conceive, a school, to ?eqeiTC the benefit of this grant, should 
at least contain eight or ten scholars. 


yet, as soon as it subsided, the subject of schools, like 
the rebuilding of a city after a volcanic eruption, again 
arises on our view, in a memorable act which their pos- 
terity, we trust, will read with peculiar interest, and 
which is its own best commentary. 

" At the General Court, held at Plymouth, the first of 
November, 1677: 

" Forasmuch as the maintenance of good literature 
doth much tend to the advancement of the weal and 
flourishing state of societies and republics, this court 
doth therefore order, that in whatever township in this 
government, consisting of fifty families, or upwards, any 
meet man shall be obtained to teach a grammar school, 
such township shall allow at least twelve pounds, in cur- 
rent merchantable pay, to be raised by rate on all the in- 
habitants of such township ; and those that have the 
more immediate benefit thereof, by their children's going 
to school, with what others may voluntarily give to pro- 
mote so good a work and general good, shall make up 
the residue necessary to maintain the same, and that the 
profits arising of the cape fishing, heretofore ordered to 
maintain a grammar school in this colony, be distributed 
to such towns fas have such grammar schools, for the 
maintenance thereof, not exceeding five pounds per an- 
num to any such town, unless the court treasurer, or 
other appointed to manage that affair, see good cause to 
add thereunto, to any respective town, not exceeding five 
pounds more per ann. And further, this court orders, 
that every such town as consists of seventy families, or 
upwards, and hath not a grammar school therein, shall al- 
low and pay unto the next town, which hath such gram- 
mar school kept up among them, the sum of five pounds 
per ann. in current merchantable pay, to be levied on the 
inhabitants of such towns by rate, and gathered and de- 
livered by the constables of such towns, as by warrant 
from any magistrate of this jurisdiction shall be required. ' 

These extracts are all we can find, in the form of acts 
and laws, ^in the records of Plymouth colony, as it re- 
spects the history of primary schools, either in the index 
to the laws, or in court proceedings. Still it is possible 


Something may have escaped our researches. We add a 
few instances of the appropriation of the free school 
fund ; and while we revert to the " day of small things," 
when it was constituted, and pay a just and unfeigned 
tribute of respect and of veneration to its founders, we 
seem to have presented to us another incentive, of high in- 
terest indeed, yet more to value, to cherish and to protect 
the source whence it was drawn, the Fisheries, an em- 
blem of which, with great propriety adorns our legisla* 
tive hall.* 

1678. V Five pounds, silver money, of the cape fishe- 
ry rent was paid to Mrs. Newman, widow of Rev. Noah 
Newman of Rehoboth,! and five pounds to Rehoboth 
schoolmaster.' ' 

1680. " Ten pounds, silver money, was received of 
Robert StudsonJ and Nathaniel Thomas, rent of cape 
fishery, a part of which went to pay for a piece of land at 
the cape for the colony, and the residue to the school. " 

1682. "In reference to the cape money, the court 
have ordered twelve pounds thereof to Rehoboth school, 
and eight pounds thereof to Mr. Ichabod Wiswali's 
school at Duxbury, and twenty shillings to Mr. Nath- 
aniel Thomas, for his pains and care about it, and the 
residue, nine pounds, to rest in the treasurer's hands, un- 
til the court see cause to dispose of it.'' 

1689. Rent of cape fishery was added to the appro- 
priation for magistrate's salary for that year. 

In 1685, according to Mr. Shove, there were "80 
scholars on the list of Taunton school, some of whom 
had entered Latin." 

Cape Cod, therefore, which afforded the first shelter to 
the pilgrims in 1620, at a subsequent period, as we have 
stated from our records, afforded also the first fund for 
the education of their children I 

As a proper appendage to these notes, we subjoin an 

* Placed first in the old state house, on motion, it is said, of John Rowe, Esq. 
a merchant, and then a member for Boston, a gentleman who many years suppli- 
ed the fishermen with salt, lines and >ooks. 

f Mr. Noah Newman, second pastoi of Rehoboth, died in 167S. 

$ Mr. Studson, a very useful man, was of Scituate. He was "cornet of the 
troopers." Here may be the origin of the mackerel fishery of Scituate. 


extract from the records of Plymouth Colony, respecting 
a contribution recommended by the court to the people 
for Harvard College. It is dated July 4, 1672, in these 
words : 

" We being informed that it is upon the hearts of our 
neighbours of the Massachusetts Colony to support and 
encourage that nursery of learning at Harvard College in 
Cambridge in New England, from whence have, through 
the blessing of God, issued many worthy and useful 
persons for public service in church and commonwealth, 
being also inforrried that divers godly and well affected 
in England are ready to assist therein, by way of con- 
tributing considerable sums, provided the country here 
are forward to promote the same, and that the several 
towns in the Massachusetts have been very free in their 
offerings thereunto ; we also being, by letters from 
them, invited to join with them in so good a work, and 
that we may have an interest with others in the blessing 
that the Lord may please from thence to convey unto the 
country — This court doth therefore earnestly commend 
it to the ministers and elders in each town that they, tak- 
ing such with them as they shall think meet, would par- 
ticularly and earnestly rliove and stir up all such in their 
several towns, as are able to contribute unto this worthy 
work, be it money or other good pay ; and that they 
make a return of what they shall effect herein unto 
the court that shall sit in October next, who will then 
appoint meet persons to receive the contribution, and 
faithfully dispose of the same for the ends proposed."* 

* An examination of the catalogue of Harvard College shows, that from the 
year 1661 to 1815 inclusive, forty eight persons, who were born in Plymouth, have 
graduated there. Of the whole number, eleven have been ordained Congrega- 
tional ministers (one of whom received the honorary degree of D D. from Nassau 
Hall) and one is an ordained minister of the church of England, ten have been, 
lawyers, eight physicians, eight or more merchants, and others in various civil of- 
fices, Stc Ot all these thirty one yet (1815) su-vive. 

The two first on the whole list were Nathaniel and Elnathan Chauncy, twins, 
and sons of President Chauncy, who were born in Plymouth about 1639 The 
first was a minister of Hatfield, and 'Jie younger, Elnathan, a pri)sieian of Boston, 
to whom Mr. Robert Hix, a merchant of Plymouth in early days, gave at his 
birth, fifty acres of land ; so much were the people of Plymouth attached to Pres- 
ident Chauncy where he preached a part of three years. We have not included 
Mr. Allerton,1650, and Mr, Reynolds, 1663, in this list, but who we suppose, how- 
ever, were born at Plymouth. 

There have been two graduates at Yale from Plymouth, both ordained minis* 


Historical notes on schools in the town of Plymouth* 

This head of inquiry has been partly anticipated by 
the preceding notes, the records of the town on the sub- 
ject being in unison with those of the colony, that is to 
say, in 1672, " The profits and benefits of the Agawaam 
and Sippican lands appear to be appropriated to the 
maintenance of a free school, then began in the town, and 
not to be estranged from that end, &c." Again, in 1674, 
after limiting the grant to such lands only as had been 
purchased of the natives in 1672, these directions are re- 
corded : " That their children be instructed in reading 
when they are entered the Bible, and also that they be 
taught to write and cipher, beside that which the country 
expects from the said school." 

At this period Mr. Thomas Prence, Capt. William 
Bradford, and Secretary Morton were directed and ap- 
pointed, with the selectmen, a committee " to do their 
utmost to improve the lands for the ends proposed." i 

Further details would be tedious, were it not for the 
subject, and did they not lead incidentally to some which 
may have interest. 

School Masters. 

In 1670 Mr. John Morton, who was a nephew of the 
Secretary, proposed to the town " to teach the children 
and youth of the town to read, write, and to cast accounts ;" 
which proposition appears to be accepted in 1671; the 
era therefore of the first public instructer, subsequent to 
which date an interval of obscurity succeeds. Mr. Josiah 
Cotton, who was born in Plymouth, 1679, who had a 
publick education at the university, and who began to 
keep school here in 1698, says, in his- diary, " I do not 
recollect that I ever went to any town school."* 

These are conclusive data. In 1693-4 to 1696 there 
seems to have been publick instrUcters, with a salary of 
/.33 per annum, and so continued to 1700. And in this 
place it is pertinent to remark, chat we have now arrived 
at a period when Plymouth Colony had become annexed 

* Speaking of the course of his education, he mentions Mr. Peter Burr and Mr. 
Joseph Dasset, as then schoolmasters of Boston, while Mr. Wiswall, minister of 
Dnxbury, and a Mr. Adams, then of Taunton, afterward of New London, fitted 
bim for college. 


to Massachusetts, conforming therefore to her laws, 
however modified, relative to schools. 

1705. Sundry inhabitants of Plymouth became bound 
to pay twenty pounds per annum for seven years to sup- 
port a school, provided it be settled within forty rods of the 
old meeting house, which was agreed to, and a school 
house w 7 as built by subscription.* 

At this period the inhabitants of Plymouth were dis- 
persed over an extensive territory. Several towns, since 
taken from it, were not then incorporated ; hence arose 
difficulties in school arrangements, not easy to reconcile 
at any time. The regulations were as follows : 

" All children sent to school (except those of the sub- 
scribers to the fund) that live within one mile of the 
school to pay four pence the week for being taught lat- 
in, writing and ciphering, and two pence the week for 
reading. All beyond a mile, and within two, to pay two 
pence for being taught latin, and one penny for reading, 
the poor excepted, who are to come free. And all fines 
that are by the law devoted to the support of a school, 
with the money abovesaid per week, to be improved to- 
wards the town's part of the said twenty pound. And 
the subscribers to have no benefit thereby. 

" And if in case a country school be settled by the court 
before said term of seven years be expired, theiu these 
obligations mutually to be void, ?? 

The phrase " country school 9 ' has reference to the col- 
ony regulations on the subject. Another phrase then in 
use for school money was "school gate," a term then in 

* This school house, a small edifice, stood on the south side of the present 
meeting house. No list of the subscribers appears. They were probably some, or 
all, of these. Nath. Thomas, Esq. Lieut. Nath. Morton, John Murdoch, Capt. 
James Warren, John Watson, Dr. Charles Little, James Barnaby, Haviland Tor- 
rey, Isaac Lathrop, John Dyer, Epn, Cole, John Foster, Thomas Little, Joha 
Barnes, John Bradford, Will. Shui'tUfF, Stephen Churchill, Joseph Bartlett, and 
others. The three first named were then the school committee. 

In 1765 this school house was taken down, when another, yet standing, was 
erected on the north side of the meeting house ; on which occasion, James Hovey, 
Edward Winslow, sen. and Thomas Mayhew, Esquires, were the superintending 
committee. Mr. Hovey doubtless planned it. He was born at Cambridge, and 
was an attorney and magistrate, but in his youth a joiner. Mr. Winslow, then 
deputy collector under the crown, died in advanced life at Halifax, N. S. Mr. 
Mayhew, naval officer under the council, was of the respectable, family of that 
name of Martha's vineyard. 


use in England, as well as here, for money collections, 
derived, doubtless, from toll gate collections. 

These school regulations of 1 705 were consequent to a 
then recent and further division of the common lands, when 
a tract to the amount of L500 O.T. was sold, and the inter- 
est appropriated to schools,, and when a reserve of a mile 
and, a haif square was made for this purpose in perpetuity. 
Hence the phrase, " mile and a half money," as applica- 
ble to a school fund. This imaginary line bt gins a little 
north of the compact part of the town on the she re } thence 
into the woods south westerly a mile and a half, dunce 
south easterly the same distance, crossing the mouth of 
Billington Sea Pond to a given point, thence north easterly 
to the shore, embracing the whole of the town brook, 
and all the compact part of the town. 

The interest of monies arising from the sale of all un- 
appropriated com m on lands, within these limits, constitu- 
ted from this date an unalienable school fund, in perpetu- 

It was then, and continued to be, productive ; for in 
1712 but ten pounds was assessed on the town for a 
grammar school, the mile and a half fund defraying the 

In 1756 an able report on fiscal affairs states the inter- 
est of this fund then at /.86 14 L. M. and the com- 
mittee express a regret, that this fund was sometimes 
suffered to mingle with other town expenditures, arising 
doubtless from the pressure of difficult periods in our 

Reflecting minds, we trust, will admit this to have been 
a wise and judicious provision for the future support of 
schools. Beside the wood lands, not then granted 
within these limits, several subsequent wharf lot grants 
were comprised,* while the training green, the fort hill, 
(burial ground) Coles hill, and some other places, formed 
exceptions and reservations, as publick places. 

1706. The town purchased the subscription school 

* 1734 is the date of some of the later wharf lot grants, then sold at I A. 0. It 
is comparatively a modern date, and is a striking evidence of the slow maritime 
growth of Plymouth. Some, however, may be traced to 1690 and 1670. 


house, and we believe it the earliest date of a town 
school house. 

1714 is the first notice of district school houses, viz. 
one at Jones's river, and one at Eel river. 

1722. Manomet Ponds first became a district in 
union with Eel river. It now alone forms six districts 
at least. 

1724-5. The town voted a grammar school for seven 
years in the centre, and the ends to deduct what they are 
rated to support a school among themselves, if they see 
cause to do it. This led to the immediate incorporation 
of the north precinct,*" which became Kingston. 

1734. Plymouth petitioned the General Court for a 
grant of unappropriated lands for a school. This appli- 
cation, it is probable, did not succeed ; at least we are 
without information on the subject. Connecticut, in her 
late truly noble provision for primary schools, takes the 
lead of all her sister states, older or younger. 

It appears to have been the usage, for a long series of 
years, to vote a school for three, four, or seven years. 

The annual salary of the instructer was uniformly for 
many years, down to 1765, or later, /.400, O. T. or 
1.53 6 8, L. M. 

1795. A provisionary school for misses was instituted 
by the town, to be kept in the summer months, at inter- 
val hours of the town school. It generally contains from 
thirty to sixty, who are taught reading, writing, and arith- 
metick. The number of scholars in the Central grammar 
school, which is now kept by Mr. Moses Webster, a grad- 
uate of Harvard College, 1804, with an usher, varies in 
winter from 140 to an 100, and in summer from 80 to 70 

The modern improvements of Wrifford and others, 
in hand writing, are at this period successfully taught. 
The specimens of writing of the scholars of either sex, 
compared with former periods, are very elegant. 

* The " farmers of the school fund" were Nath. Thomas, E,sq. Capt. James 
Warren and John Murdoek, Esq. The latter gentleman died 1756, aged 9i, 
■when he gave by wi!i, to the school, Z.100, to the poor, Z 100, to the third precinct 
Z.200, to the Scotch box at Boston, Z 50, all in lawful money. Of the last donation 
Capt. Erving was the trustee. Mr. M. was from Glasgo-v. 

13 VOL. IV. 


There is now, beside the grammar school, fifteen dis- 
trict schools, the latter being kept such a term of time, 
chiefly in the winter, as may amount to their taxes. 

The number of districts indicates a scattered popula- 
tion over a wide space, rather than a great one, the whole 
census of the town being 4228 souls. The annual ap- 
propriation for schools, may be now $1 500. 

Much praise is justly due to many publick-spirited men 
of the past, as well as of modern times, for their attention 
to the concerns of schools ; also to a succession of the 
reverend ministers at all periods. 

These details, minute as they may appear, seem to de- 
rive dignity and value from the subject. Before Ply- 
mouth Colony had erected her free schools, Massachu- 
setts, her younger sister, had founded her college. The 
former, however, may be compared to the doric style in 
architecture, the solid support of all the other orders. 

This result of our researches, on the subject of schools, 
has been a task of serious and of patient labour, and has 
had peculiar difficulties. At first there seemed but a 
faint ray of that continued, and, we trust, now permanent 
light reflected from the subject. Perseverance, howev- 
er, in the research seemed to be due, in the first place, to 
the memory of our pious ancestors ; secondly, to our- 
selves, and lastly to those to whom we dedicate the histo- 
ry of schools — future generations. 

Succession of publick school instructers at Plymouth^ 
from 1671 to 1771 inclusive. 

[Those with this * mark annexed were born in Plymouth; and all, with the ex- 
ception of Mr. Morton and Mr. Dyer, were graduates of Harvard College.] 

1671 *John Morton, 

72 Corlet 

99 Moses Hale 

1703 John Dyer 
5 *Josiah Cotton 

13 Denison 

22 John Angier 

1741 Enoch Ward 

47 Samuel Gardner 

48 Ward Browne 

49 *Thomas Foster 
56 Matthew Cushing 

58 Charles Cushing 

59 Joseph Stockbridge 

25 John Sparhawk j 61 ^Nathaniel Lothrop 
35 Edward Eelles 65 Perez Forbes 

37 Ebenezer Bridge 67 John Barrows 

38 Ezra Whitmarsh ! 70 Alexander Scammel 


The private schools have been numerous and respecta- 
ble both for their patronage and their instructers, 

A few notes on the first instructers will close this arti- 

Mr. Morton,* as it appears, was the first town school- 
master in Plymouth, his native place, the son of John 
Morton, who removed to Middleborough, and who died 
there, 1673. " A godly man, much lamented by sundry 
of the inhabitants of that place." Colony Records. 

Mr. Corlet. It is not in our power to be precise 

as to this gentleman. A person of the same name was, it 
appears, master of a grammar school at Cambridge as ear- 
ly as 1643, while another, a minister, is noticed, 1675, in 
the history of Dorchester. See Historical Collections, 
vol. vii. and ix. first series, also general index, vol. x. 
The Plymouth schoolmaster passed the winter of 1674 
with his brother Minot of Dorchester. 

Moses Hale, we assume the christian name. Such a 
a person, marked as a minister, graduated at Harvard 
College, 1699. A person appears to have been appointed 
at Plymouth, 1702, " to collect the school rate due in 
Mr. Hale's time." This name was among the elders of 
Essex county at that period. 

Mr. Dyer kept the school a few months only, probably 
in the vacancy of a regular master. He died in 1742, aged 
69, " having been a man of great use and service in divers 
publick posts." These offices were assessor, selectman, 
and town clerk from 1724 to 1739. In this latter office 
he was the immediate successor of elder Faunce, who 
probably then declined it on account of age and his dis- 
tant abode from town. The secretary, Mr. Morton, was 

* While preparing an article of this kind, we are frequently reminded of those 
matrons, who, wiLh much patience, teach us the first elements of letters. Our 
tribute of respect and of gratitude is due to them. Of this description, in earlier 
times, in Plymouth, was Mrs. Richards, a grand daughter, it is said, of Mr. Mor- 
ton. She lived, full of years, to the close of the eighteenth century. Such, too, 
was Mrs. Kean, of the respectable family of James, of Cohaset On a tankard 
in the communion service of the first church is inscribed the name of Anne 
Palmer, 1734, who kept a school in yet earlier times, living until after 1744. 
Her relatives were in Providence. 

" In ev'ry village mark'd witli little spire, 

Embower'd in trees, and hardly known to fame, 
There dwells in lowly cot and plain attire, 
A matron old, whom we school viistr-ess name.' J 


the first town clerk elect of Plymouth about 1658 to his 
death, 1673. Edward Winslow, Esq. succeeded Mr- 
Dyer in this office two years, then Samuel Bartlett, Esq. 
from 1742 to 1765, then John Cotton, Esq. 1766, then 
Ephraim Spooner, Esq. from 1767, who yet (1815) sur- 
vives in office. 

Josiah Cotton. His birth is already stated. He died 
in 1756, aged 76. It appears from his memoirs, that he 
kept the school as early as 1698. He was also in the same 
employment at Marblehead near the year 1703. Of this 
latter place he occasionally speaks in handsome terms, as 
to the patronage afforded schoolmasters at that period, 
and of the hospitality of its inhabitants. Much gratitude 
is expressed to the families of Brown, and of Col. Legge 
of that place, and to the minister, Mr. Cheever, of whose 
church he became a member, intending then to study di- 
vinity and to preach, which it will appear was his inciden- 
tal profession in subsequent years. He returned to Ply- 
mouth and kept the school, as we have seen, about seven 
years, when he entered upon civil offices, clerk of court, 
register of deeds, &c, &c. and also preacher to the Indian 
tribes at Mattakeeset pond in Pembroke, Manomet and 
Herring ponds in Plymouth, with a salary of about twenty 
pounds sterling under the commissioners for propagating 
the gospel among the heathen, &c. This service he per- 
formed about thirty nine years, both in the aboriginal, as 
well as English language, having incidentally English 
auditors in some of the places* This engagement with 
the commissioners closed Nov. 15, 1744, because, as he 
remarks, the natives "did not attend." Under the year 
1733, October, this notice occurs : "Finished preaching 
to the Indians twenty seven years ; the want of a desira- 
ble success was a main discouragement to my continu- 
ance in it. At this time there were five families on this 
side Eel river, beside seven Indians. They were fisher- 
men. Of these five families, four understood English 
pretty well " It appears, r^owever, that he renewed this 
employment, and continued in it, as we have stated, to 
1744. He wrote an Indian grammar. Some of his man- 
uscript sermons in that language remain. He was fre- 


quently a representative from Plymouth in the General 
Court; also a judge of the Court of Pleas. His resi- 
dence in his latter days was at a place called by the 
first planters of this town " Plain Dealing"* It is 
the north extreme of the town, and the district thus nam- 
ed probably extends into Kingston bounds. The farm 
of Mr. C. beside the pleasing feature of an unfailing 
brook, which now turns a mill, presents a pleasing view 
of the harbour, with its varied shores. To describe it 
poetically, he quotes the " Choice," probably from Pom- 
fret's poems, then much in vogue. Here he occasionally 
received the first men of his time, among whom Judge 
Sewall is often quoted as an oracle in every thing of mo- 
mentous import, and as an example of every thing allied 
to goodness. An happy triumvirate of divinity, law and 
physick, in the instance of Mr. Brattle, Leverett and Oli- 
ver, ail settled in Cambridge, and classmates, is noticed 
with complacency by Mr. C. when adverting to his colle- 
giate years passed at Cambridge, 

Mr. Cottonf had fourteen children. His eldest son 
John was the first minister of Halifax in this county, and 
his second daughter Mary was the mother of the late 
Hon. William Cushing, associate judge of the United 
States. The late Col. Cotton of Plymouth was also his 
son, and Josiah, an under graduate at Cambridge, who 
went surgeon of a ship of 20 guns, Capt. Cranston* 
which sailed from Rhode Island, December 22, 1745, 
supposed to have foundered in a storm the night after her 
departure, with another ship in company. 

Mr. Denison kept school in the winter, 1712 — 13, the 
son of Mr. John Denison a merchant ©f Ipswich. There 
are many of his name on the college catalogue, among 
whom is John, 1710. 

Mr. Angier was a minister of the east parish in Bridge- 
water, father of the second minister of the same, and of 

* These lived within its limits in earl)' annals, John Winslow, Edward Gray, 
gent. Edward Doten, Francis Comhe, Kobert Lee, gent. George Clarke, John 
Shaw, Francis Billington, William Crow, John Derby, Thomas Prence, gent- 
John Cobb. 

f At the commencement, July 6, 1698, he says, he disputed on this question 
"An cometa sunt meteora" affirmative, Hubbard the negative, Mather, modera- 
tor. 1701, July 2. Second degree ; he held the negative on this, " An detur in 
non renatis liberum arbitrium ad bonum spirituale." 


Oakes Angier, Esq. an eminent lawyer, who was an 
elected member q>f the old colony club. 

Mr. Sparhawk* abode in Plymouth many years with 
his family, and where, after keeping the school several 
years, he was in practice as an attorney in the courts. 
He went on the expedition to Annapolis, whence he re* 
turned, " with the sick and wounded," and died, 1748. 
A grave stone (now broken) denotes two of his children, 
who died young. Of his place of birth tradition is ob- 
scure. It is remarked by old people that he came from 
the eastward ; doubtless from Portsmouth, N. H. 

Mr. Eelles, a son of a minister of Scituate, settled in 
that profession, it is said, at Middletown, Connecticut. 

Mr. Bridge was from Boston, and became a minister 
of Chelmsford. Aged people, who were his scholars, 
speak of him with much affection and respect. 

Mr. Whitmarsh, "who had been a preacher and 
schoolmaster many years," says Mr. Cotton, " came to 
Plymouth at an /.100 per annum, to preach and to keep 
school, to assist the Rev. Mr. Leonard, whose health be- 
gan to decline, 1738." He was from Weymouth, where, 
after leaving Plymouth, he kept a well known tavern 
many years, the sign of the three hearts. He was a good 

Mr. Ward was, it is said, from Littleton. He return- 
ed there. A good classical scholar, he was thought to 
pay too much attention to the latin pupils ; hence he was 
retained in a private school to prepare some young men 
for college. 

Mr. Gardner, eldest son of the second minister of Stow, 
settled, it is said, as a physician, in the vicinage of Dor- 

Ward Browne, B. A. son of a minister of Haverhill, 
then deceased, died at Plymouth, Sept. 1749, of a fever; 
" a desirable and hopeful young man, much lamented by 
all. His mother, and his brother John Browne, a minister 
of Cohasset, attended his interment. The latter preached 
the following Sabbath." 

* Mr. S. agreeably to a province law, was approved by three ministers, Jan. 
1724-5, who were Rev. Benj. Allen, Bridgcwater, Nathaniel Leonard, Plymouth, 
and Joseph Stacey, Kingston. 


Mr. Foster was a son of deacon Thomas Foster, who, 
as well as his father, deacon John Foster,* frequently- 
represented Plymouth in the General Court. The 
schoolmaster died, 1777, aged 74. A gentleman of the 
same name, late of Charlestown, (S. C.) an officer in one 
of the banks of that city, was his son. 

Mr. M.stushing, born at Hingham, went from Ply- 
mouth to Charlestown, (Mass.) and from thence to New 
York where, it is said, he died. He fitted some young 
men of Plymouth for the university while at Charles- 

Mr*. C. Cushing within a few years died at Boston, 
clerk of the supreme judicial court. 

Mr. Stockbridge, who was of Hanover, died young. 

Dr. Lothrop, at Plymouth, of all the persons, now 
passing in review before us, only survives. 

Dr. Forbes, born at Bridge water, was a minister of 
Raynham, and a professor of Brown University. 

Mr. Barrows, of strong passions, alienated the respect 
of the scholars, which led to his removal. His latter 
days were passed in the vicinage of Dighton. It is 
probable he was of Attleborough. 

Alexander Scammel, born, as has been stated, in that 
part of Mendon, now Milford, in the county of Worces- 
ter, graduated at Harvard College, 1769, and kept school 
first at Kingston. He repaired in the year 1771 to Ports- 
mouth, N. H. where, under the auspices of a cousin of 
his name in the government employ, he entered upon 
the business of surveying and exploring lands, and of the 
royal navy timber, about 1772. In an interval of sus- 
pended occupation he kept school six weeks at Ber- 
wick ; and at one period entered on the study of 
law with Mr. John Suliivan,f whom he stiles, " an ex- 
cellent instructer and worthy patron." 

• Deacon John Foster died, 1741, aged 76. It is said he was a very indepen- 
dent member of the General Court, always declining executive favours. He held 
however many town offices, and was eounty treasurer. The " instructions" given 
by the town to his son Thomas, in 1765, appeared, Ave believe, in the Annual Reg- 
ister. He inclined to tire loyal side in politicks, and was a respectable and useful 
man in the municipal and civil concerns of the time. Branches of this family are 
in Middleborough, Kingston, Norfolk, (Vir.) &c. A John Foster appears in 
Marshfield, 1689, probably the person first named, who removed to Plymouth, 
t The late Gea. Sullivan. 



It appears that he was " to take the heads of the rivers, 
and Capt. Holland the mouths, to be inserted in his maps 
of America." It remains therefore to his scholars,, now 
become men, and whose affections he commanded, to re- 
ceive renewed instruction from their preceptor, while 
they may be tracing up the course of rivers on our maps. 
In August, 1772, he appears to be serving^ on board 
the sloop Lord Chatham, bound from Piscataqua River 
to Boston, to send dispatches, plans and reports, &c. to 
the lords of the treasury." This vessel mounted swiv- 
els, and carried small arms, and her place of rendezvous 
was Falmouth, now Portland. 

Thus we trace Mr. S. from the seat of the muses aad 
the village school, to the surveyorship of the then royal 
forests of New Hampshire and Maine ; and shortly after- 
ward, in the changeful course of events, rising rapidly in 
the military career, until we find him the confidential 
friend of Washington, whose early years, like his, were 
passed in the manly and useful profession of a surveyor, 
an employment, which, while it inures the constitution to 
fatigue, also aids the acquirement of what in military lan- 
guage is called "coup (Pozil" One of the most remark- 
able traits in the character of Gen, Washington was, it is 
said, his intuitive knowledge of men. Doubly honoura- 
ble indeed, then it is, to have received his confidence ! 

Col. Scammel, adjutant general of the American ar- 
mies, and field officer of the day, was wounded in a recon- 
noitre at the successful siege of York Town, September 
30, 1781, of which wound he died in the city of Wil- 
liamsburg, Virginia, October,* where is a monumental 

" Which conqu'ring armies, from their toils return'd, 
w Rear'd to his glory, while his fate they mourird." 


Ply mouthy October ', 1815. 

* 1777. Col. Scammel, then of the third regiment of New Hampshire, was 
wounded in the haltle of Saratoga. In 1780, the levy of the state was reduced to 
two regiments, when he commanded the first ; he was also hrigade major, 1775, of 
that state. 






















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14 vox,, iv. 

98 russian voyage op discovery. 

Russian Voyage of Discovery, 

(Translated from the "Journal des debats" of Sept. 8, 1815, for the 
Historical Society.) 

I HEY write from Cronstadt, August 5, 1815, as fol- 
lows — 

July 31, at 4 P. M. the ship Rurik, destined to make 
discoveries, came to sail. This vessel has been con- 
structed and equipped, at the expense of the Chancellor 
of the empire, Count Nicolas Petrowitsch Roman zow, 
with the sole end of contributing to extend the sphere 
of the sciences. This object of general utility has de- 
termined the government to permit him to bear the 
Russian military flag. This ship is commanded by 
Lieut. Kotzebue, son of the celebrated writer of that 
name, who has already made the tour of the world, with 
Capt. De Krusenstern, on the Nadeshda. 

There is, on board of the Rurik, two other lieutenants 
of the ship, Schichmarew and Saeharun, of whom the 
first, although older in the service than M. de Kotzebue, 
has willingly consented to serve under his orders. Re- 
side Dr. Ezchobz, of the University of Dorpat, Mr. 
Chamisso, a celebrated naturalist, of Berlin, is of the 
voyage ; also, the Danish naturalist, Wormskild, and 
the Russian painter, Choris. 

The Rurik will, it is said, double Cape Horn in the 
course of December, and employ the year 1816, and the 
beginning of 1817, to visit, in the South Sea, the places 
which have not hitherto been sufficiently examined. 

During the summer of 1817, it will coast the interior 
of America, even to Behring's Straits ; and it will re- 
turn by that of Torres, to the Cape of Good Hope, in 
a manner that it will, probably, return to Cronstradt in 
the month of August, 1817. Still it is left to the dispo- 
sition of M, Kotzebue to prolong his voyage yet a year 
beyond this term, if he should judge it necessary, the 
better to fulfil the end of the expedition ; which has been 
entirely conceived, and will be directed, after the plan 
given by M. Krusenstern. 

Paper money. 99 

We may promise, therefore, that it will do honour to 
cur country, and to M. Count Romanzow, who has al- 
ready given many proofs of his zeal for the publick 
good, and the progress of the sciences and the arts. 

Note. An extract from Lloyd's Lists to January 23, 
1816, republished in the Centinel shipping list, Boston, 
Mass. March 6, 1816. 

" Russian ship Rurik, Kotzebue, bound on a voyage 
of discovery, was spoken, Nov. 23, 1815, lat. 6 N. Ion. 
22 W " 

Paper Money. 

(An extract from the Diary of a gentleman who died in 1756, and 
who was in civil office, and a member of the general court of Massa- 
chusetts, many years.*) 

oOME time about the year 1703, upon the occasion 
of the Indian War, came forth " Province Bills," which 
we call Paper Money, which at first were of good credit, 
and have then, and since, done considerable service in 
the expeditions, paying off the soldiers, and other pub- 
lick charges, in building a College, Castle, Forts, &c. 
But they have also done considerable damage, in that, by 
reason thereof, all the stirring silver coin has been sent 
out of the country ; and by its being undervalued, many 
quarrels and law suits have been occasioned. Men that 
have salaries, and set fees, have been very much wrong- 
ed, and it has raised the price of almost every thing 
double ; and what will be the event of it GOD only 

A Baroue built at Plymouth, 1641. 

1 HE contributors for the building of a barque of 40 
or 50 tons, January 24, 1641 ; estimated at the charge 

* The late Judge Parsons, after reading this Diary, remarked on the wri- 
ter, "that he v/as always correct, in religious, moral, and political opinions, in 
every thing." / 



Mr. William Paddy, 
Mr. William Hanbury, 

John Barnes, 
Mr. William Bradford, 
Mr. Johu Jenny, 
Mr. John Atwood, 

Samuel Hicks, 

George Bower, 
John Cook, 
Samuel Jenny, 
Thomas Willet, 
fg Mr. Stephen Hopkins, 
Edward Bangs, 

X Mr. 





Those appointed to undertake the procuring her to be built are } 

Mr. Thomas Prence, 
Mr. William Paddy, 
Mr. Thomas Willet, 
' » John Barnes. 

The preceding article is extracted from the records 
of Plymouth Colony, and relates, doubtless, to the 
first vessel of size, or, indeed, of any kind, ever con- 
structed in Plymouth. This was an undertaking, at that 
period of exigency and privation, surpassing the equip- 
ment of a Canton or North West ship, with our means, 
at the present day. The name of the vessel is not re- 

Memoir of Joshua Scottow. 

OF the list of authors, who have been citizens of Bos- 
ton, collected by one of our most diligent antiquaries, 
and published in the third volume of the first series of 
our collections, Scottow is the earliest that is unmen- 
tioned in the New England Biographical Dictionary. 
The omission must have arisen from the difficulty of 
obtaining materials for such a notice, as that biographer 
would choose to give ; for though his selection of names 
is made with much propriety, some of them would by 
himself have been postponed to that of the subject of 
this memoir. How correctly he could determine, on the 
real value of our oldest literary productions, though ever 
so much over- rated by other judges, were it necessary 
in any case to vindicate the sentences of Dr. Eliot, might 
be seen in his sketch of Denison. 

The first mention of Joshua Scottow, traced by my 
inquiries, is in the records of the Old Church, in the 
tenth page of which it is noted, that " Thomas Scottowe 


and Joshua Scottowe, the sonnes of our sister Thomasine 
Scottowe," were admitted members on the 19th of the 
third month, 1639. Two years before, his brother had 
leave, from the authority of the town, to build an house 
on his mother's ground, which is recorded in the Se- 
lectmen's books, Vol. i. From the same book it ap- 
pears, a great lot, at Muddy River, was granted to Thom- 
as, in 1638, for three heads ; which, being not yet laid 
out, was enlarged, the next year, to be a lot for five 
heads. In that year, a great lot for three heads was 
granted to Joshua. He was probably the younger son, 
and brought from England by his mother, a widow, ad- 
mitted of the same church, SU September, 1634. He 
was well entitled, therefore, sixty years after, to call him- 
self an Old Planter. 

He was married, probably, in 1640, as the first men- 
tion of the birth of one of his children is SO September, 
in the following year. Seven are noted in the Records, 
of whom four are named in his will, made 23 June, 
1696. By it he gave all his estate to his wife for her 
lite ; and after, to be divided, a double portion to that of 
any other child to his son Thomas, and the residue 
equally betwixt his daughters Elizabeth Savage, Rebec- 
ca Black man, and Mary Checkley, providing that, if 
Thomas died without heirs, his portion should go to 
Elizabeth. Scottow died, I suppose, in February, 169 J 
— 8, for his will was proved 3 March of that year, by 
Major Thomas Savage and Captain Samuel Checkley, 
his executors, whose wives were the children of the tes- 
tator. Checkley's son and grandson were Boston min- 
isters. The daughters of Scottow were all older than 
the son, who was ±>orn 30 June, 1659, and was gradua- 
ted at Harvard College, 1677. He is the only person of 
the family name in the catalogue ; and however nume- 
rous and respectable the descendants by the female line 
have been, the patronymick is perhaps extinct. 

He was a merchant of much respectability, and his 
name frequently occurs in the affairs of the town. I 
have not been able to discover how he was concerned in 
the case mentioned by Hutchinson, sub anno 1665, when 


the royal commissioners, Col. Nichols and others, sum- 
moned the Governour and Company of Massachusetts, 
and Joshua Scottow, merchant, to answer the complaint 
of Thomas Deane and others, for injustice done them, 
when the Charles of Oleron came into Boston. Per- 
haps he was owner of the cargo, or consignee of the ship. 
The question was on the laws of trade, which, it is prob- 
able, had been violated. In a few days after, having 
first published by sound of trumpet, in three publick 
places, a declaration of opposition to the authority, the 
Court summoned Deane to appear and make good his 
complaints. In that summons, of which, with all the 
other acts of the Court and Commissioners, an account, 
much more comprehensive than is any where printed, is 
now lying before me, the Court say " the Charles of 
Oleron came into, this port of Boston about the year 

The first publication of Scottow has a title, whose 
length is not less striking than its quaintness. " Old 
Men's Tears for their own Declensions, mixed with 
Fears of their and posterities further falling off from 
New England's Primitive Constitution. Published by 
some of Boston's old Planters and some other." It was 
printed 1691. It is, as might be supposed, a lamenta- 
tion for the state of the country. The writer imagined, 
that the prevalence of sin had called down the vengeance 
of heaven upon our land, which was shown in many in-r 
stances of punishment, as " strange diseases, not suited 
formerly to the pure and serene air of our climate, 
(whither strangers were wont to have recourse to recov- 
er their desired health.) Not only with the infectious 
small pox have we laboured under, but with burning 
and spotted fevers, shaking agues," &x. The Indian 
war, , and the ill success of the great expedition against 
Canada in the preceding year, were marks of divine dis- 
pleasure. "Hath he not himself fought against us, by 
the stars in their courses, and his anger smoked against 
our prayers ; raising snow and vapour, and his cold 
(which no man can abide) with the stormy wind fulfill- 
ing his word, to the impeding and disappointment of our 
naval military design, and disenabling our fleet," &c. 


The degeneracy of the times, which provoked such 
chastisement, is witnessed against in such language as 
this : " Our spot is not the spot of God's children ; the 
old puritan garb, and gravity of heart, and habit lost and 
ridiculed into strange and fantastick fashions and attire, 
naked backs and bare breasts, and forehead if not of the 
whorish woman, yet so like unto it as would require a 
more than ordinary spirit of discerning to distinguish ; 
the virgins dress and matrons veil, showing their power 
on their heads, because of the holy angels, turned into 
powdered foretops and top-gallants attire, not becoming 
the Christian, but the comedian assembly, not the church, 
but stage-play, where the devil sits regent in his domin- 
ion, as he once boasted out of the mouth of a demoni- 
ack, church-member, he there took possession of, and 
made this response to the church, supplicating her deliv- 
erance ; so as now we may and must say, New-England 
is not to be found in~New- England, nor Boston in Bos- 
ton ; it is become a lost town (as at first it was called;) 
we must now cry out, our leanness, our leanness, our 
apostacy, our apostacy, our atheism, spiritual idolatry, 
adultery, formality in worship, carnal and vain confi- 
dence in church privileges, forgetting of God our rock, 
and multitude of other abominations," &x. 

Happily we have since reformed, at least from such a 
stile, of which the pathos is not more remarkable than 
the wit. The founder of the college of the Jesuits he 
calls " igne-nate, hell- born Loyola, the Canadian tutelar 
saint." The name " A JESU1TE is truly in our En- 
glish, Depart ye from Jesus ;" and no tenderness could 
be expected from, him towards " the three-headed Cer- 
berus with the triple crown of the papal Pontifex maxi- 
mus." I have read in a page of Sterne his wonder, that 
this story had never been brought from the mythology 
of the heathen to prognosticate the tiara of the bishop of 

This book consists of only twenty six pages. What 
success attended it, it would be now vain to inquire. 
Another addition, in 1749, was printed for D, Gookin ; 
but it ornits the address to the reader of four pages, 

104 non-conformist's oath. 

which is the best part of the work. In 1694 was print- 
ed and published by Benjamin Harris, at the sign of the 
Bible over against the Blue- Anchor, " A Narrative of 
the Planting of the Massachusetts Colony, Anno 1628, 
With the Lord's signal presence the first thirty years. 
Also a caution from New England's Apostle, the great 
Cotton, how to escape the calamity, which might befal 
them or their posterity, and confirmed by the evangelist 
Norton with prognosticks from the famous Dr. Owen 
concerning the fate of these churches, and animadver- 
sions upon the anger of God in sending of evil angels 
among us. Published by Old Planters, the authors of 
the Old Men's Tears.'' It contains, besides the dedi- 
cation of two pages to Simon Broadstreet, Esq. late Gov- 
ernour of the Massachusetts Colony, seventy six pages. 
Most of what is valuable may be found in the notes to 
Judge Davis' Address, in the first volume of the present 
series of our collections. We could, for a few anecdotes 
even of trifling affairs, much more for the relation of im- 
portant facts, now irretrievably lost, gladly have missed 
the repetition of wailings for general depravity that had 
increased as the author grew older, only because a larger 
part of his fellow- citizens were younger. 

Non-Conformist's Oath. 

[From a manuscript volume of Thomas Danforth, Deputy Gover- 
nour of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, lately discovered, we 
have extracted the following verses, which show, in no small de- 
gree, the character of .the times. The transcriber has appended, 
"these be copies of some verses sent from England, 1666."] 

A NON Conformist doth declare, 

What he can and cannot swear. 
I fear an oath, before I dare swear, to ta"ke it, 
And well I may, for 'tis the oath of God ; 
I fear an oath, when I have sworn, to break it, 
And well I may, for vengeance hath a rod. 

non-conformist's oath. 105 

And yet I may and must swear, for 'tis due 

Both to my heavenly and my earthly King ; 

If I assent, it must be full and true ; 

And if I promise, I must do the thing. 

I am no Quaker, not at all to swear ; 

Nor Papist, to swear East and mean West ; 

But am a Protestant, and will declare 

What I cannot, and what I can protest. 

I never will endeavour alienation 

Of monarchy, nor of the Royal name, 

Which God hath chosen to command the nation % 

But will maintain his person, crown and fame. 

What he commands, if Conscience says not nay, 

(For Conscience hath a greater King than He) 

For Conscience' sake, not fear's, I will obey, 

And if not active, passive I will be. 

I'll pray that all his subjects may agree, 

And never more be crumbled into parts ; 

I will endeavour that his Majesty 

May not be King of Clubs, but King of Hearts. 

The Royal Oak I swear I will defend ; 

But for the Ivy, which doth hug it so, 

I swear it is a thief, and not a friend ; 

And upon steeples fittest is to grow. 

The Civil Government I will obey ; 

But for Church polity I swear I doubt it ; 

And if my Bible want Apocrypha, 

I hope my book may be complete without it. 

I dare not swear church government is right, 

As it should be ; but this I dare to swear, 

If you will put me to it, that Bishops might 

Do better and be better than they are. 

Nor will I swear, for all that they are worth, 
That Bishopricks shall stand and doomsday see ; 
Yet I will swear the Gospel holds it forth, 
That Christ with 's ministers till then will be. 

That Peter was a prelate they aver ; 

But I'll not swear, when all is said and done ; 

15 VOL. IV. 

106 non-conformist's oath. 

But dare to swear, and hope I shall not err, 
He preached a hundred sermons to their one. 

St. Peter was a fisher and caught men, 

And they have nets and in them catch men too ; 

But I'll not swear they are alike for them, 

He caught and saved, but they catch and undo* 

I dare not swear that States Ecclesiastick 

Do in their laws make just and gentle votes ; 

But I'll be sworn, that Burton, Prynne and Bast wick 

Were once ear witnesses of heavy notes. 

Arch Deacons, Deans, and Chapters, are brave men 
By Canon not by Scripture, and to this, 
If I be called, I'll swear, and swear again, 
That no such chapter in my Bible is. 

I'll not condemn those Presbyterians, who 
Refused Bishopricks, and might have had 'em : 
But Mrs. Calamy I'll swear doth do 
As well as if she were a legal madam. 

Paul had a cloak, and books, and parchments too, 
But that he wore a surplice I'll not swear, 
Nor that his parchments did his order shew, 
Or in his books there was a common prayer. 

I owe Assistance to the King by oath, 
» And if he please to put the prelates down, 
As who can tell what may be, I'll be loath 
To see Tom Becket's Miter push the Crown. 

And yet Church Government I do allow, 
And am contented Bishops be the men ; 
And yet I speak in earnest here I vow, 
Where we have one, I wish we might have ten. 

In fine the Civil Power I will obey, 
And seek the peace and welfare of my nation ; 
If this wont do, I know not what to say, 
But farewell London, farewell Corporation. 

urn englands jonas cast up at london. 107 

New-Englands Jonas cast up at London : 

Or, A Relation of the Proceedings of the Court at Boston in New- 
EngJand against divers honest and godly persons, for Petitioning 
for Government in the Common-wealth, according to the Lawes of 
England, and for admittance of themselves and children to the Sa- 
craments in their Churches ; and in case that should not be granted, 
for leave to have Ministers and Church government according to 
the best Reformation of England and Scotland. 

Together with a Confutation of some Reports of a fained Miracle 
upon the foresaid Petition, being thrown over-board at Sea ; As 
also a brief Answer to some passages in a late Book (entituled Hy- 
pocrisie unmasked) set out by Mr. Winslowe, concerning the Inde- 
pendent Churches holding communion with the Reformed Churches. 
By Major John Child. London, Printed for T. R. and E. M. 


Courteous Reader, 

1 HE occasion of Printing this following Relation, are 
the sufferings that not only my Brother Robert Child 
Doctor of Physick, with some Gentlemen and others 
have suffered in New^England in their persons and es- 
tates by Fines and imprisonments there, but here in 
England in their repute by false reports and fained Mir- 
acles invented and spread on purpose by some lately 
come from thence, and fomented by some others here to 
colour their unjust proceedings. 

First, they give out of my Brother and others, that 
they desire a Toleration of all Religions. 

Secondly, that they are troublesome persons, and 
against all government both in Church and Common- 

Thirdly, that some of them are come from thence to 
Petition the Parliament for that purpose. 

41y. that their Petition brought from thence to be pre- 
sented to the Parliam. (which they had named Jonas) in 
a Ship called the Supply, being in a storme neer Silly, 
out of horror of conscience, the Petition was torne and 
thrown over-board, and that then the storm immediatly 
ceased, and they miraculously saved. 

Now for satisfaction, I present to the Reader these 
following particulars. 


First, the Petition of the greater part of the Inhabi- 
tants of Hingham and the proceedings therein. 

Secondly, a Petition of Doctor Child and others deliv- 
ered to the generail Court at Boston with some passages 

Thirdly, the Capital Laws of the Massachusetts Bay, 
with the Free- mans Oath as they are printed there by 

Fourthly, a Relation of that story of Jonas verbatim, 
as it was delivered to me in writing by a Gentleman that 
was then a passenger in the Ship. 

The Petition of the greater part of the Inhabitants of 
Hingham , as it was taken out of the Records of the Court 
at Boston. 

To the Honoured, the Generail Court, consisting of the Magistrates 
and Deputies of the Country now assembled in Court at Boston : 
The humble Petition of the greater part of the Inhabitants of the 
Township of Hingham. 

WHEREAS there hath fallen out some agitations 
amongst us concerning the choice of our chief Military 
Officers, w r hich by Order of the Court we have power to 
choose (as we conceive) So it is that we did elect, and 
present to the Generail Court for their confirmation, Mr. 
Bozoune Allin for our Chieftain ; but the Court not hav- 
ing time to finish that busines at that time, some other 
things and overtures have happened since, whereby it 
hath so fallen out that some of us have been compelled 
to appeare before some of the Magistrates, and to give 
Bonds for appearance at a Quarter- Court which is to be 
holden after this Generail Court ; and some for not giv- 
ing Bond to answer there, are committed to prison, and 
remain there at present ; the matters of accusation (as 
we conceive) is for certain words spoken by some, con- 
cerning the liberty and power of the Generail Court, and 
our own liberty granted to us by the said Courts, and to 
the Country in generail ; and also it doth concern the 
Liberty of an English free-borne Member of that State, 
and further it hath occasioned such disturbance and 
schisme in our Church, and trouble to some of our Mem- 


bers for witnessing against a Delinquent : whereby the 
power of the Ordinances of Jesus Christ in his Church is 
slighted, and the free passage thereof stopped, to the en- 
dangering of the liberty of the Churches amongst us, if 
timely remedy be not by your Wisdoms provided. Now 
seeing the matters in hand doth concern the generall lib- 
erty of the whole Country, and the peace of the Church- 
es, and glory of God, as we are ready upon the hearing 
of the Court to make it appeare ; We humbly sue to 
this honoured Court to be pleased to grant us an honour- 
able and free hearing, and that we may have liberty to 
plead our common Liberties in this Court, together with 
the liberties of the Churches of Christ maintained. And 
we shall ever pray for your peace and prosperity long to 

For which Petition being fined 100./. and the Marshal 
sent to Hingham to levy the said Fine : Mr. Hubbard 
the Minister of that town being: one of them that was 
fined, the Marshal coming to his house to levy part there- 
of, produced this effect as followeth taken out of their 

The Relation. 

The 18. of the first Moneth, 1645. the Marshall going 
to gather 100./. in Fines of divers Inhabitants of Hing- 
ham, as they were set by the Generall Court, in the 3. 
or 4. moneth past ; came to Mr. Peter Hubbard, who 
desiring to see his Warrant, which the Marshall shewing 
him, upon a sight of it Mr. Hubbard said the Warrant 
was insufficient, being not sent out in his Majesties name, 
he being sworne to the Crown of England ; and said that 
they had sent into England unto his Friends the busines, 
and expected shortly an answer and advice from thence : 
And that our Government here was not more then a Cor- 
poration in England, and that we had not power to put 
men to death by vertue of the Patent, nor to do some 
other things we did ; and that for himself, he had neither 
horn nor hoofe of his own, nor any thing wherewith to 
buy his children cloaths, And he wished that the Magis- 
trates would take some course that the Ministers might 
be better provided for, and he wondered by what order 
or rule the Ministers were deprived of their Tythes : but 


if he must pay it, he would pay it in Books, but that he 
knew not for what they were fined, unlesse it were for 
Petitioning ; and if they were so waspish they might not 
be Petitioned, then he could not tell what to say, (about 
thirty or forty being present.) And further, that he had 
seriously considered what they had done, and he could 
not see any thing they had done amisse, for which they 
should be Fined. Increase Nowel, Secret. 

The Trial by the Court, 
The names of the Jury-men at the Quarter-Court, the 
2. of the 4. Moneth, 1646. 

Tho. Marshal Tho. Bartlet Charles Chedwick 

Tho. Boutle Edward Pason Richard Goode 

John Clough Edward Breckl Fra. Smith 

Edward Dykes John Button Edward Clapp. 

The Returne of this Jury. 

We do find, that Mr. Peter Hubbard of Hingham, being 
a Free-man of this Jurisdiction, and having taken the Oath 
of fidelity thereunto : seeming notwithstanding to be 
evil- affected to the Government here established ; In and 
upon the 18. day of the first Moneth last past, at Hing- 
ham aforesaid, in the presence of about thirty persons, 
did utter divers speeches which are upon record, tend- 
ing to sedition and contempt of the said Government, 
contrary to the law of God, and peace and welfare of the 

Upon which Return of the Jury, the Court fined him 
Twenty pounds, and bound him in Forty pounds to be 
of good behaviour and to appeare at next Quarter-Court ; 
and Mr. Peck bound himself in twenty pounds, for the 
good behaviour and appearance of Mr. Peter Hubbard 
at the next Quarter* Court. 

Increase Nowel, Secret. 

The Court at this Triall was kept by these persons — 
Mr. Winthrop Governour, Mr. Dudley Deputy Gover- 
nour, Mr. Pelham, Mr. Flint, Mr. Hibbins, Mr. Nowel, 
Mr. Bellingham, Mr. Broadstreet. Only Mr. Belling- 
ham and Mr. Broadstreet required their Dissent to be 


{Here follows the celebrated petition, mentioned in Hutchinson's 
History of Massachusetts, Chap i. sub temp. 1646. It is printed 
with his Collection of papers, p. 188. It was presented to the Gen- 
eral Court, 1 9 May. What consequences followed may be seen in 
other books, but the story of the minority may be amusing.] 

A Relation of the effects this Petition produced. 

Though this Petition of Dr. Child was in a peaceable 
way presented, only by two of the Subscribers ; yet it 
produced these effects, and thus it wrought — 

First, the Elders (not all, some few being silent) in 
their Congregations publikely using severall Expressions, 
but to one and the self-same end ; as, That it was a se- 
ditious Petition full of malignancie, subvertive both to 
Church and Commonwealth in their foundations ; Some 
calling these that so Petitioned, or comparing them Jxy 
Sons of Belial, Judasses, Sons of Corah with sundry 
appellations of that nature, with some such applications, 
which seemed not to arise from a Gospel spirit ; usually 
ekeing out their Sermons in large and defamatory decla- 
mations both against their Persons and Petition, yea 
sometimes a whole Sermon, and that not very short nei- 
ther, being spent in enlarged sentences to denote the de- 
structivenesse thereof to Church and Commonwealth ; 
yea publikely exhorting Authority to lay hold upon those 
Petitioners, which the same night they did. 

Nor were the Magistrates in the mean season altogeth- 
er silent,"tmt spake in the same key ; yea, One publikely 
in open Court gave charge to the jury to take notice of 
such a Petition, and of such as were that way affected, 
for they were both Presentable and punishable by their 
Law ; for he said it was a wicked Petition, full of malig- 
nancie, subverting the very foundations both of Church 
and Commonwealth, or words to that effect ; And how 
far it reached, he knew not, pointing (as was apprehend- 
ed) at a Capital Law there made, here reprinted. 

Now at the next sitting of the General Court, six of 
the seven that Petitioned, were sent for by the Marshall 
to come to the Court, where they were charged ore tenus, 
with great offences contained in their Petition and Re- 
monstrance, against the Court and Government ; and 
that such of them as were bound out of the Jurisdiction, 


should enter into Bond with security, to stand and abide 
the Judgement of the Court, and the rest were confined, 
and charged to attend the Court to the same end. The 
Petitioners desired to have their Charge in writing, which 
was then denied ; and some added, That was but a trick 
of them that they might carry it and shew it in England : 
They replied, If the offences were contained in the Peti- 
tion, they then must needs be such as concerned Gov- 
ernment ; and that the Parliament, now sitting in Eng- 
land, were competent Judges, and could best discern 
such errors ; and therefore they did appeal to that High 
Court, and did tender sufficient Securitie therefore. For 
which two of them were presently committed, and forced 
thereby to give Bond to stand to the Order of that Court 
therein. And the Cause afterwards came to Hearing, 
notwithstanding they did appeal to the high Court of 
Parliament, and would have given Security; they were 
Fined, as appears by this their Censure. And since, two 
of them, Dr. Child and another, had their Trunks and 
Studies broke up, and their Papers taken away, and im- 
prisoned close prisoners, and are in danger of their lives 
by reason of that Capitall Law here recited. 

By the Court: in the Ye ares, 1641. 1642, 

Capital Lawes, established within the Jurisdiction of 

IF any man, after legall conviction, shall have or wor- 
ship any other god, but the Lord God, he shall be put to 
death. Deut. 13. 6, &c. and 17. 2, &c. Exod. 22. 20. 

2. If any man or woman be a Witch, (that is) hath, 
or consulteth with a Familiar spirit, they shall be put to 
death. Exod. 22. 18. Lev. 20.27. Deut. 18. 10, 11. 

3. If any person shall blaspheme the Name of God 
the Father, Son, or Holy Ghost, with direct, expresse, 
presumptuous, or high-handed blasphemy, or shall curse 
God in the like manner, he shall be put to death* Lev. 
24. 15, 16. 

4. If any person shall commit any wilfull murther, 
which is Man-slaughter, committed upon premeditate 


malice, hatred or cruelty, not in a mans necessary and just 
defence, nor by meer casualty against his will, he shall be 
put to death. Exod. 21. 12, 13, 14. Num. 35. 30, 31. 

5. If any person slayeth another suddenly in his an- 
ger, or cruelty of passion, he shall be put to death. Num. 
35.20, 21. Lev. 24. 17. 

6. If any person shall slay another through guile, 
either by poysonings, or other devilish practice, he shall 
be put to death. Exod. 21. 14. 

7. If a man or %voman shall lie with any beast or bruit 
creature, by carnall copulation, they shall surely be put 
to death, and the beast shall be slain and buried. Lev. 
20. 15, 16. 

8. If a man lieth with mankinee, as he lieth with a 
woman, both of them have committed abomination, they 
both shall surely be put to death. Lev. 20. 13. 

9. If any person committeth adultery with a married 
or espoused wife, the Adulterer and Adulteresse shall 
surely be put to death. Lev. 20. 10. & 18. 20. Deut. 
22. 23, 24. 

10. If any man shall unlawfully have carnall copula- 
tion with any woman child under ten years old, either 
v/ith or without her consent, he shall be put to death. 

11. If any man shall forcibly and without consent 
ravish any maid, or woman that is lawfully married or 
contracted, he shall be put to death. Deut. 22. 25, &c. 

12. irany inan shali ravish any maid or single wom- 
an, (committing carnall copulation with her by force, 
against her will) that is above the age of ten years ; he 
shall be either punished with death ? or with some other 
grievous punishment, according to circumstances, at the 
discretion of the Judges : and this Law to continue till 
the Court take further order. 

13. If any man stealeth a man, or man-kinde, he 
shall surely be put to death. Exod. 21. 16. 

14. If any man rise up by false witnesse, wittingly, and 
of purpose to take away any mans life, he shall be put to 
death. Deut. 19. 16, 18, 19. 

15. If any man shall conspire or attempt any inva- 
sion, insurrection, or publike rebellion against oujr Com- 

16 VOL. IV. 


mon-wealth, or shall endeavour to surprise any Town or 
Towns, Fort or Forts therein ^ or shall treacherously or 
perfidiously attempt the alteration and subversion of our 
frame of Polity or Government fundamentally, he shall 
be put to death. Num. 16. 2 Sam. 3. & 18. & 20. 

Per exemplar. Incre. Now el, Secret. 

The Oath of a Free-man. 

I (A, B.) being by Gods providence, ah Inhabitant, 
and Freeman, within the Jurisdiction of this Common- 
wealth ; do freely acknowledge my self to be subject to 
the Government, thereof : And therefore do here swear 
by the great and dreadful Name of the Ever-living God, 
that I will be true and faithfull to the same, and will ac- 
cordingly yield assistance & support thereunto, with my 
person and estate, as in equity I am bound ; and will also 
truly endeavour to maintain and preserve all the liberties 
and priviledges thereof, submitting myself to the whole- 
some Lawes & Orders made and established by the same. 
And further, that I will not plot or practice any evill 
against it, or consent to any that shall so do ; but will 
timely discover and reveal the same to lawfull Authority 
now here established, for the speedy preventing thereof. 

Moreover, I doe solemnly bind my self in the sight of 
God, that when I shal be called to give my voyce touch- 
ing any such matter of this State, in which Free-men are 
to deal, I /Will give my vote and suffrage as I shall judge 
in mine own conscience may best conduce and tend to 
the publike weal of the body, without respect of persons, 
or favour of any man. So help me .God in the Lord Je- 
sus Christ. 

Concerning the throwing the Petition over-board as a 
Jonas > it was asfolloweth. 

When the first ship that came this Year 1646. from 
New- England, was almost ready to come from thence ; 
Mr. Cotton, in his Thursday-Lecture at Boston, preach- 
ed out of that Scripture, Cant. 2. 15. Take us the little 
Foxes, &c. In his Uses took occasion to say, That if 
any shall carry any Writings, Complaints against the 
people of GOD in that Country, it would be as Jonas in 


the ship, with many words to perswade from such com- 
plaints in England, saying that they should seek for rem- 
edy of those things that were amisse, in that place, 5c 
tell it not in Gath, nor publish it in Askelon. He also 
advised the Ship-Master, that if storms did arise, to 
search if they had not in any chest or Trunk any such 
Jonas aboard, which if you find (said he) I do not advise 
you to throw the Persons over-board, but the Writings ; 
or words to that effect. 

* in the winter- Whereupon, having great *storms, (as 
season aii passages could not be otherwise expected) some of 
ar°e^enYpe?tuous nd the Passengers remembring Mr. Cottons 
Sermon, it seems were much affected with 
what he had said ; and a woman amongst them came up 
from between the Decks about midnight, or after, in a 
distracted passionate manner, to Mr. William Vassal! 
who lay in the great Cabin, but for the present was in the 
Sterage. door- way looking abroad : she earnestly desired 
him, if there were any Jonas in the ship, that as Mr. Cot- 
ton had directed, it might be thrown over-board, with 
many broken expressions to that purpose, He asked 
her why she came to him ? and she said, because it was 
thought that he had some Writings against the people of 
God : but he answered her, He had nothing but a Peti- 
tion to the Parliament that they might enjoy the liberty 
of English subjects, and that could be no Jonas ; and 
that if the^est of New-Englands friends could shew him 
any evil in that, he would not prefer it. After this she 
went into the great Cabin to Mr. Tho. Fowle in like dis- 
tracted manner ; who told her he had nothing but the 
Copy of the Petition which himself and others had pre- 
sented to the Court at Boston ; and shewed, and read it 
to her, and then told her, That if she and others thought 
that to be the Cause of the storm, she and they might do 
what they would with it ; but he professed that he saw 
no evil in it, neither was his Conscience troubled with it. 
So she took it and carried it between Decks to them 
from whom she came, and they agreed to throw it over- 
board, and it was thrown over- board : but the storm did 
not leave us upon the throwing of this Paper over-board, 
as it is reported ; for they had many great storms after 


that ; much lesse was the great and wonderful! deliver-, 
ance which by Gods mercy he gave unto them from 
ship wrack and drowning at the Isles of Silly, upon the 
throwing of that Writing over-board ; for that was thrown 
over long before, at least 14 dayes. Also the errotir is 
the more in this, That the report is that it was the peti- 
tion to the Parliament that was thrown over-board ; and 
it was only a Copy of a Petition to their own Court at 
Boston, and the Petition to the Parliament was still in the 
ship, together with another Copy of that which was 
thrown over-board, and other Writings of that nature, 
some of which are printed in this book, and were as well 
saved as their lives and other goods, and are here in Lon- 
don to be seen and made use of in convenient time. 

Post -script. 
There is a book lately set forth by Mr. Edward Wins- 
low of New England, against Samuel Gorton, intituled 
[Hypocrisie unmasked] in which there is a deep and 
subtle Plot against the Lawes of England; and Liberties 
of English Subjects, and the Gentlemen that are now 
suffering in New-Enjgland. This man being a princi- 
pal! opposer of the Lawes of England, in New-England ; 
One who is usually in place of Government in New-Pli- 
mouth there. Now in N. England there are many sev- 
eral Governments distinct and independent one from and 
on the other, and none of them have, ever since they 
came into that Country, governed by the Lawes of Eng- 
land, but by an Arbitrary government of their own, nor 
indeed can they endure the Laws of Eng. This New 
Plimouth, where M. Winslow is a Magistrate, was the 
first Plantation in New- England ; and as the rest that 
came after them thither, followed them in their Church- 
ways, so they follow them in their Arbitrary government. 
And now he is come over hither, being sent as an Agent 
for the rest, that he may get strength from the Parliament 
here, to maintain what they have begun, & made so great 
a progresse in, They have made a Law, that it shall be 
death for any there to attempt the alteration and subver- 
sion of their Frame of Polity or Government, as it is ap- 
parent by those Lawes in Print set forth by themselves, 


the Copy whereof is in pag 15. of this Book set forth ; 
and also proceeded to the Fining and Imprisoning of 
some well affected English, whom they fear will com- 
plain of this their Arbitrary government, that so none 
may dare to seek for a remedy from the Parliament. We 
have cause heartily to pray, That (as Mr. Baily sets forth 
in his book of Disswasive from the Errors of the times) 
as from New-England came Independencie of Churches 
hither, which hath spread over all parts here ; that from 
thence also (in time) Arbitrary Government in the Com- 
monwealth may not come hither. 

Now if any man ask how 'tis evident there is such a 
Plot laid down in that Book ? I answer, (to be very 
briefe) I shall give the Reader this light into this designe. 
In his Epistle before the book which he dedicates to the 
Honourable Commissioners for Forraign Plantations, he 
makes five Requests to them, the fourth of which is, 
That they will take into consideration, how destructive 
it will be to their Plantations, and proceedings there, 
(which saith he are growing into a Nation) to answer to 
complaints here. See and observe (Reader) how he 
seeks to stop all Appeals from all their unjust Sentences, 
whatsoever they may be contrary to the Lawes of Eng- 
land. Secondly, he would make their Honours to be the 
Instruments to stop the Current of the greatest Liberty 
of English-subjects there ; he would engage the Parlia- 
ment in it ; and what a desperate businesse this would 
prove, every wise man may easily see ; For being begun 
at this Plantation, by the same rule others might seek it 
should extend to all other Plantations, and then why not 
to Ireland ? and why shall not example, custome, and 
fair pretences bring it into Wales and Cornwal, so over 
England ? And by the way (Reader) mark his great 
boasting that they are growing into a Nation ; high con- 
ceits of a Nation breeds high thoughts of themselves, 
which makes them usually term themselves a State, cal 
the people there Subjects, unite four Governments to- 
gether without any authority from the King and Parlia- 
ment, and then term themselves the United Colonies, are 
publikely prayed for by that title ; not giving forth their 
Warrants in "his Majesties name, no rot in time of his 


most peaceable government, neither taking the Oath of 
Allegiance before .they take upon them their Govern- 
ment nor ever giving it to any of his Majesties subjects, 
&c. Now (Reader) observe their policie, they take the 
advantage of promoting this designe, by beginning to 
write against Gorton, a man whom they know is notori- 
ous for heresie, that so behind him they may creep and 
get a shot at a better game, may beget a good opinion in 
the Hqnorable Commissioners by writing against such 
a eviii man ; as also that they may wash away the opin- 
ion that good men heretofore have had of them, that they 
are Separatists and Schismaticks, Mr. Winslow their 
Agent insinuates severall things of the good agreement 
Et communion that the Independents in New-England 
hold- with Presbyterians and the Reformed Churches, of 
which he had discoursed with some godly Presbyterians 
since his comming over into England, and saith he was 
earnestly requested by some of the Presbyterian party 
to publish to the world as much, pag. 97. and thereupon 
tells a long story of the Church of New-Plymouth be- 
longing to Mr. Robinson of Leyden, holding commu- 
nion with French and Dutch churches, yea tendring it 
to the Scots ; as also (pag. 93.) how the rest of the 
Churches in New-England do suffer Presbyterians, and 
have offered all liberty and priviledges to Presbyterians, 
p. 99. 100. But for answer, I say there is a great deal 
of fallacie in this discourse, and the contrary is too well 
known and daily practised among the Independents both 
there and here, not admitting the most godly men into 
communion among them, not to the acts wherein they 
hold communion stands properly ; keeping Communion 
with them in Word and Prayer, which they admit to 
their Indians too. And let them instance, if they can, 
among many hundreds, yea some thousands of Indepen- 
dents that have come from New-England and Holland, 
that have come to the Lords supper in our Churches, or 
done any act among us, in which they hold Church-corn- 
m union properly stands ? 2. Rather then Mr. Winslow 
will fail of his purpose, he will make the world believe 
that the Reformed Churches are as much Separatists as 
themselves are, by describing them with the same de- 


scription that the Separatists describe themselves, p. 96. 
That they are a People distinct from the World, and 
gathered into a holy Communion (he should have said 
Covenant, which is his sense) and not National churches, 
and that the sixth person is not of the Church (meaning 
amongst them) which falshood of his he boldly affirms, 
thinking that many will believe because he saith it, but 
the contrary is well known to those that know them ; for 
in Holland they refuse not to baptize any of their Coun- 
try-mens children who bring them to be baptized, else 
would their unbaptized be seen amongst them as well as 
they are to be seen in New- England ; besides tis well 
known the Church of Scotland holds themselves a Na- 
tional Church, and hath a National Assembly, and so the 
Church of Holland and France hold themselves National 
churches against the Independents. 3. As to the great 
love he Insinuates they of New* England bear to Presby- 
terian churches by the example of profering certain Scots 
a plantation amongst them, where they should share with 
them in their lands, and enjoy their liberty of Presbyte- 
rial government, p. 100. I answer, that passage is 
strange, and I can hardly believe it, that they who denied 
so many godly Ministers well known to them, Mr. Ball, 
Mr. Rathband, &c. English men, the liberty of enjoying 
Presbyteriall government, should grant it to strangers of 
the Scotish nation. Now that they denied them, is ap- 
parent ; besides Mr. Rathband and other Ministers testi- 
monies (now with God) and Mr. Ash of the Assembly 
and others testifying so much, themselves in Print, in 
the book intituled Church-government and Church cove- 
nant discussed, in ans. to the 31 quest, p. 83, 84. con- 
fesse it, and give reason of their denial. But if it be true 
there were any such promise to the Scots (which I much 
question) I am confident they had some design of their 
own in it, some worldly end or other ; as namely, That 
in those dangerous times, when it was likely that the 
times in England would soon be so bad that they could 
not be supplied of necessaries from England, they might 
then be supplied from Scotland with clothes, leather, & oth- 
er commodities ; which Plot a very dull States-man might 
easily have contrived. 4. As for that he says, that Mr. 


Noyce, Mr. Parker, and Mr. Hubard, have their liberties 
in New England, who yet are Presbyterian ; I answer, 
the Church of the two first was founded in the Church 
way of the Independent manner, which is not anew con- 
stituted, though they in their judgements are somewhat 
different, and still they hold many Independent principles, 
as may be seen by Mr. Noyse's Rook lately printed, 
though some Presbyterian principles. 5. For Mr, Hub- 
ard, dares Mr. Winslow says that Mr. Hubard was not 
punished neither directly nor indirectly, for baptizing 
some children whose parents were not members of their 
Churches, and that his sharp fines & disgracefull being 
bound to the good behaviour, had no influence from the 
baptism of those children ? 6. Can any man think that the 
despitefull passages vented in Pulpits against the Church 
of England there, by some of their chief Elders, calling 
England Egypt and Babylon, and saying, that out of their 
Church-waies we cannot go to Heaven, denying the 
Seales of the Covenant to some, because they would not 
confesse that there was no way of God lawfull to govern 
the Church by, but the Independent way ; and for no 
other cause as it is ready to be proved, when ever Mr. 
Winslow or any other Independents will desire a meet- 
ing, in London, before indifferent Judges ; and much 
more then I will here relate) is a sign of love to the Pres- 
byterian brethren, and of keeping communion with them. 
7. Concerning the offer that Mr. Winslow saith was 
made not long before he came away, by the Court, to 
certain discontented persons demanding liberty for Pres- 
byterial government, that it was freely & openly tendred 
to them ; this is strange news to us here, for we hear not 
one word of that offer from those Petitioners, although 
here are letters from some of them dated since Mr. Wins- 
lows comming from thence, that relates that Dr. Child & 
others of them remained still in prison, save that D. Child 
hath the liberty to be confined to M. Leders house upon 
security of 800./. bond being given for his abiding there. 
For a conclusion of this Postscript, I shall desire the 
Reader by all that hath been said, to observe how Inde- 
pendents are all of a peece, for subtihtie, designs, falla- 
cies, both in New-England and in Old. Finis. 

Sketch of Haverhill, mass, 121 

An Historical Sketch of Haverhill, in the 
County of Essex, and Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts ; with biographical notices. 

HAVERHILL in the county of Essex is situated on 
the northern side of the River Merrimack, eighteen 
miles from its mouth, by the course of the river, and at 
the head of its tide waters. It is about nine miles in 
length, and is three miles in breadth. It is bounded on 
the west by Methuen, on the north by Salem, Atkinson, 
and Plaistow in New Hampshire, on the east by Ames- 
bury and the river, and on the south by the river, which 
divides it from Bradford. 

The distance from Haverhill bridge to Boston is 
about twenty nine miles, to Salem twenty two miles, to 
Newburyport fourteen miles, to Ipswich fifteen miles, 
and to Portmouth thirty miles. 

The town contains about fifteen thousand acres. The 
isoil is, generally, a deep rich loam, and very productive. 
The wood is principally oak and walnut. There are 
some farms highly cultivated, and many extensive or- 

Little or West River empties itself into the Merri- 
mack about a quarter of a mile west of the bridge. 
This river has two branches, one of which originates in 
Great Pond in Haverhill, and the other in Kingston N. 
H. On the latter are several mills. 

Merrimack River is navigable to this town for vessels 
of one hundred tons. Navigation for larger vessels is 
prevented by Plain Point Shoals, a mile and an half, and 
Currier's Shoals, three miles below Haverhill Bridge. 
About two miles and an half above the bridge are Mit- 
chell's Falls or Rapids, beyond which the tide never 
rises. The flow of the tide at Haverhill is from five to 
eight feet, yet the water is never brackish. 

In the spring the river is abundantly supplied with 
bass, alewives and shad. Salmon are not as plenty as 
formerly, but this fishery is still of considerable impor- 
17 vol. IV. 


tance, and has not diminished for fifteen or twenty years 

Ponds. There are four considerable ponds in Haver* 
hill, viz. Creek Pond in the west parish, and Ayers' or 
Plug Pond, Belknap's or Round Pond, and Great Pond, 
within a mile of the bridge and half a mile of each other. 
The village is supplied with water by an aqueduct from 
Round Pond. This pond is principally filled by springs, 
and exhibits, through its transparent w T ater, a bottom of 
glittering sand. The surface of the pond is 150 feet 
above the water in the river, and it is very difficult to pro- 
cure logs, that will withstand the immense pressure of the 
water. Great Pond is one of the jmost beautiful ponds 
in New England. It covers about 210 acres, and is 
from 40 to 48 feet deep. Its shores exhibit various 
views of hills crowned with oak or pine trees, and of cul- 
tivated fields. White and red perch, and pickerel of 
the largest size, abound in the pond, and there is a small 
house on a beautiful point, in a locust grove, for the ac- 
commodation of parties who often resort here for amuse- 

Bridges. Haverhill may justly boast of its bridge. 
" Haverhill Bridge" is built upon three solid stone piers, 
which support three arches, each two hundred feet in 
length, and has a long stone abutment extending from 
the shore. It was built in 1794, rebuilt in 1810, and 
is now one of the best built and most substantial 
bridges in the United States. It was the opinion of ma- 
ny that no bridge could withstand the force of the ice in 
the spring, but the experiment has been successful, al- 
though the bridge has sometimes trembled. 

"Merrimack Bridge" is six miles below Haverhill 
Bridge, and connects the town with Newbury. R con- 
tains four arches, and is the longest bridge on the river, 
being about 900 feet in length. This bridge is so un- 
productive, that it has been suffered to fall into a ruinous 
condition. It is passed, but is not considered safe, and 
will probably not be rebuilt, and thus one obstruction to 
the navigation of the river will be removed. 

Situation, Ssfc. The situation of the village or town 
of Haverhill is delightful. The river bends in the form 


of a crescent, and gently flows before it, the land rises 
gradually from its shore, the eye is charmed with a view 
of the fine fields of Bradford and the river for several 
miles, and altogether forms one of the most beautiful 
spots for a settlement that can be conceived. The vil- 
lage is compact and built principally upon two streets, 
one running parallel with the river, and the other in a 
line with the bridge north. Four ranges of fire proof 
brick stores, one four, and the others three stories high, 
several handsome dwelling houses, two meeting houses, 
and the bridge, give the place a very pleasant appearance, 
and an air of importance as a populous and busy town. 

Haverhill is not so handsome a town as its local situa- 
tion deserves. But tke chief care of the first settlers was 
to shelter themselves from the severity of the climate, 
and provide for their defence against their savage enemy, 
and it is not strange that they did not consult the beauty 
of their settlements. The river or water street is too 
narrow and too near the bank. The number of ordinary 
buildings on the lower side of the street interrupts the 
view from the houses, and injures the appearance of the 
town from the opposite shore. A road parallel to the 
river might be laid out on the brow of the hill, which 
would open a range of beautiful house lots, overlooking 
the street below, and commanding a most extensive 
prospect. This has long been wanted, for building lots 
are now very searce. 

There are in the compact part of Haverhill about 250 

Trade i manufactures) &fc. Haverhill is a very flourish- 
ing trading town, containing about thirty stores well 
furnished with goods. Some single shops rent for $250 
per annum ; and a house lot fifty feet front and one hun- 
dred feet deep was sold in 1815 for $1000. A bank 
was established in 1814 with a capital of $100,000. 

Ship building is a very important branch of business 
here, and was before the revolutionary war. Ships of 
400 tons are safely launched at high tide. In 1810 nine 
vessels were built amounting to 1800 tons, and fifty or 
sixty men were constantly employed in the shipyards* 


This business was interrupted by the restrictive mea- 
sures of the government, but is again reviving with 
the revival of commerce. There are large quantities of 
fine ship timber of pasture oak in the vicinity, the average 
price of which for several years has been four dollars 
per ton. 

There are here two cotton and wool factories and 
a card factory. 

Large quantities of shoes and hats are made here and 
exported to the southern states. The manufacture of 
horn combs and leather gloves is also carried on ex- 

About thirty men were constantly employed in the 
manufacture of plated ware for saddles, harnesses, &c. 
before the tax upon that article. 

The manufacture of leather is also carried on to a con- 
siderable extent. 

Considerable quantities of beef are annually put up 
here, and/ this business might be extended to great 
advantage, as immense numbers of cattle are driven 
through the town for a market. 

A rum distillery was established in 1738, and thirty 
years ago there were three distilleries, which have all 
been discontinued several years. We add with regret 
that in some productive seasons several thousand barrels 
of cider have been distilled. 

A duck manufactory was set up in 1791, but did not 

Although Haverhill is a place of considerable business, 
its importance is not in proportion to its natural advan- 
tages. It is a good market for an extensive back country 
in New Hampshire and Vermont, as country produce 
commands nearly as high a price here as in the seaport 
towns, and foreign articles are as low. And if the farmer 
is not satisfied with the market here, he is but a short 
distance from Newburyport, Salem or Boston. 

The towns upon the Merrimack have hitherto derived 
but little advantage from the river, in consequence of the 
obstructions to navigation above Haverhill. . These have 
so far been removed by locks and canals, that the river is, 


now passable for boats from Concord, N. H. to the en- 
trance of Middlesex Canal, and works above Concord 
are contemplated principally with a view to turn the trade 
of the country above Patucket Falls to Boston. The at- 
tention of the citizens of Newbury port and Haverhill has 
recently been called to a subject most important to them, 
the removal of the obstructions to boat navigation be- 
tween Haverhill and Patucket Falls, which are principally 
the rapids a little above Haverhill. It now depends on the 
enterprize of Newburyport and the towns above, wheth- 
er a great trade shall be diverted from its natural chan- 
nels, and all the advantages of this fine river be enjoyed 
by artificial means by a town thirty miles from its wa- 
ters. We hope soon to see the Merrimack, which flows 
through 150 miles of rich and fertile country, bearing on 
its bosom the products of its banks to its own flourish- 
ing towns. The obstructions are by no means formida- 
ble, when compared with the importance of the object. 

Schools, The first notice of a school on record, is in 
March, 1661, when it was voted that"/. 10 should be 
rated for a school master, and he to receive pay from the 
scholars as he and the parents can agree." In March, 
1671, it was voted " to establish a school and build a 
school house near the meeting house, that shall also serve 
as a watch house, and to entertain people on the Sabbath, 
that shall desire to repair thither, and not go home be- 
tween the forenoon and afternoon exercises." 

This town has never been remarkable for its liberal 
support of schools. In 17Q4 " Maj. Richard Saltonstall 
was chosen to attend at Ipswich Court, to answer to a 
presentment against the town, for not keeping a school 
master." No other provision has ever been made for 
schools than is required by law. Those parents, who are 
desirous of giving their children a better than a common 
school education, send them to one of the numerous 
academies in the vicinity, there being one in Bradford, 
about half a mile from Haverhill Bridge, one in Atkin- 
son, and two in Andovcr. 

Library, The " Haverhill (social) Library" contains 
about 700 volumes of well chosen books, and it annual- 
ly increases by a small tax on the shares. 


Newspapers* The first newspaper was printed here 
in 1793, by Messrs. Ladd and Bragg. The Merrimack 
Intelligencer, a weekly paper of federal politics, is printed 
in Haverhill, 

The Fire Club was instituted in 1768. It is also an 
association for the protection of each other's property 
from .-theft. The plan deserves some notice. The arti- 
cles provide that half the members shall draw tickets at 
the quarterly meetings, upon which shall be inscribed 
the different roads to be pursued in case of theft ; that 
those who draw tickets, upon the first information of 
theft upon the property of any member, shall repair to 
the place where the theft was committed, or to his usual 
place of abode, and pursue the roads they have drawn, 
unless the committee of advice shall prescribe different 
routes, and it is their duty to use the utmost exertion to 
apprehend the thieves and recover the stolen property. 
All extra expenses are paid by the club. 

Settlement. The precise time of the settlement of 
Haverhill is not known. Gov. Winthrop in his journal 
(p. 276) says, " Mo. 3, 1643. About this time two 
plantations began to be settled upon Merrimack River, 
Pentuckett, called Haverhill, and C called An- 

dover," But the settlement was begun in 1640, or 1641. 
The Indian deed of the town [see Appendix, No. n.] is 
dated Nov. 15, 1642, and conveys the township to the 
inhabitants of Pentuckett. Dr. Mather* says, Mr. 
Ward settled at Haverhill- as the minister in 1641, and 
there is a record of a birth at Haverhill in that year, co- 
pied from a former book of records. It was called Ha- 
verhill in compliment to Mr. Ward, who was born in 
Haverhill, in Essex county, in England. 

The celebrated Giles Firmin contemplated settling 
here with Mr. Ward, in 1639.f 

*—Magnalia, book 3, 167. 

f In a letter to Gov. Winthrop, dated at Ipswich, 10th mo. 29, 1639, (Hutch. 
Hist. Coll. 128) he says, " my father in law Ward, since his son came over, is very 
desirous that we might sett down together, and so that he might leave us together 
if God should remove him from hence. Because that can't be accomplished in 
this town, is very desirous to get me to remove with him to a new plantation. 
We think it will be at Pentuckett or Quichichchieh." Firmin had been prepar- 


The town at first extended six miles north of the 
Merimack, and was fourteen miles in length upon the 
river. It was interested in the long dispute about the 
boundaries between the Provinces of Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire, which was at length settled by com- 
missioners, in 1737.* Col. Richard Saltonstall, Richard 
Hazzen, and dea. James Ayer represented the town before 
these commissioners. 

Part of the towns of Methuen, Salem, Atkinson, and 
the town of Plaistow have been taken from Haverhill. 

Haverhill first belonged to the county of Essex. In 
1643, when the colony was divided into four counties, 
this town, Salisbury, Hampton, Exeter, Dover and 
Strawberry-Bank, (Portsmouth) formed the county of 
Norfolk, and so remained untill 1679, when, by order of 
the king, Massachusetts recalled all commissions granted 
for governing that part of New Hampshire Province 
three miles north of Merrimack River ', in consequence of 
which the General Court, February 4, 1679 — 80, order- 
ed " Haverhill, Amesbury (part of Salisbury) and Salis- 
bury to be again joined to Essex. f 

Indian Wars. Haverhill was a frontier town more 
than half a century, and was often troubled by the In- 
dians. Many votes in the early records show the dan- 
ger apprehended from the savage enemy. February 19, 
1675, it was voted " to complete the fortification about 
the meeting house against the common enemy, to make 
port holes in the wall, and a flanker at the east corner, 
that the work in case of need, may be of use against the 
. enemy, for the safety of lives and what else may be 
brought in." 

April, 1690. They petitioned the government " for 
40 men at least" for their garrisons. 

December 11, 1710. It was voted "to defray the 
expense of fortifying the parsonage house." 

ing for the practice of pliysiuk, and he says " I am strongly sett upon to study 
divinitie, my studies else must be iost, for physicke is but a mean help." Me 
changed his studies and went to England, where he became a celebrated noncon- 
formist minister. Few books have b«.en oftener printed or more read than his 
"jReaf Christian." 

* Hutch Hist. Vol. 2, 342. t Hutch, i. 359. 


Few settlements suffered more from the Indians than 
Haverhill. It appears by the town records that scarcely 
a year passed between 1689 and 1708, in which some 
were not killed or " captivated." 

A family w T as destroyed here by the Indians in 1691.^ 

In 1695, Isaac Bradley, aged 15, and William Whita- 
ker, aged 11, were taken prisoners and carried to Wini- 
pisiogee Lake. Soon after they fled from the Indians in 
the night, and after encountering almost incredible dan- 
gers and hardships, arrived safe at Saco Fort. Their 
philosophy taught them to follow the course of the first 
stream they met. The incidents of their escape as relat- 
ed by a grandson of Mr. Bradlee, who often heard theni \ 
from his grandfather, would make a very interesting nar- 

In 1697, fourteen persons were killed, eight of them 

In February, 1698, the Indians surprized the town of 
Andover, and killed seven and took others prisoners, and 
" on their return made some spoil upon Haverhill. "f 
On the 15th of March succeeding, a party came upon 
the town, and burned nine houses and killed and took 
prisoners about forty persons. In this descent the fa. 
mous Hannah Duston was made prisoner, whose heroic 
exploit, though well known, deserves a place in the his* 
tory of Haverhill. 

Mrs. Duston was confined to her bed, attended by 
her nurse, Mary Niff, and seven children, besides an in- 
fant six days old. J As soon as the alarm was given, 
her husband sent away the seven children towards a gar- 
rison house, by which time the Indians were so near, 
that despairing of saving the others of his family, he has- 
tened after his children on horseback. A party came up 
with him and fired — he returned the fire and kept in the 
rear of his children until he brought them to a place of 
safety. The Indians took Mrs. D. from her bed and 

* Hutch, ii. 101. f Hutch, i. 112. 249. 

X Martha (Duston) born March 9, 169f, killed March 15, 169f. 
Haverhill Records. 


carried her away with the nurse and the infant, which 
they soon after dashed against a tree and killed. "When 
they had travelled about one hundred and fifty miles to- 
wards an Indian town two hundred and fifty miles from 
Haverhill, they told the women they must be stripped 
and run the gauntlet through the village on their arrival. 
The women had been assigned to a family consisting of 
twelve persons, besides an English boy who had been ta- 
ken prisoner from Worcester, and Mrs. Duston prevailed 
upon the nurse and the boy to assist her in their destruc- 
tion. A little before day finding the whole company in 
a sound sleep, she awoke her confederates, and with the 
Indian hatchets dispatched ten of the twelve, a woman 
whom they thought they had killed making her escape 
with a favourite boy whom they designedly left. Mrs. 
Duston and her companions arrived safe home with the 
scalps, notwithstanding their danger from the enemy and 
from famine in travelling so far through thick woods and 
across mountains and rivers, and received a reward of 
1.50 from the General Court, besides many other valua- 
ble presents.* 

Thomas Duston, a descendant from Mrs. Duston, 
owns the same farm, and his mother occupies the same 
house from which she was taken. 

February 4, 1704, Joseph Bradley's garrison was sur- 
prised and taken by a party of Indians, and Mrs. Bradley 
killed one of them with boiling soap. The sentinel was 
slain, and she with several others were taken prisoners. 
After a cruel bondage she was sold to the French, and 
was afterwards redeemed by her husband. This was 
her second captivity.f 

The 29th of August, 1708, is the most memorable 
day in the history of Haverhill. 

Jin the winter of 1707 — 8, an expedition was project- 
ed in Canada against some of the most important English 
settlements. A grand council was held at Montreal, 
in which it was agreed that the principal warriors of all 

* Hutch. Hist. ii. 101. Magnalia, Book ?ii. 90. 

f Penhallow's Indian wars, 10. 
$ Hatch, ii. 157. Penhallow's Indian wars, 47, 

18 vol. iv. 


the tribes in Canada, about 100 Canadians and many 
volunteers, several of them French officers, were to be 
employed, making in the whole a force of 400 men. 
They all began their march on the 16th of July by dif- 
ferent routes to excite the less alarm, and were to rendez- 
vous at Lake Nickisipigue, where they were to be joined 
by the Norridgewock, Penobscor, and other eastern In- 
dians. Fortunately for the principal settlements, the 
Mohawks and Hurons became discouraged before they 
reached the place of rendezvous and returned ; but un- 
fortunately for Haverhill, only 200 or 250 assembling, 
they did not think it prudent to attack Portsmouth, which 
is supposed to have been their first object, and this com- 
pact village was selected for their prey. They passed 
the garrisons undiscovered, and at break of day on the 
29th of August fell upon the Town. The Rev. Ben- 
jamin Rolfe, the minister, was killed, while bravely de- 
fending his house, and his wife and one child were also 
killed. Three soldiers wepe in his house at the time, 
and were slain, but their fate was merited, as they beg- 
ged for mercy in a cowardly manner, and Mr. Rolfe 
could not persuade them to assist him. Capt. Simon 
Wainwright, the captain of the town militia, and one of 
the most respectable citizens, Capt. Samuel Ayer, the 
first Selectman, and about forty more were also slain. 
Several houses were burned and several prisoners taken. 
Maj. Turner, Capt. Price, and Capt. Gardner, all of 
Salem, were in the town, but most of their men were in 
remote garrisons and unable to assist in its defence. 
They, however, collected together what force they could 
of their own soldiers and the inhabitants, and pursued 
the enemy, who were alarmed and had left the town pre- 
cipitately, came up with them about two miles from the 
town and attacked them, although their force was greatly 
superiour, and after a skirmish of about an hour the In- 
dians fled, leaving nine dead, and carrying off several 
wounded. Many of the prisoners, and most of the 
plunder, were recovered. Some of the prisoners they 
barbarously slew to prevent their escape. 


Hagar, Mr. Rolfe's maid servant, is quite as celebra- 
ted as Mrs. Duston. Upon the alarm, she ran with Mr. 
Rolfe's two daughters into the cellar and covered them 
with two tubs, where they were both preserved, although 
the cellar was searched and plundered. One was after- 
wards married to Col. Hatch of Dorchester, and the other 
to the Rev. Samuel Checkley, sen. of Boston, whose son, 
the Rev. Samuel Checkley, jun. was the father of Mrs. 
Lathrop, wife of the late Rev. Dr^Lathrop of Boston. 
They were both celebrated women. 

The door of the parsonage house, with the bullet holes 
through which it is said Mr. Rolfe was badly wounded, 
is nailed up in the porch of the meeting house in mem- 
ory of this dreadful day. 

The Indians were panic struck before they had done 
what mischief they might. They had set fire to the back 
part of the meeting house, a new and handsome building, 
and a Mr. Davis, an intrepid man, went behind the par- 
sonage house, struck upon it with a large club, and call- 
ed out with a loud voice, " come on, come on, we 
will have them," &c. The Indians in the parsonage 
house began the cry of " the English are come ; ? ' the 
panic spread, and they all fled precipitately. By the 
great exertion of Mr. Davis, principally, the meeting 
house was saved. Capt. John Davis of Methuen, who 
died in December, 1815, and who had been an officer in 
the French and revolutionary wars, was his grandson. 

The enemy making a hasty retreat, left this devoted 
town to the sorrowful office of burying their dead. 
Scarcely ever did an infant settlement suffer more at the 
merciless hands of savages, than did Haverhill by this 
descent, several important inhabitants being slain and 
many being carried into captivity. The weather was so 
warm, the interment of the dead was necessarily so hur- 
ried, that coffins for all could not be made, and a pit was 
dug and covered with boards, in which several were laid. 
The story of that fatal morning is yet fresh, and is often 
rehearsed by the descendants of the sufferers. 

The expedition was also disastrous to the enemy. 
Having lost a great part of their force by desertion and 
sickness, they were rendered unequal to their first design 


upon Portsmouth, and were afraid even of Dover. They 
left their packs and medicine box about three miles from 
Haverhill, where they were found and secured by a small 
party. They retreated precipitately from this little vil- 
lage, with the loss of thirty men killed; many more died 
in consequence of the loss of their packs and medicines, 
and the whole retreating force were exposed to famine. 
So severe were their sufferings from this cause, that sev- 
eral Frenchmen came back and surrendered themselves 
prisoners of war, and some captives were dismissed with 
a message, that if they were pursued by the English, the 
others should be put to death. Yet " the French report- 
ed when they got back, that they faced about, and that 
our people, being astonished, were all killed or taken 
expect ten or twelve who escaped." (Hutch.) 

Haverhill has not since been troubled by the Indians, 
although so late as August, 1722, the Selectmen were 
authorized " to build a good fort round Mr. Brown's 
house with what speed they could." It seems to us at 
this day incredible, that such a measure should have been 
necessary. The wilderness between Haverhill and Can- 
ada is now a cultivated and populous country ; and where 
are now those hoards which so lately carried terrour and 
dismay ? Exterminated, not driven back, not united 
with more distant tribes. The atmosphere of civilization 
is fatal to these children of the woods. This is an inter- 
esting subject. Gratifying as is the rapid settlement of 
our country, the fate of the original rightful lords of the 
soil can never fail to excite melancholy reflections. 

Historical Dates. June 7, 1652, is recorded, " The 
lotts or draughts for the second division of plow land." 
Among the names are those of Davis, Tyler, Ayer, 
Clement, Whittier, White, Eaton, Corliss, Pecker, Gild, 
and Ladd, whose descendants of the same name are still 
in Haverhill, but the names are more numerous which 
have become extinct, or whose descendants have emi- 
grated to other places. The posterity of William White 
are very numerous. 

In 1669 it was resolved, that " no vote shall be valid 
that shall be voted at any town meeting after the sun is 
set." If this excellent regulation had been general and 


continued, much confusion would have been prevented 
in some places in later times. 

It was formerly the custom to choose a moderator by 
ballot, a regulation which it was found necessary to estab- 
lish in Massachusetts by law in 1809.-" Nov. 13th. 1682. 
At a general town meeting called to treat further in order 
to the accommodation of Mr. Jer. Gushing or a plan of 
settlement, for a minister, Th. Whittier is by an orderly 
paper vote chosen moderator for this meeting, who de- 
claring his inability to serve through sickness was dis- 
charged, and the town by papers proceeded to a second 
choice, and William White was legally chosen moderator 
for the present meeting, nemine contradicente, vei alium 

Thus the French king with twenty thousand men 

Went up an hill and then came down again. 

The meeting for this time is at an end." 

Col. Nath. Saltonstali, one of the assistants of the colony, 
was the clerk or recorder of the town from 1668 to 1700, 
and his records are in a very superiour style, although he 
took the liberty occasionally of adding his own comments. 
In 1689 the town passed a vote, not very honourable 
to them, " to pay Mr. Ward his full salary for the next 
year, provided that he upon his own cost do for the next 
ensuing year board Mr. Rolfe." The record begins — 
" The town then (Mr. Ward and his son Salstonstall be- 
ing absent) voted, &c. The marginal reference is /.20 
taken from Mr. Ward for Mr. Rolfe's diet in '90 without 
his consent." Three lines, which probably contained 
some severe remark, are blotted out, and the marginal 
note says it was " blotted out by order of the town." 

March 2, 1696. Upon a petition for allowance to one 
for killing a wolf, " The town by vote grant him to 
be paid by the next town rate 10s. for killing the said 
wolf, since he declares it was a bitch wolf, and that she 
will not bring more whelps." The town continued to 
grant a bounty annually for wolves' heads until 1 75 7. 
Johnson, in his account of this town, says, " The people 
are wholly bent to improve their labour by tilling the 
earth and keeping of cattel, whose yearly increase in- 
courages them to spend their days in those remote 


parts" So wholly bent were they upon husbandry, as to 
suffer from the want of mechanicks. There is in the 
town records a contract signed by Mr. Ward the minis- 
ter and nineteen others, dated February 6, 1658, in which 
they agree to pay their proportions of /.20 for the pur- 
chase of a house and land for Mr. Jewett, provided he 
live here seven years following the trade of a blacksmith 
in doing the towtfs work, " also the said Jewett doth 
promise to refuse to work for any that refuse to pay to* 
wards this purchase, until they bring under the Select- 
men's hands that they will pay." 

In 1650 a vote passed " That the freeholders attend 
town meeting within half an hour after the time notified 
and continue in town meeting till sun set, unless the 
same is sooner closed, on penalty of paying half a bushel 
of corn." 

In 1724 a committee was chosen to attend the General 
Court, and oppose the granting a township above Hawk's 
meadow brook. It was granted the next year, and in- 
corporated by the name of Methuen. 

In October and November 1736, the throat-distemper 
made dreadful ravages among the children, and swept 
off more than half under 15 years of age. The Rev. 
Mr. Brown lost three ; in some families all died, seven 
or eight in number, and hardly a family escaped without 
the loss of some. Mr. Brown published an account of 
this fatal disorder in a large pamphlet. 

In 1^63, the same epidemic prevailed generally, but it 
was in a milder form, or was better understood, and but 
few died. 

An alms house was built in 1737 ; but the people 
were not pleased with the experiment, and it was sold in 
1746. The poor were supported in different families. 
March 7, 1671. " Robert Emerson and his wife 
brought a child, which was the orphan of Richard and 
Hannah Mercer, into the publick town meeting, and de- 
sired the town to take care for the child," which they 
voted to do. 

There have been three meeting houses for the first 
church. The first stood in front of the grave yard, half 
a mile below the bridge. In this vicinity the settlement 


began. In 1666, John Hutchings had " liberty to build 
a gallarie at the west end of the meeting house, provided 
he give notice to the town at the next training day 
whether he will or noe, so that any inhabitant of the town 
that has a mind to join with him may give in his name." 
In 1681, it was voted ."to enlarge the room in the east 
end of it by making a gailerie therein for the women." 
The second house was built in 1699, and after a great 
contention whether it should be built where the first 
stood, a majority voted to erect it about fifty feet in front 
of the present meeting house. The present church was 
built in 1766. 

The first bell w r as purchased in 1748. Before that 
time there was a singular substitute, as appears by a vote 
passed in 1650, " That Abraham Tyler blow his horn 
half an hour before meeting on the Lord's day and on 
lecture days, and receive one pound of pork annually for 
his services from each family." 

There have been two instances of great dissention in 
Haverhill, which deserve a place in this sketch, on ac- 
count of the interposition of the General Court, and their 
extraordinary exercise of power. These difficulties 
arose in consequence of the commoners or proprietors of 
the township claiming the jurisdiction of the town. In 
March, 1725, two sets of officers were chosen, and upon 
application to the General Court, the following resolve 
(in substance) passed. 

" In the House of Representatives, June 3, 1725. 

Whereas at the anniversary town meeting in the town 
of Haverhill, holden in March last, there happened to be 
two contending parties who assembled in the meeting 
house, and did then and there choose two sets of town 
officers, viz. Town Clerks, &c. for the ^ear current, 
whereby great difficulties have arisen in tne said town, 
and considerable expence occasioned in the law, and it is 
to be feared that no good order or government can be 
supported or maintained unless some speedy care be 
taken to prevent those disorders, for preventing whereof 
and to put an end to said strife, it is ordered and resolv- 
ed, &c. that J, S. and N. P. the constables of the town 


of Haverhill, for the year 1724, be and are hereby direct- 
ed and required to notify, &c. to assemble and convene 
at the meeting house in Haverhill, on Wednesday the 
9th of June, at 10 o'clock, A. M. to choose all town 
officers which the law require to be chosen in March, an- 
nually, and that the said S, and P, make return of their do- 
ings tothe moderator hereafter named, one hour at least be- 
fore the time appointed for the meeting, and that Richard 
Kent, Esq.* be desired to be present at the said meeting, 
and that he is hereby empowered to moderate the affairs 
thereof, and to- take care that the same be orderly managed, 
and that no other person be allowed to vote but such as 
be lawfully qualified, and that the aforesaid meetings 
held the 2d of March and all the proceedings and votes 
of each party be and are hereby declared null and void 
and of none effect, any law, usage, or custom to the con- 
trary notwithstanding, and the charge to be borne as this 
Court shall order. 

Sent up for concurrence, 

Wm. DUDLEY, Speaker. 
In council, June 4, 1725, 

Read and concurred, 

J. WILLARD, Secr'y. 
Consented to, Wm. DUMMER. 

A meeting was accordingly held on the ninth day of 
June, and Richard Kent acted as moderator. " There 
was some discourse concerning the choosing of town of- 
ficers, but no vote passed, and the moderator adjourned 
the meeting until 2 o'clock, P. M. when " he called or 
ordered them to bring in votes- for a Town Clerk, some 
votes were brought in, but no Town Clerk declared to 
be chosen," and the meeting was adjourned by the mod- 
erator to the 23d of June at 10 o'clock. 

June 15, 1725. It was resolved by the General Court 
that " Whereas by special order of this Court, the town 
of Haverhill was assembled on the 9th inst. fur the choice 
of town officers, and no other than a Town Clerk was 
then chosen, although he was not declared by the mode- 
erator, and said meeting having been adjourned notwith- 

i * Of Newliury. 


standing the other town officers were to be chosen on the 
same day. 

Resolved, that John Eaton be and is hereby declared 
Town Clerk for Haverhill, according to the choice made 
the ninth of June, as aforesaid, and that the freeholders, 
&c. assemble at the meeting house in Haverhill, June 23, 
according to the adjournment, and that they then and 
there choose all other town officers, and that Richard 
Kent, Esq. hereby declared moderator of the meeting, 
be directed to administer the oath by law appointed to 
John Eaton and the other officers to be chosen, any law 
usage or custom to the contrary notwithstanding." 

Pursuant to this resolve, the town completed their 
choice of officers on the 23d of June. 

A similar disorder happened in 1748. April 7th, the 
General Court " set aside the town meeting held on the 
first day of March," and directed the Selectmen for 1747 
to call a town meeting sometime in April. A meeting 
was accordingly called on the 26th of April, and officers 
chosen. Richard Saltonstali, Esq. and others remon- 
strated against the proceedings at this meeting, principal- 
ly because inhabitants not qualified were permitted to 
vote, and the General Court, November 3, 1748, resolv- 
ed " that the meeting be set aside, and all the proceedings 
consequent thereon be null and void, and directed the 
Selectmen for 1747 to issue a warrant for another meet- 
ing sometime in November, and that John Choate, Esq.* 
be moderator of the meeting." The town record then 
states, that " at a meeting pursuant to an order of the 
Great and General Court, &c. By order of the Great 
and General Court, John Choate, Esq. was appointed 
moderator," &c. and the town officers were chosen. 

Such an interference of the legislature was doubtless 
salutary in these instances as a particular exercise of des- 
potick power will often be ; but the General Court 
seems not so suitable a body to decide upon such con- 
troversies as the Judicial Courts. One reason why they 
interposed was, that considerable expense was occasioned 

* Of Ipswich, a member of the General Court. 
19 TOU IV. 


in the law ! A singular reason, and an acknowledgment 
of the jurisdiction of the judiciary in the case. 

Population, The number of inhabitants in 1790 was 
2403 ; in 1800, 2730; in 1810, 2682. They have since 
increased. Haverhill is a very healthy place. Many 
people have emigrated from this town to New Hampshire 
and the District of Maine. 

Ecclesiastical history of Haverhill, with biographical 
notices of the ministers. *Sept. 19, 1644, Two church- 
es were appointed to be gathered, one at Haverhill, and 
the other at Andover ; and as these settlements were too 
small to accommodate the people who might attend on 
the occasion, the meeting was to be at Rowley. When 
they were assembled, most of those who were to join to- 
gether in church fellowship refused to make a confession 
of their faith and repentance, because they had declared 
it upon their admission into other churches, upon which 
the assembly broke up. Hubbard adds, that " in Octo- 
ber, 1645, messengers of churches met together again, 
when Mr. John Ward was ordained pastor of the church 
in Haverhill and Mr. John Woodbridge of the church in 

Mr. Ward witnessed the Indian deed November 15, 
1642, and was then an inhabitant of Haverhill. Dr. Cot- 
ton Mather says he settled there in 1641. Johnson says, 
the people of Haverhill " were not unmindful of the 
chief end of their coming hither, namely, to be made 
partakers of the blessed ordinances of Christ," and that 
" they called to office the Rev. Mr. Ward, son to the 
former named Mr. Ward of Ipswich, 

Young Ward begins, whereas thy father left," &c. 

Mr. Ward probably went with the first settlers to Ha- 
verhill as their minister, for it was the pious custom 
of our forefathers, when they began a new settlement, to 
take a minister with them as the pastor of the little flock. 
Their first care was to provide for the support of reli- 
gious ordinances ; one of their first buildings was always 
a house of worship. How degenerate are their descend- 
ants! How many large towns have recently grown up 

* Winthrop'a Journal, p. Wf. Hubbard, 416. 


without any sacred temple, or any regular preaching of 
the gospel ! The church at Haverhill, venerable from its 
antiquity, was the twenty sixth in the colony. 

This town has been blessed and honoured with a suc- 
cession of able and distinguished ministers. *Mr. 
Ward's father was the Rev. Nathaniel Ward, the cele- 
brated author of " The Simple Cobler of Agawam in 
America." The son was also eminent, and is recorded 
by Dr. Mather among the worthies of New England. 
In his quaint style he says, "Mr. John Ward was born, 
I think, at Haverhill, on November 5, 1606. His grand- 
father was that John Ward, the worthy minister of Haver- 
hill, and his father was that N. Ward, whose wit made 
him known to more Englands than one. He was a per- 
son of a quick apprehension, a clear understanding, a 
strong memory, a facetious conversation ; he was an ex- 
act grammarian, an expert physician, and, which was the 
top of all, a thorough divine ; but, which rarely happens, 
these endowments of his mind were accompanied with a 
most healthy, hardy and agile constitution of body, 
which enabled him to make nothing of walking, on foot, 
a journey as long as thirty miles together. 

" Though he had great offers of rich matches in En* 
gland, yet he chose to marry a meaner person, whom ex- 
emplary piety had recommended. He lived with her 
more than forty years in such an happy harmony, that 
when she died he confessed that in all diis time he never 
had received jpne displeasing word or look from her. 
Although she would so faithfully tell him of every thing 
that might seera amendable in him, that he would pleas- 
antly compare her to an accusing conscience, yet she 
ever pleased him wonderfully. 

" This diligent servant of the Lord Jesus Christ continu- 
ed under and against many temptations, watching over his 
fiock at Haverhill more than thrice as long as Jacob con- 
tinued with his unkle, yea, for as many years as there 
are sabbaths in the year. On Nov. 19, 1693, he preach- 
ed an excellent sermon, entering the eighty eighth year 
of his age, the only sermon that ever was, or perhaps 
ever will be, preached in this country at such an age.f 

* Magnolia^ book Hi. IS7. t The Dr. was not corv&ct in his nredict^oj^ 



On Dec. 27, he went off, bringing up the rear of our 
first generation.'' 

Mr. Ward's salary was first /.40, and in 1652 was fix- 
ed at /.50, one half payable in wheat, &c. and his wood. 

The town voted, Dec. 28, 1680, to procure an assist- 
ant minister on account of Mr. Ward's advanced age. 
Several candidates were heard, and in 1682 Mr. Jeremiah 
dishing of Hingham was invited to settle, but he refused. 

Mr. Benjamin Rolfe began to preach in Haverhill in 
1689, and was ordained in Jan. 1693—4. Mr. Ward 
agreed to abate all his salary except £20, half in mer- 
chantable wheat, indian, &c. and half in money, and fifty 
cords of wood annually, upon condition that the town 
should pay all arrearages of his salary, and appoint a 
committee " to attend at his house upon a sett day to 
receive and take account of what shall be brought in, and 
sett the price thereof if it be not merchantable, that so 
it come not in by pitiful driblets as formerly." 

Mr. Rolfe's salary was /.60, half in corn and other 
articles. He was graduated at Cambridge, in 1684. 
This worthy minister was slain by the Indians in the 
great descent. The following is the epitaph on his 
grave stone. 


















February 7, 1708 — 9 the town invited Mr. Nicholas 
Seaver to settle, but he made proposals to which they did 
not agree. 

September 12, 1709, Mr. Richard Brown was unan- 
imously chosen as their minister, but he declined. 

May 15, 1710, Mr. Joshua Gardner, who was grad- 
uated at Cambridge in 1707, was unanimously called, 
and was ordained Jan. 10th, 1711. His salary was /.70, 
half in money and half in corn, &c. He died March 
21st, 1715. Mr. Gardner was a young man of uncom- 
mon talents and piety, and his early death was greatly 
lamented. His praise is in the church unto this day. 
Upon his grave stone is the following inscription. 

"Rev. Joshua Gardner died March 21, 1715, a man 
good betimes, and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith, of 
an excellent temper, of great integrity, prudence, and 
courage — pastor of the church in Haverhill five years— 
who having faithfully improved his talents, fell asleep iu 
Jesus, and went triumphantly to receive his reward in 

In an excellent sermon, (MSS.) of the Rev. Mr. Bar- 
nard, preached May 9, 1773, thirty years after his ordi- 
nation, is the following notice of Mr. Gardner and Mr. 
Brown, who succeeded him. 

" Mr. Gardner, who is warm in the hearts of a Tew of 
you to this day, was soon ripe for heaven, according to 
the account which is handed down of him. He was not 
suffered to continue^ long by reason of death. Neither 
prayers nor tears could detain him from his inheritance 
above. In a few years he finished his course with joy. 
Mr. Brown, my immediate predecessor, whose praise 
was in the churches while he abode in the flesh, and 
whose memory is still precious with the serious and ju- 
dicious for his talents, goodness and assiduous labours, 
early appeared old by reason of a thin and slender con- 
stitution, and emaciated with cares and pains, seemed 
burthened with life before the time." 

After the death of Mr. Gardner, the people heard sev- 
eral candidates, and became much divided. 

July 27, 1716. Mr. Jonathan Cu,shing was invited 
to settle, but he declined* 



Dec. 16, 1716. They chose a committee to wait on 
President Leverett and Mr. Brattle at Cambridge, " to be 
advised what method next to take, in order to the settling 
a gospel minister among them/' This was according 
to the good old custom of our fathers, under which our 
churches so long flourished. At Cambridge the candi- 
dates were educated, there they resided, and their char- 
acters were known, and there our vacant parishes looked 
for advice in their difficulties, and for a supply. But in 
this instance the application was not successful, and 
the neighbouring clergy according to another pious cus- 
tom joined them in keeping a fast. After this the Rev. 
Edward Payson,* Thomas Symmesf and Moses HaleJ 
were consulted, who returned an answer that they thought 
44 it adviseable that the town laying aside further attempts 
for a settlement in the way they have been in, together 
with their awful animosities in respect thereof, now unite 
in looking out for some other person to come amongst 

This good advice, as it is called in the town records, 
was taken by a vote in the affirmative, and by a vote 
only, for they immediately negatived a recommendation 
by the same persons " that a new Committee should be 
chosen of both the contending parties to apply to the 
president, &c," April 23, 1718, Rev. Samuel Checkley 
was chosen as their minister, but he declined their invU 
tation. At length, Oct. 28, 1718, they unanimously in- 
vked Mr. John Brown to settle and he was ordained 
May 13, 1719. His salary was /.100, half in corn, &c. 
His character is that of a pious, and judicious divine. 
He published an excellent sermon on the death of the 
Rev. Thomas Symmes of Bradford. 

Mr* Brown's epitaph. 

" Rev. John Brown, ordained May 13. 1719, died 
Dec. 2, 1742. aged 46. As he was greatly esteemed in 
this life for his learning, piety and prudence, his removal 
is very justly lamented as a loss to his family, church and 
country. He was an Israelite indeed, in whom there 
was no guile." 

* Of Rowley. 

f Of Bradford* 

f. Of Newjwiry. 


Mr. B. was a native of little Cambridge (Brighton) 
and was graduated in 1714. Mr. Brown married Joanna, 
a daughter of the Rev. Roland Cotton of Sandwich, a 
grandson of the celebrated John Cotton of Boston. She 
was an eminently pious and worthy lady, 

Mr. Brown left four sons who were all educated at 

John was graduated in 1741 and was minister of Co- 
hasset. He died in 1792. 

Cotton was graduated in 1743, was ordained at Brook- 
line, Oct. 26, 1748, and died April 13, 1751. Dr. 
Cooper wrote his character and says, his genius, &c. 
*' had raised in his friends the fairest hopes, and given 
them just reason to expect in him one of the brightest 
ornaments of society, and a peculiar blessing to the 

Ward was graduated in 1748, and died the same year. 

Thomas took his degree in 1752, and died in 1797. 
He was minister of Stroudwater. John and Thomas 
were very respectable and excellent men. 

Mr. Brown left three daughters. The first was mar- 
ried to John Chipman, esq. of Marblehead : the second 
to Dana, of Brookline, and the third to Rev. 

Edward Brooks of Medford, formerly minister of North 
Yarmouth, father of the Hon. Peter C. Brooks, to whose 
kindness the writer is indebted for this information of 
Mr. Brown's family. 

After the death of Mr. Brown, the church and people 
soon happily united in the Rev. Edward Barnard who 
Was ordained April 27, 1743. 

Mr. Barnard was an honour to one of the most respect- 
able clerical families in New England. His father and 
grandfather were ministers of the first church in Ando- 
ver in succession. His brother, the Rev. Thomas 
Barnard of Salem, was respected as one of the most pro- 
found, liberal and excellent men of his profession."* 
The late beloved and respected Dr. Thomas Barnard, of 
Salem, was a son of Thomas Barnard. These were a4l 

* flee Eliot's N, B. Bi»?= 


eminent ministers. The Rev, Edward Barnard was one 
of the best scholars, and most learned divines of his day. 
The late Dr. Eliot, who has drawn characters with a ve- 
ry discriminating hand says of Mr. Barnard (who was a 
friend of Dr. A. Eliot, the author's father,) "He was a 
most accomplished preacher. His popular talents were 
not eminent, but his discourses were correct and excel- 
lent compositions, and highly relished by scholars and 
men of taste. He was a fine classical scholar, and excell- 
ed in poetry as well as prose. It was much regretted 
that he did not publish more, as what he did publish was 
so acceptable. His sermon upon the good man would 
do honour to any divine." The only poetry of his in 
print is a poem on Abiel Abbot, his friend at college. 
His printed discourses are the election sermon, 1766, 
convention sermon, 1773, a sermon at the ordination of 
Rev. Thomas Cary at Newbury (now Newburyport) 
and a fast sermon. 

" The expectations of his friends w r ere excited when 
proposals were issued to publish a volume of his ser- 
mons in 1774, the year of his death," and they were se- 
lected by Mr. Cary of Newburyport, but the revolution- 
ary war breaking out, they were not printed. The wri- 
ter of this article has been favoured with the perusal of 
many of them, by the kindness of Dr. Edward Barnard 
of Salem, (son of the Rev. Mr. Barnard) and deeply re- 
grets that the design of his friends was abandoned. 
They are indeed " correct and excellent compositions," 
and would rank among the best American sermons. 

The latter part of Mr. Barnard's life was disturbed by 
divisions made in his society by Newlights and Baptists, 
who accused him of not preaching the gospel and of not 
being converted, but the greater and most respectable 
part of his flock remained faithful to their pastor to his 
death. In a sermon preached thirty years after his ordi- 
nation he says, " During the time which I have spent in 
publick service it would be very strange if nothing hard 
and grievous had occurred, especially considering the 
cavilling spirit of the age, and the ;oo general proneness 
to censure without bounds. Doubtless I have had my 


faults, for which I would ever seek remission through 
the blood of the everlasting covenant. But wherein I 
have been unreasonably aspersed, conscious of innocen- 
cy, it may calmly be borne. With me it is a very small 
thing to be judged of man's judgment — he that judgeth 
me is the Lord, before whose tribunal I am hastening, 
and under the awful apprehension of which I desire to be 
acting. In proportion to the strong sense of future judg- 
ment, will be the faintness of the impression made upon 
the mind by the severest reflections of men, if they are 
not just. But in the years of temptation, provocation 
and reproach, it must not be omitted that God was pleas- 
ed to throw in a balance by the attachment of those to my 
person and ministry, whose sentiments and regards are 
most to be valued, and this day I see an assembly, whose 
cordial affection to me I ought not to doubt.'* Their af- 
fection was not to be doubted ; their grief at his death 
was sincere ; their children have been taught his praises ; 
and, as he said of Mr. Gardner, "he is warm in the 
hearts of a few of them to this day." 

In his sentiments, like Dr. Tucker of Newbury,* Mr. 
Balch of Bradford, and the other highly respectable Mer- 
rimack ministers of that day, he was Arminian. In the 
sermon so much quoted, he says " Nothing has been de- 
livered by me that I would not venture my own soul 
upon. The fallen state of man which gave rise to the 
gospel dispensation, the fullness and freeness of divine 
grace in Christ as the foundation of ail our hopes, the in- 
fluence of the spirit, the necessity of regeneration, imply- 
ing repentance towards God and faith towards our Lord 
Jesus Christ, the necessity of practical religion originat- 
ing from evangelical principles, are some of the many 
things which have been urged, and which will appear of 
the greatest importance at death and judgment." At 
this day who could believe that such sentiments were 
denounced as heterodox, and exposed a minister to per- 
secution, forty years ago ? 

* J)r. T. married a sister of Mr. B, 


Mr, Barnard s epitaph. 

" Beneath are the remains of the Rev. Edward Barnard, 
A. M. pastor of the first church in this town, who died 
Jan. 26, 1774 in the 54th. year of his age and 3 1st. of 
his ministry. In him were united the good scholar, the 
great divine, and exemplary christian and minister. His 
understanding was excellent, judgment exact, and im- . 
agination lively, and invention fruitful ; eminently a 
man of prayer; as a preacher, equalled by few, excelled 
by none ; indefatigable in the discharge of his ministerial 
duty, and possessing the most tender concern for the 
happiness of those committed to his charge. His piety 
was rational, disposition benevolent, of approved integri- 
ty, consummate prudence, great modesty and simplicity 
of manners. He was a kind husband, tender parent, 
faithful friend and agreeable companion. His life was 
irreproachable, and death greatly lamented by all who 
knew his worth. Mark the perfect man and behold the 
upright, for the end of that man is peace. 

His grateful flock have erected this monument, as a 
testimony of their affection and respect for his memory." 

The Rev. John Shaw succeeded Mr. Barnard. He 
was a son of the Rev. John Shaw, of Bridge water. 

He took his degree at Cambridge, 1772, was ordained 
March 12th, 1777, and died very suddenly Sept. 29, 
1794. He left one son, William S. Shaw, esq. of Bos- 

Mr. Shaw was, as he is described in his epitaph, " A 
bright example of benevolence, meekness, patience and 
charity ; an able advocate of the religion he professed, 
and a faithful servant of the God he worshipped." 

The Rev. Abiei Abbot, now minister of the first 
church in Beverly, was the first candidate heard after the 
death of Mr. Shaw, and he received a unanimous call to 
settle. He was ordained June 8th, 1795, and there was not 
a more happy connexion between a minister and his peo- 
ple in the commonwealth, until the unfortunate contro- 
versy about the sufficiency of his salary, which ended in 
his dismission at his request, June 13th, 1803. 


The Rev. Joshua Dodge, who graduated at Dartmouth 
College, 1806, (all his predecessors except Mr. Ward 
were educated at Cambridge) was ordained here t)ec. 
21, 1808, and is the present minister. 

North Parish. The North Parish was set off in 1728, 
and annexed to Plaistow, N. H. they forming one parish. 

The Rev. James dishing, the first minister, was grad- 
uated at Cambridge in 1725, ordained in 1730, and 
died May 13, 1764. The testimony of his people to 
his character is, that " he was a solid and fervent preach- 
er, in conduct upright, prudent and steady, and recom- 
mended the amiable religion of his master by meekness 
and patience, condescension and candour, a tender sym- 
pathy with his flock, and a studious endeavour to main- 
tain and promote the things of peace." 

The Rev. Gyles Merrill was ordained pastor of this 
church, March 6th, 1765, and died April 27, 1801, aged 
62. He was a sound scholar, and learned divine, and 
possessed that simplicity, yet dignity of manners and 
kindness of heart, which secured him the love. and respect 
of all who knew him. Mr. Merrill was not an orator, 
but there was an earnestness and sincerity in his manner 
which made him, to the "serious and judicious,'' an in- 
teresting preacher. He was graduated at Cambridge, 
1759. James C. Merrill, esq. of Boston, and Samuel 
Merrill, esq. of Andover, are his sons. 

West Parish. The West Parish was separated from 
the mother church in 1735, and the Rev. Samuel Bach- 
eller was ordained their pastor in July of that year. Mr. 
Bacheller was graduated in Cambridge, in 1731. 

Although some of his parish were dissatisfied at his 
settlement, and always watched for occasions to excite 
prejudice against him, there was no serious difficulty 
until 1755, when his enemies seized on certain opinions 
in a sermon upon the text, " it is finished,'* which they 
denounced as heresy, and began a contest which raged 
several years, and finally ended in his removal. The 
first notice on the parish records of these difficulties is 
in 1758 ; but before that time the subject had been con- 
sidered by the Haverhill association, and one or more 


councils, and several pamphlets had been written. Mr. 
Bacheller was supported bf the councils and the associ- 
ation, which produced from Jos. Haynes, who was lead- 
er of the opposition, a large pamphlet entitled, " A Dis- 
course in order to confute An Heresy, delivered, and 
much contended for, in the West Parish in Haverhill, 
and countenanced by many of the ministers of the adja- 
cent parishes, viz. That the blood and water which 
came from Christ when the soldier pierced his side, his 
laying in his grave, and his resurrection, was no part of 
the work of redemption, and that his laying in the grave 
was no part of his humiliation," printed in 1757. A 
vindication of the councils and association was written, 
to which Mr. Haynes again replied, Sept. 19, 1758. 
Twenty articles of charge against the doctrine and con- 
duct of Mr. Bacheller were laid before a council, who 
after four days examination decided, that they were not 
sufficiently supported. The same council again met, 
April 17th, 1759, when " some friendly remarks" upon 
their former result were " given in to them" by Mr. 
Haynes and were afterwards published ; but they con- 
firmed their former decision. Col. John Choate of Ips- 
wich, a member of the council, published his " reasons 
of dissent" from their first result, and Mr. Haynes also 
printed " remarks" upon the last proceedings of the 

Seldom has a parish been in greater confusion than 
was this. July 9, 1759, a meeting was called by a jus- 
tice warrant " to see if the parish would raise any money 
to hire a gospel minister, and permit him to preach half 
of the time in the meeting house." They voted that they 
already had a gospel minister, and would not hire another. 
August 14th, 1759. The parish voted to raise no 
more money for Mr. Bacheller, also; to request him to 
join in calling a council, but he refused. 

Between April 1760 and July 1761 there were eight 
parish meetings, in the course of which it was voted, 
" to take from Mr. B, the parsonage and let it to the 
best advantage," — " to request him to ask a dismission " 
"that the committee should open the doors of the meet 



ing house to such preachers as they should think might 
be serviceable," " that the doors of the meeting house 
should not be opened to Mr. B. and his friends, and to 
choose a suitable man to keep the key." " To put them- 
selves under the care of the Boston presbytery," " that 
the Rev. Mr. B. be fully and finally dismissed and to 
prosecute him if he 'attempted to go into the meeting 
house to preach." — " To refer the dispute " and " to 
give Mr. B. /.80 if he would leave the parish." Protests 
against the proceedings of these meetings, signed by 
nearly half the parish are recorded. 

At length Oct. 9, 1761 the connexion between Mr. B. 
and the parish was dissolved upon terms that day recom- 
mended bv a council. 

A melancholy record ! and the more so, when we con- 
sider the cause of this disturbance in the church of 
Christ,— Mr. H. accused Mr. B. of believing and preach- 
ing " that the work of redemption was finished upon the 
cross, when our Saviour said, It is finished, and that the 
blood and water which came from his side, his laying in 
the grave and resurrection was no part of the work of re- 
demption." Mr. B. accused Mr. H. of misrepresenta- 
tion, and said the sentiments he delivered were " that 
Christ had finished the work of redemption when he 
said it is finished, as to purchase, price and ransom, and 
that his laying in the grave, &c. was no part of the work 
of redemption as to purchase, price or ransom" Mr. 
B. is supported by the clergy in the vicinity, sixteen of 
whom signed in his favour, and Mr. H sounds the alarm 
of heresy, and not without effect. When will christians 
learn the first lesson of their religion — charity. 

Mr. B. lived several years after his dismission, and was 
representative to the General Court repeatedly. 

During the vacancy in this parish the Rev. Nathaniel 
Noyes and the Rev. John Carnes were invited to settle, 
but both refused. March 3d- — 1766, they gave the late 
President Willard a call, which he accepted, and the or- 
dination was appointed for the 16th of Oct. 1767, and no 
reason appears on record why he was not ordained. 
Probably the tempest had not yet subsided. 


The Rev. Phinehas Adams who was graduated at 
Cambridge, 1762, was settled in 1770. He <died Nov. 
17, 1801. He left one son, Phinehas Adams, esq. of 
Boston. Mr. Adams was a man of mild and conciliatory 
manners, amiable disposition, sound sense, excellent un- 
derstanding, and extensive reading. He was not big- 
otted to any party tenets, and seemed well calculated to 
quiet a turbulent society ; but he experienced consider- 
able difficulty. Indeed the parish has never been purified 
of its leaven. It is now divided by a variety of sects, 
who occupy the pulpit alternately ; and there is but little 
prospect of the settlement of another minister. 

The West Parish has enjoyed but little peace and har- 
mony. How carefully ought a religious society to guard 
against division ! When a quarrel is once deep rooted, 
although the particular controversy may cease, the spirit 
often descends from generation to generation, and the 
character of the parish remains the same. 

East Parish. The East Parish was formed in 1743, 
and the Rev. Benjamin Parker, who was graduated at 
Cambridge in 1737, was ordained to their pastoral charge 
in 1744. In 1774 the parish requested Mr. Parker to 
relinquish apart of his salary, which was /.53, 6. 8 ! but 
he refused, which caused much irritation. In 1775 the 
parish called upon the ministers in the vicinity for ad- 
vice, but Mr. Parker declined meeting them. A mutual 
council was held January 21, 1777, by whose advice a 
compromise was effected, and Mr. Parker's connexion 
with the parish w r as dissolved. An excellent funeral ser- 
mon upon the death of the Rev. Ed. Barnard, preached 
by Mr. Parker, was printed. 

The Rev. Is. Tomkins was ordained minister of this 
parish in January, 1797. 

There is a parsonage in each parish of about g200 an- 
nual income, and a fund in the first parish of about $2000. 

Baptist Church. A Baptist church was gathered by 
the Rev. Hezekiah Smith in 1765. Mr. Smith had been 
otdained in Charleston, S. C. as an evangelist. He had 
been preaching in the vicinity of Haverhill, and was in- 



vited to supply the pulpit in the West Parish,-^ where he 
was favourably received by many of those who were dis- 
satisfied with Mr. Bacheller ; and his ardent manner, and 
his calvinistlc sentiments, which at that time were scarce- 
ly known in that vicinity, drew together considerable 
numbers from the neighbouring parishes. It was not 
then known that he was a baptist, (a circumstance never 
forgotten by many) but his friends formed a society for 
him, and built a meeting house in the first parish, after 
he had declared his peculiar opinions, although many of 
his hearers never professed to change theirs. 

This was the first Baptist church in the County of 
Essex. The peace of the town was long disturbed by 
this event, but Mr. Smith conducted himself with great 
prudence, and gradually obtained general esteem and 
respect. He was eminent among the clergy of his own 
denomination. In 1797 he received a degree of D. D. 
from Providence College, of which institution he was a 
faithful friend and trustee. 

Dr. Smith preached without notes. His voice was 
uncommonly strong and commanding, and his manner 
solemn and impressive. He was esteemed an able ex- 
positor of the scripture. His learning was not exten- 
sive, but he was possessed of excellent sense, and a thor- 
ough knowledge of human nature. As a husband, par- 
ent, friend and neighbour, he was highly exemplary. 
He had travelled much, was several years a chaplain in 
the army, was extensively known, had many warm friends, 
and was considered by all as an accomplished gentleman. 
He was born at Long Island, April 21, 1737, was grad- 
uated at Princeton College in 1762, and died January 
25th, 1805. 

The Rev. William Bachelder was installed pastor of 
the Baptist church in November, 1805. 

During one hundred and twenty years the inhabitants 
of Haverhill united in the worship of God in the mode 

* In Benedict's history of the Baptists, Vol. i. 416, the vacaney of this parish 
is attributed to the quarrels of the neighbrmring clergy. That this is incorrect 
appear* from the preceding history of the West Parish controversy. 


established by our pious ancestors, and for the enjoy* 
ment of which they left their native land. They went 
up to the sacred temples " in company," and reverenced 
them as the altars before which their fathers had bowed, 
and where they had been dedicated in infancy. But a 
spirit of innovation has since gone forth, unsettling the 
minds of men, and loosening their affections from our 
most ancient and venerable institutions, and few places 
have suffered more from its baneful influence than Haver- 
hill. The Baptist Society has offered an opportunity to 
the discontented, from whatever cause, to withdraw their 
support from the parish ministers under the plea of con- 
scientious scruples. And the effect has been pernicious ; 
for the societies are so subdivided in the country, that 
the loss of a part of the members generally leaves the re- 
mainder unable to support a minister. Since the death 
of Mr. Adams in 1801, there has been no settled minis- 
ter in the West Parish, although it is large. Mr. Mer- 
rill, who died in 1801, was, and<we fear will be, the last 
minister of the North Parish. The people do not feel 
the necessity of endeavouring to unite. The longer they 
remain in this situation the more indifferent will they 
become, until they sink into apathy, or fall a prey to the 
wildest fanatics. This has been the fate of many of our 
religious societies, and many churches once flourishing 
are now extinct.* 

This departure from the good old paths of New En- 
gland, in which our fathers walked with so much safety 
and happiness, is deeply to be regretted by every friend 
of order and religion. Many of every denomination are 
doubtless sincere, and we respect their sincerity, and 
would by no means deprive them of the right of wor- 
shipping as their consciences dictate. But ought we to 
persecute the regular clergy, from excessive caution not 
to offend sectarians ? Are those laws good, under the in- 
fluence of which our ancient temples are deserted, and 
our most venerable establishments are tottering and fall* 

* This is particularly the case in the county of Kockingham, New Hampshire, 
in the vicinity of Haverhill. 


I ing around us ? Can there be a worse symptom in a com- 
| m unity, a more sure mark of degeneracy than a growing 
neglect of those institutions which have existed for many 
generations, and the good effects of which have been, 
manifest in the peace, good order and morality of socie- 
ty? The consequence already is, that in many places 
every thing like order in religion is scoffed at, the sabbath 
is profaned, and the people either disbelieve all religion, 
or follow in the train of the ignorant and wandering fa- 
natics that infest our country. 

It is time that all the friends of good order, of good 
government, as well as of true religion,, should unite to 
check this revolutionary spirit, " to strengthen the things 
that remain," and to revive a just sense of the value of 
those institutions of our fathers, in which, by the blessing 
of heaven, as pure a church has been preserved, as has 
existed since the apostolic age. 

Biographical Sketches. Among the names that do 
honour to Haverhill, may be mentioned the late Chief 
Justice Sargeant. 

Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant was a son of the 
Rev. Christopher Sargeant of Methuen, and his mother 
was daughter of Col. Nathaniel Peaslee of Haverhill. He 
was graduated at Cambridge in 1750, and began the 
practice of law in this town. At the bar he was not dis- 
tinguished as an advocate, but was highly respected for 
integrity, sound learning, and laborious research. In the 
year 1776 he was appointed a Judge of the Superiour 
Court of Judicature, and in 1790, upon the resignation 
of Chief Justice Cushing, he succeeded to the highest seat 
on the bench. He was an able and impartial judge. 

Samuel Blodget, well known by the name of Judge 
Blodget, w r as a native of Woburn, but resided many years 
in this town. Through life he was remarkable for enter- 
prize and activity. He was at the taking of Louisburg 
in 1745. Before the revolutionary war he was Judge of 
the Inferior Court in the county of Hillsborough, New 

He set up in Haverhill a pot and pearl ash works about 
the year 1760 (among the earliest in the country) and a 
#t vol. IV. 


duck manufactory in 1791.* He had great ingenuity in 
mechanics. In 1783, he raised, with a machine of his 
own invention, a valuable cargo from a ship which was 
sunk near Plymouth. Encouraged by this success, he 
went to Europe for the purpose of recovering money from 
a rich Spanish ship ; but was not permitted to make the 
attempt. He then went to England to weigh the Royal 
George, but met with no better success, and was treated 
as an enthusiast. 

In 1793, he left Haverhill and began Blodget's Canal at 
Amoskeig Falls. Here he laboured several years, and 
expended all his property in attempting to make the ca- 
nal in the river and to lock the fells, but did not succeed. 
It has since been completed on the common plan. 

Judge Blodget intended to live until he was 100 years 
of age at least. Rigid temperance, activity, and to sleep 
with open doors and windows, was in his opinion the true 
elixir vitce. He usually lodged in a large room with 
windows open on each side of his bed, without regard to 
the weather, and was sanguine of success in his experi- 
ment. He enjoyed uninterrupted vigour, cheerfulness 
and health until his 85th year, when this scheme, like 
most of his others, failed. In August, 1807, he died of a 
consumption in consequence of his exposure in travelling 
from Boston ^o Haverhill in a cold night. 

Haverhill has been the place of residence of the de- 
scendants of Sir Richard Saltonstall, a patentee of Massa- 
chusetts Ray, and one of the founders of the colony. That 
a sketch of this town is not an unsuitable place for a me- 
moir of this family, is believed by many, whose solicita- 
tions have induced the writer to add a few pages more 
than he had contemplated. 

Sir Richard Saltonstall was descended from an 
ancient family in Yorkshire.! He early engaged in the 
New England enterprize, and in the charter of Charles I. 
is the first named associate to the six original patentees of 
Massachusetts Bay, and was appointed the first assistant. 

* The same mentioned page 124. 

f He resided in London. He is said by Prince and Hutchinson to have been a 

son or grandson of Sir Richard Saltonstall, Lord Mayor of London in 1597, btit 

it appears by a geuealogical table in the family, that he was a son of Samuel, a 

brother of fcir Richard Saltonstall, They were sons of Gilbert Saltonstnl), Esq. 

if H»fifax. Ynr!nrhh-P.. 


On board the Arabella, at Yarmouth, he, with Gov* 
Winthrop and others, signed that u humble request of 
his Majesty's loyal subjects the governour and company 
late gone for New England to the rest of their brethren 
in and of the church of England," in which they take so 
affecting a leave of their native land on their departure 
for their " poor cottages in the wilderness." He arrived 
at Salem, in the Arabella, June 12th, 1630. On the 17th 
of June the govemour, and some of the principal persons, 
left Salem and travelled through the woods to Charles- 
town. Prince says the want of good water and other 
conveniences at Charlestown, " made several go abroad 
upon discovery. Some go over to Shawmut. Some go 
without Charlestown neck and travel up into the main, 
till they come to a place well watered, whither Sir Richard 
Saltonstall with Mr. Phillips,* and several others went 
and settled a plantation, and called it Watertown." John- 
son says " this town began by occasion of Sir Richard 
Saltonstall, who at his arrivall, having some store of cat- 
tel and servants, they wintered in those parts." There 
they entered into a very liberal church covenant, July 30, 
1630, which Dr. Mather has published at large, adding, 
" about forty men, whereof the first was that excellent 
knight Sir Richard Saltonstall, then subscribed this in- 

He was present as first assistant, at the first court of 
assistants, which was held at Charlestown, Aug. 23d, 1630, 
at which time various orders and regulations were made 
concerning the planting and government of this infant 

The sufferings of those who engaged in this new settle- 
ment in the wilderness were extreme the first winter, and 
Sir Richard Saltonstall became discouraged from remain- 
ing himself, but left his two eldest sons. Gov. Win- 
throp has recorded in his journal, that " March 29, 1630, 
he, with his two daughters and one of his younger sons, 
came down to Boston and stayed that night at the gov- 

* The Rev. George Phillips was one of the most learned of our first ministers. 
His son Samuel, minister of Rowley, and grandson Samuel, minister of Andovcr, 
were distinguished men. The late Lieut. Gov Samuel Phillips, and the present 
JLieut, Got, William Phillips are descended from him, 


ernours, and the next morning, accompanied with Mr. 
Pierce and others, departed for their ship at Salem." 

Sir Richard Saltonstall always continued to be the 
friend of the colony, and was actively engaged in their 
behalf. Two of his sons continued here, and he was 
largely interested as a proprietor. When Sir Christopher 
Gardner attempted to injure the colony by misrepresenta- 
tions, and on other similar occasions (for Massachusetts 
wa troubled from its infancy by the false accusations of 
enemies) he rendered the colony great assistance, and in- 
terceded with the government in its favour. 

Sir Richard Saltonstall was a man of singular liberality 
in religion, for a puritan of the age in which he lived, 
and was offended at the bigotry of his associates, who 
were no sooner secure from persecution themselves, than 
they began to persecute in their turn. He remonstrated 
against this inconsistency, and wrote from England to 
Mr. Cotton and' Mr. Wilson a letter, which Hutchinson 
highly commends for its catholick spirit, and which de- 
serves a place in this memoir. [Appendix, No. in.] 

This letter, Gov. Hutchinson says, must have been 
written between 1645 and 1653, fourteen years at least 
after Sir Richard Saltonstall left this country, and it 
shows that he continued his connexion with the princi- 
pal settlers, and felt a lively interest in the honour and 
welfare of the colony. 

Sir Richard Saltonstall was also one of the patentees 
of Connecticut* with Lord Say and Seal, Lord Brook 
and others, and a principal associate with them in the 
first settlement of that colony. They appointed John 
Winthrop, governour, and commissioned him to erect 
a fort at the mouth of Connecticut River, f In 1635, 
Sir Richard Saltonstall sent over twenty men to take pos- 
session of land for hirn under this patent and to make set- 
tlements J 

In 1649, he was commissioned with others, by parlia- 
ment, for the trial of Duke Hamilton, Lord Capel, and 

* Trumbull's Hist. Con. Appendix, No. I. 

f Same, Appendix, No. n. which contains articles of agreement between the 
patentees and Gov. Winthrop, for the settlement of Connecticut. 

* Winthrop's Journal, Mo. 4, 16. A bark of 40 tons arrived, set forth with 
servants by Sir Richard Saltonstall to go to plant at Connecticut. 


the Earl of Holland for high treason. They were con- 
demned and executed. 

Sir Richard Saltonstall has been justly styled " one of 
the Fathers of the Massachusetts colony." He was a 
patron of Harvard College and left it a legacy in his will 
made in 1658. There is a very fine portrait of him in the 
possession of one of his descendants in New York. 

Richard Saltonstall, son to Sir Richard, was 
born in 1610. He settled in Ipswich,* ard was first cho- 
sen an assistant in 1637. He was a zealous friend of this 
colony. In 1641, after the revolution in England, when 
it was no longer necessary to seek here an asylum from 
oppression, emigration ceased, and the affairs of this set- 
tlement wore a most gloomy aspect. Not only did trans- 
portation hitherto cease, but many who had come over 
were discouraged and returned, and Hutchinson says, 
" many of the principal people wavered." At this crit- 
ical time, Mr. Saltonstall resolved to persevere in his un- 
dertaking, and made a vow not to leave the country, 
whilst the ordinances of God were preserved in their 
purity. Johnson says, 

" His Father gone, young Richard on, here valiantly doth war." 

Some years after, his wife being out of health, her 
physicians recommended a voyage to England, and he ap- 
plied to Mr. Cotton to satisfy his doubting conscience, 
whether he might go without violating his vow, and Mr. 
Cotton convinced him that the marriage vow was of the 
highest obligation. This little circumstance is charac- 
teristic not only of the man, but the age. 

He appears to have been a man of great resolution and 
independence, attached to the principles of the New-Eng. 
land government and churches, and a warm friend of the 
liberty of the people. In 1642, he wrote a small treatise 
againt the standing council, declaring it to be a " sinful 
innovation/' which Hubbard says " was a troublesome 
business." This book was answered by Gov. Dudley 
and by Mr. Morris of Salem, and Gov. Winthrop request- 

• He owned the first mil! upon Ipswich River. It wat at the falls in Ipswich, 
and was the only corn mill in that town until 1681. The mills there are still 
kno^n by the name of Saltonstall's mills. 


ed the General Court to examine the contents and en- 
quire after the author if they should see cause, but they 
refused, supposing Mr. Saitonstall to be the author, and 
being persuaded of his honest intentions, and that it was 
designed to favour the liberty of the people. It was how- 
ever read in court, and the governour solicited them a 
second time to take the subject into consideration, but 
the whole court refused, unless the author was first ac- 
quitted from any censure. After a vote that Mr. Saiton- 
stall should be discharged from any censure or further 
enquiry about the same, the subject was taken up, and 
after a long discussion, they agreed to take the advice of 
the ministers "upon the soundness of the propositions 
and the arguments alleged for their confirmation." A 
meeting of all the ministers was afterwards held in Ips- 
wich, who decided in favour of the council. This affair 
caused great agitation throughout the colony. 

In 164S, at the time of the controversy between La 
Tour and D'Aulney for the government of Acadie, the 
government of Massachusetts permitted volunteers to en- 
gage in the service of La Tour, although they could not 
grant him any aid without the consent of the United Col- 
onies. Mr. Saitonstall opposed this measure and headed 
a remonstrance (probably written by him) against this 
proceding, among other reasons, " because they had no 
sufficient evidence of the justice of La Tour's cause, and 
in causa dulria, bellum non est suscipiendum" 

Mr. Saitonstall was one of the few persons who knew 
where Whalley and Goffe were concealed, and he several 
times made them presents. In 1672, when he went to 
England, he gave them 1.50 which they acknowledged 
in their MS. 

lie was a relative and friend of John Hambden, who 
was distinguished in the time of Charles II. and James II. 
and who joined in the invitation of the Prince of Orange — 
grandson of the celebrated parliamentary leader. 

He was also a benefactor of Harvard College. Secre- 
tary Rawson in a letter to Gov. Prince of New Plymouth 
colony in 1671, soliciting aid for the college, says, " By 
vhe speedy return of the much honoured Mr. Richard 


Saltonstall we have now another opportunity of engaging 
and entrusting him in this affair, one of the college's 
most considerable benefactors, and above many naturally 
caring for the good and prosperity thereof." Dr. Math- 
er records the name of ^Saltonstall among those benefac- 
tors of the college, " whose names it would hardly be 
excuseable to leave unmentioned." All his male de- 
scendants in Massachusetts (except two) have been grad- 
uated at this college. 

Mr. Saltonstall was absent several years in England, 
where he had three daughters married. He returned to 
America in 1680, and was again chosen the first assistant, 
and also the two succeeding years. In 1683, he went to 
England again, and died at Hulme, April 29, 1694. He 
left an estate in Yorkshire. 

Except when he was in England, Mr. Saltonstall was 
an assistant from 1687 until his death, [Authorities for 
these notes on Sir Richard Saltonstall and Richard Sal- 
tonstall, Hub. Hist. Winth. Journal, Prince's Chronolo- 
gy, Magnalia, Hutch. Hist. Trumbull's Hist, of Con- 

Henry Saltonstall, who was in the first class that 
was graduated at Harvard College, is said by Gov. Hutch- 
inson to have been a son or grandson of Sir Richard Sal- 
tonstall. Like several of the early graduates, he went home 
after leaving college, and received a degree of Doctor of 
Medicine from Padua, and also from Oxford, and was a 
fellow of New College in that university. 

Nathaniel Saltonstall, son of Richard, was 
graduated at Harvard College, 1659, and settled in Haver- 
hill upon that beautiful estate half a mile east of the bridge, 
which remained in the possession of the family until about 
twenty years since, and is still known as the " Saltonstall 
seat." This spot, exceeded perhaps by none in New 
England in fertility of soil and beauty of prospect, was 
conveyed to him (together with other lands) by the Rev. 
John Ward, first minister of Haverhill, in consideration 
of his marriage with his daughter, 

• Magntriia, Book iv. p. 137, 


Mr. Saltonstall was chosen an assistant in 1679 under 
the old charter, of which he was a firm friend. Edward 
Randolph, the implacable enemy of New England, and 
a principal instrument of depriving this colony of its 
charter, included him among those whom he called a 
faction of the General Court, in 1681, and against whom 
he exhibited articles of high misdemeanor to the lords of 
the council. In 1636, when the charter was taken away, 
he was named in the commission as one of "the council 
for the government of Massachusetts Bay," but as he 
had a few days before taken the oath of Assistant under 
the old charter, he refused to accept the appointment. 
After the seizure and removal of Sir Edmund Andross 
he was invited to join the council which took the govern- 
ment into their hands, and continued in this office until 
the charter of William and Mary, in which he was ap- 
pointed one of his Majesty's council. 

In August, 1680, he went with the deputy governour 
and others " with 60 soldiers in a ship and sloop from 
Boston to still the people at Casco Bay and prevent Gov. 
Andross' usurpation." Randolph, in answer to "heads of 
inquiry concerning the state of New England," mentions 
his name among the most popular and well principled 
military men. 

In 1683, Charles II. appointed him one of the com- 
missioners " to examine and inquire into the claims and 
titles as well of his Majesty as others to the Narragansett 
country," to which important commission he attended. 

Col. S. possessed superiour powers of mind, and was 
free from the prevailing bigotry and superstition of the 
age. He was opposed to the proceedings against the 
witches in 1692, and expressed his sentiments freely up- 
on the subject Mr. Brattle in his account of the witch- 
craft says, " Maj. N. Saltonstall, esq. who was one of the 
judges, has left the court, and is very much dissatisfied 
with the proceedings of it." Upon this Mr. Bentley in 
his history of Salem remarks, " Saltonstall left the bench, 
but ought he not, as the friend to justice, to have been 
upon it ?" Had he remained there, to have raised his 
voice against the proceedings of his brethren, his con- 


duct would doubtless have been more heroic, but it 
would have been in vain. So universal was the mad- 
ness, that his attempts to resist the torrent might have 
been fatal to himself, without relieving the unfortunate 
victims of this delusion. It is no small honour to his 
memory and satisfaction to his descendants, that he was 
not carried away by this dreadful fanaticism, and was 
clear of the innocent bloud. 

Col. S. lived to a good old age, and died May 21st, 
1707. He left three sons, Gurdon, Richard and Nathan- 
iel. His only daughter was married to the Rev. Roland 
Cotton of Sandwich. 

[Hutch. Hist, and Coll. Hist. Society's Coll. vol. 5, 
Trumbull's Connecticut.] 

Gurdon Saltonstall, eldest son of Nathaniel, was 
born at Haverhill, March 27th, 1666. He was educated at 
Cambridge, where he was a very distinguished scholar, 
and gave promise of his future greatness. He graduated 
in 1684. His inclination led him to the study of divin- 
ity, and he was ordained pastor of the church at New- 
Loudon in 1691. He became a very celebrated preach- 
er, and so rapid and extensive was the growth of his rep- 
utation, that, upon the death of Fitz John Winthrop, esq. 
in 1707, he was chosen governour by the Legislature. 
Four of the n^agistrates, the speaker of the house and 
three of the deputies were appointed a committee to wait 
upon him at New London, and solicit his acceptance of the 
office to which he had been elected. A letter was also 
addressed to his church and congregation by the assem- 
bly, acquainting them with the call, which in their opin- 
ion he had to leave the ministry, and entreating them to 
submit to such a dispensation. So great was the respect 
for his character, that " the assembly repealed the law 
which required that the governour should always be cho- 
sen from among the magistrates in nomination, and gave 
liberty for the freemen to elect him from among them* 
selves at large." Gov. Saltonstall entered on the duties 
of his important trust, January 1, 1708, and was contin- 
ued in office until his death, which was very sudden, 
Sept. 20th, 1724. 

83 vol. iv. 


In 1 709 he was chosen agent to present an address to 
his Majesty, " praying for an armament to reduce the 
French in North America to his Majesty's obedience,' f 
but he did not accept the appointment. 

Gov. Saltonstall was a man of excellent talents, great 
application, and profound and extensive learning. Dr. 
Eliot says, " he was a very accomplished preacher, and 
was an oracle of wisdom to literary men of all profes- 
sions." In him were united a lively imagination, dis- 
criminating judgment, great readiness and aptness of 
expression, an interesting person, and graceful yet dig- 
nified manners. He was a powerful reasoner and elo- 
quent orator. In 1722, when Timothy Cutler, rector of 
Yale College, and five other ministers and one of the 
tutors, exhibited to the trustees of the College a written 
declaration against the validity of presbyterian ordination, 
(a memorable event in our ecclesiastical history) a pub- 
lick disputation and conference on the subject, between 
them and the trustees, was'held soon after in the College 
Library, at which conference Gov. Saltonstall presided, 
and three of the ministers retracted, " being satisfied of 
the validity of ordination b}^ presbyters, chiefly by his 
learned reasonings." 

Indeed* if we may judge of his character as drawn by 
his contemporaries,"* even making allowar^gs for panegyr- 
ic, Gov. Saltonstall must have been one of the greatest 
and best men New England has produced. 

He was almost venerated in Connecticut while living, 
his death was deeply lamented, and his memory is still 
cherished with affection by the wise and good. . 

There is a very good portrait of Gov. S. in Yale Col- 
lege library which preserves the fine expression of his 
animated and interesting countenance. He was a bene- 
factor of Harvard Coliege.f 

Several of Gov. SaltonstalFs descendants through fe- 
male branches, and some bearing his name, are still in 
N. London and in New York, and are respectable. 

* See Appendix, No. iv. / , 

t Trumbull's Hist, Connecticut. Holmes' Annals, u. 107. 


He left a widow who was highly celebrated for her tal- 
ents, accomplishments and munificence to literary and 
religious institutions. She was a daughter of William 
Whittingham, esq. of Boston, who was descended from 
William Whittingham, the famous puritan, who fled 
from England in the reign of Queen Mary, leaving an 
estate of /.1100 sterling a year, and gathered at Geneva 
the first modern congregational church. 

Madam Saitonstall, before Gov. Saltonstall died, gave 
to Yale and Cambridge Colleges /.100 each, and by her 
will, which she wrote with her own hand, bequeathed 
/.1000 to Cambridge College for the use of two students 
designed for the ministry, She also left a very large 
silver bason to the South Church in Boston, /.100 to 
their poor, /.10 to each pastor, and /.10Q to the poor of 
the town, besides several other legacies to pious and be- 
nevolent uses. 

[For her character, Sic. see Eliot's N. E. Biography, 
and Coll Hist. Soc. vol. v.] 

Richaed Saltonstall, second son of Nathaniel, was 
graduated in 1695. He resided at Haverhill, sustained 
several civil and military offices, and was in all respects an 
excellent and very respectable man. 

Nathaniel, youngest son of Col. Nath. Saltonstall, was 
graduated also in 1695, and was afterwards a tutor. He 
died young, and is reputed to have been a man of supe- 
riour abilities and learning. 

Richard Saltonstall, son of the last named Richard, 
was born June 14, 1703, and graduated in the year 1722, 
At the age of 23 he received a colonel's commission. 
In 1736 he was appointed a judge of the Superiour 
Court, which office he held until his death Oct. 20 1756. 

Judge Saltonstall was a man of talents and learning, an 
accomplished officer, and peculiarly distinguished for 
hospitality and liberality. His address was polished, 
affable and interesting, his disposition was kind and af- 
fectionate, and he was extremely beloved by all who 
knew him. He left three sons and two daughters— Abi- 
gail, married to the late Col. George Watson, of Plym- 
outh, (she died soon after marriage, without children) and 


Mary, wife of the late Rev. Moses Badger, minister of 
the Episcopal church in Providence, both deceased. 

Nathaniel Saltonstall, who was graduated in 
1727, was a brother of Judge Saltonstall. He was a mer- 
chant, and died young. 

Richard, eldest son of Judge Saltonstall, was born 
April 5th,-1732, and graduated in 1751. In 1754 he 
was commissioned as colonel of the regiment in Haverhill 
and vicinity, and he was the fourth of the family in suc- 
cession who held that office. He entered into the active 
service of the Province in the French war in 1756, and 
was a major in the army at Fort William Henry, at the 
capitulation Aug. 9 1757. When the Indians fell upon 
the unarmed prisoners, he escaped into the woods, where 
he lay concealed through the day, while they were con- 
stantly passing in search of stragglers, and a day or two 
after reached Fort Edward, nearly exhausted with hun- 
ger and fatigue. Col. Saltonstall commanded a regiment 
from 1760, until the close of the war. He was soon after 
appointed Sheriff of the county of Essex. 

Gol. Saltonstall was a steady loyalist in principle. He 
was one of the rescinders in 1768, and uniformly opposed 
the measures taken in opposition to the government. 
The proceedings of parliament were, in his opinion, ex- 
tremely inexpedient, but he never doubted their right 
to tax these colonies. 

He was much beloved by the people of Haverhill and 
its vicinity, and it was long before he lost his popularity ; 
but in 1774, a mob from the West Parish of Haver- 
hili and Salem, N. H. assembled, for the purpose of 
proving themselves to be true Sons of Liberty by attack- 
ing him. By a word he could have collected a great 
part of the inhabitants of the village to iiis defence, but 
he would not, though urged by some of his friends. The 
rioters marched to his house and paraded before it, arm- 
ed with clubs and other offensive instruments, when he 
came to the door and addressed them with great firmness 
and dignity. He told them he was under the oath of 
allegiance to the king, that he was bound to discharge 
ihe duties of the office he held under him, that he did not 


I think the people were pursuing a wise or prudent course, 

I but that he was as great a friend to the country as any of 

I them, and had exposed his life in its cause, Sec." He 

| then ordered some refreshment for the gentlemen^ who 

soon began to relent, when he requested them all to go 

to the tavern, and call for entertainment at his expense. 

They accepted, his proposal, and attended by one of his 

friends made merry at his expense, huzzaed to the praise 

of "col. Saitonstall" and never attempted to mob him 


In the autumn of 1774 he left Haverhill, and soon after 
embarked for England. He refused to enter into the 
British service, saying, if he could not conscientiously, 
engage on the side of his native country, he never would 
take up arms against her. He was an excellent officer, 
and it was supposed might have had a high command in 
the American army, had he embraced the popular cause. 
The King granted a pension to Col. Saitonstall, and he 
passed the remainder of his days in England. In his 
letters he expressed great affection for " the delightful 
place of his nativity," but had no desire to return to this 
country unless he could be received into the office he for- 
merly held. In one of his last letters he says, " 1 have 
no remorse of conscience for my past conduct. I have 
had more satisfaction in a private life here, than I should 
have had in being next in command to Gen. Washington, 
where I must have acted in conformity to the dictates of 
others, regardless of my own feelings." 

Col. Saitonstall was never married. In Haverhill he 
resided upon the family estate in a liberal and hospitable 
manner, and was much beloved, and had great influence 
from his integrity, frankness and benevolence of disposi- 
tion, politeness of manners, his superiour understanding, 
and knowledge of the world. He died at Kensington, 
G. B. Oct. 6th, 1785. 

Col. Saitonstall was hospitably received in England by 
his remote family friends, who paid him every kind and 
generous attention while living, and erectdd a monument 
to his memory by Kensington church, with the following 


" Near this place are interred the remains of RICH- 
ARD SALTONSTALL, esq. who died October 1st, 
1785, aged 52. He was an American Loyalist, from 
Haverhill, in the Massachusetts ; where he was descend- 
ed from a first family, both for the principal share it had 
in the early erecting, as well as in rank and authority, 
in governing that Province — And wherein he himself 
sustained, with unshaken loyalty and universal applause, 
various important trusts and commands under the crown, 
both civil and military, from his youth till its revolt, and 
throughout life maintained such an amiable private Char- 
acter, as engaged him the esteem and regard of many 

As a memorial of his merits, this stone is erected." 

The late Doct. Nathaniel Saltonstall, second son 
of Judge Saltonstall, was born Feb. 10, 1746, and upon the 
death of his father in 1756, was received into the family 
of his uncle. Middlecott Cooke, esq. of Boston. 

Doct. Saltonstall was a very skilful and intelligent 
physician. The mildness of his manners and kindness 
of his disposition excited the confidence of his patients, 
and gained their strong attachment. He was remarkable 
for his humane and even assiduous attendance on the 
poor, consoling them by his cheerful visits and his sup. 
plies of medicines and other necessaries, without any 
hopes of remuneration. He was a sincere, liberal and 
humble christian. He felt an ardent attachment lo 
those venerable religious and literary institutions, in 
the establishment of which his ancestors had an important 
influence, particularly to Harvard College, in whose 
growing prosperity he rejoiced, and was ever ready to 
promote such objects as in his opinion would have a be- 
neficial influence on society. 

At a time when his brothers remained true to those 
principles of loyalty in which they had been educated, 
he was firm, but moderate in his opposition to the mea- 
sures of Great Britain. It was to him a severe trial, and 
he gave the strongest proof of sincerity and indepen- 
dence ; his principles separated him forever from those 
he most loved. In later party contentions he was un- 


wavering, and no man in the country felt a more 
lively interest in its honour and welfare. Diffident 
and fond of retirement, he was wholly unambitious of 
public life, and found the chief enjoyments of society in 
the small circle of his family and friends. The object of 
his exertions was usefulness in his profession, and the 
happiness and improvement of those around him. 

Exemplary in all the relations of private life, of irre- 
proachable morals, social, benevolent, cheerful and hos- 
pitable, he was tenderly beloved by his family and friends, 
and was honoured by the affectionate esteem and respect 
of all who knew him. " Of the piirity of Dr. S.'s prin- 
ciples and the honourable independence of his character, 
of his elevated integrity, his love of truth, his generous, 
noble and affectionate spirit," much might be said with 
propriety, was this a suitable place to enlarge on a char- 
acter, wholly private. 

As a mark of respect to his virtues and character, the 
citizens of Haverhill, spontaneously and without any pre- 
vious concert, universally closed their stores, and sus- 
pended business to attend the funeral obsequies. 

Dr. Saltonstall left three sons and four daughters, the 
only family of the name in Massachusetts. 

Leverett, youngest son of Judge Saltonstall, received 
his name from his mother's connexion with the family of 
that name.* He was born Dec. 25th, 1754, and at the 
commencement of the war had nearly completed his term 
of service with a merchant of Boston, when Col. Salton- 
stall came to that place for protection. Being in the hab- 
it of looking up to him for advice and direction, he em- 
braced the same political opinions, and becoming ac- 
quainted with the British officers, he was fascinated with 
their profession, and entered into the British service. 
He was in many battles, and commanded a company in 
the army of Lord Cornwallis. He died at New York, 
Dec. 20th, 1782. His brother in law, the Rev. Moses 
Badger, who was also a royalist, in a letter to Doct. Nath. 

* She was a daughter of the last Elisha Cooke, of Boston. The first Elisbfc 
Cooke's wife was a daughter of Gov L. The descendants of Mr- SaiitMBtaHj are 
•)■,.• ©bIt descendants of the Cooke fon|Uy. 


Saltonstall concerning his sickness (consumption) and 
death, which he attributes to the fatigues he endured in 
Lord CornwalhV campaign, which, he says, M I believe 
to be as many and as great, as any army ever met with, 
in any country, at any period since the creation,'' adds — 
" it may be some consolation to you and his mother t6 
hear, that his behaviour in the regiment endeared him to 
every officer, and ihe soldiers who had so frequent oppor- 
tunities to see his intrepidity, coolness and gallantry in 
action, absolutely revered him. He was agreeable to 
people of all ranks. He was exceedingly cautious in 
speaking, seldom uttering a word without reflection, and 
was never heard to speak ill of any one, and reprobated 
the man or woman who indulged themselves in this in- 
firmity. He never fell into the scandalous and fashionable 
vice of profaneness ; in short, I looked upon him to be as 
innocent a young man as any I have known, since I have 
been capable of making observations on mankind." 

If this memoir be too particular, the apology of the 
writer is, his respect for a family which holds a high rank 
among those worthies, who first established and govern- 
ed this colony. Ungrateful should we "be not to cherish 
a recollection of those distinguished men, to whose reso- 
lution, courage, discernment and piety, we owe the good- 
ly heritage we now enjoy, and those venerable institu- 
tions, which have for so many generations been the sup- 
port and ornament of this community. 


A Catalogue of the natives of Haverhill, who have re- 
ceived a College education. 

Harvard College. 


1684 *Gurdonus Saltonstall Mr. 
V. D. M. Con. Col. Gub. 
1695 *Nathanael Saltonstall Mr. 
I §95 *Richardus Saltonstall Mi. 
1 709 # Johannes Waiuwiight Mr. 

1710 *Obadias Ayer Mr. 
17 j 7 *Richardus flazzen Mr. 
1720 *Timotheus White Mr. 
1722 *Richardus Saltonstall Mr. 

Mass. rrov. Cur. Sup. 




1727 *Nathanael Saltonstall Mr. 
1737 # Moses Emerson Mr. 
1741 * Johannes Brawn Mr. 
1 743 # Jacobus Pecker Mr. 

M. M. S. Vice Praeses. 
1743 * Cotton Brown Mr. 
1748 *Ward' Brown 
I75t *Ricfrardus Saltonstall Mr. 

1751 * Johannes White Mr. 

1 752 *TkGmas Brown Mr* 
1757 *Jeremias Pecker Mr.l 761 
1 759 * Johannes Whittier Mr. 

1 761 * Moses Badger Mr. 

1 7bl Johannes Marsh Mr. S.T.I). 

Tutor. Col. Yal. Soc. 
1766 *Nathanael Saltonstall Mr. 
M. M S. Soc. 

1771 * Johannes White Mr. 

1772 * Joshua Bailey Osgood Mr. 

1773 Daniel Parker Mr. 1782 

1774 Edvardus Barnard Mr. 
17 75 # Isaacus Osgood Mr. 

1787 Leonard White Mr. 
1787 Petrus Eaton Mr. 

1792 Stephanus Peabody Web- 

ster Mr. 

1793 Phineas Adams Mr. 
1795 Joshua Wingate Mr. 
1798 Gulielmus Smith Shaw Mr. 

A.A.S. H.etS. A.S. 
1802 Leverett Saltonstall Mr. 
1804 Ebenezer Greenough 
1804 Moses Webster 

1806 Thomas Tracy 

1807 Jacobus-Cushing Merrill 

1807 Samuel -Merrill Mr. 
1810 Samuel White Duncan Mr. 
1810 Isaacus-Redington How 


1812 Jacobus Henricus Duncan 


1813 Richardus Saltonstall 

Yale College. 
1809 Theodore Eames Mr. | 1814 Johannes Mulliken Atwood 

Dartmouth College 

1798 Gulielmus Moody 
1 802 Samuel Walker 

1810 Moses S.Moody 
1813 Benjamin Greenleaf 


Know all Men by these Presents; that wee 
Passaquo and Saggahew, with the consent of *Fassacon- 
naway have sold unto the inhabitants of Pentuckett all the 
land we have in Pentuckett ; that is eight miles in length 
from the little river in Pentuckett westward, six miles in 
length from the aforesaid river northward, and six miles 
in length from the aforesaid river eastward, with the islands 
and the river that the islands stand in as far in length 

• This is probably the sachem whom Gov. Winthrop (Journal, 1642, Mo. 7. 1. 
p. 257) mentions, «* who lived by Merrimack," whom the government upon an 
alarm sent to disarm. And, 1644, 4 mo. 5. " At this court Passaconaway the Mer- 
rimack sachem came in and submitted to our government, as Puraham had done 




as the land lyes, as formerly expressed, that is fourteene 
myles in length ; and we the said Passaquo and Sagga- 
hew with the consent of Passaconnaway have sold unto 
the said inhabbittants all the right that wee or any of us 
have in the said ground, and islands and river ; and do 
warrant it against all or any other Indians whatsoever un- 
to the said inhabbittants of Pentuckett and to their heirs 
and assigns forever. Dated the fifteenth day of Novem- 
ber: AnnoDom: 1642: 

Witness our hands and seals to this bargayne of sale 
the day and yeare above written (in the presents of us). 
Wee the said Passaquo and Saggahew have received in 
hand, for and in consideration of the same, three pounds 
and ten shillings. 

The marke of 

John Ward 
Robert Clements 
Tristram Coffin 
Hugh Sherrit 


William White 

The signe of 
Thomas 3? Davis 

Entered and recorded in the County Records for 
Norfolk [lib. 2d. pa. 209] jf 29th day of April 
1671 — as attest — Tho: Bradbury, Recorder. 

Recorded the first of April 1681 among the records 
of lands for Essex at Ipswich — as attest — 

Robert Lord, Recorder. 

(Indorsed on the outside) 

The purchase from 

the Indians by 

Haverhill men. 


The Rev. teacher of the church and town of Haver- 
hill, Mr. John Ward, and William White and Tho : 
Davis do testifie that Haverhill township or lands then by 
the Indians called Pentuckett was purchased of the In- 
dians as is mentioned in the deed in this paper contained, 
which is entered upon record, and that we were then in- 
habitants at Haverhill, and present when the Indians 
Passaquo and Saggahew (who were then the apparent 
owners of the land and so accompted) did sign and con- 
firm the same, and that then we (with others now dead) 
did sign our names to the deed, which land we have ever 
since enjoyed peaceably, without any Indian molestation 
from the grantors or their heirs. 

Taken upon oath, Feb. 4, 1680. Before me, 



Reverend and deare friends, whom I unfaynedly love and 
It doth not a little grieve my spirit to heare what sadd 
things are reported dayly of your tyranny and persecu- 
tions in New- England, as that you fyne, whip and im- 
prison men for their consciences. First you compel such 
to come into your assemblies as you know will not joyne 
with you in your worship, and when they shew their dis- 
like thereof or witness against it, then you styrre up your 
magistrates to punish them for such (as you conceyve) 
their publick affronts. Truly, friends, this your practice 
of compelling any in matters of worship to doe that where- 
of they are not fully persuaded is to make them sin, for 
soe the apostle (Rom. 14 and 23,) tells us, and many are 
made hypocrites thereby, conforming in their outward 
man for feare of punishment. We pray for you and wish 
you prosperitie every way, hoped the Lord would have 
given you so much light and love there, that you might 
have been eyes to God's people here, and not to practice 
those courses in a wilderness, which you went so farre to 
prevent. These rigid waves have layed you very lowe 


in the hearts of the saynts. I doe assure you I have 
heard them pray in the publique assemblies, that the 
Lord would give you meeke and humble spirits, not to 
stryve so much for uniformity, as to keep the unity of the 
spirit in the bond of peace. 

When I was in Holland about the beginning of the 
warres, I remember some christians there that then had 
serious thoughts of planting in New- England desired me 
to write to the governor thereof to know if those that dif- 
fer from you in opinion, yet houlding the same founda- 
tion in religion as Anabaptists, Seekers, Antinomians, 
and the like might be permitted to live among you, to 
which I received this short answer from your then gov- 
ernor, Mr. Dudley, God forbid, (said he) our love for 
the truth should be grown so could that we should tole- 
rate errours, and when (for satisfaction of myself and oth- 
ers) I desired to know your grounds, he referred me to 
the books written here between the Presbyterians and In- 
dependents, which if that had been sufficient, 1 needed 
not have sent soe farre to understand the reasons of your 
practice. I hope you do not assume to yourselves infalii- 
bilitie of judgment, when the most learned of the apostles 
confesseth he knew but in parte and saw but darkely as 
through a glass. Oh that all those who are brethren, 
though yet they cannot thinke and speake the same things 
might be of one accord in the Lord. Now the God of 
patience and consolation grant you to be thus minded to- 
wards one another, after the example of Jesus Christ our 
blessed Savyor, in whose everlasting armes of protection 
he leaves you who will never leave to be 

Your truly and much affectionate 
friend in the nearest union 

Ric : Saltonstali* 
For my Reverend and worthy ly 
much esteemed friends Mr. 
Cotton and Mr. Wilson, 
preachers to the church which 
is at Boston in New-Eng- 


No. IV. 

Extracts from the Boston News Letter. No. 1079. 
Oct. 1, 1724, "We hear from New London the very 
melancholy and surprizing news that on the 20th of 
September, the truly honourable Gurdon Saltonstall, 
Esq. governor of the colony of Connecticut, died very 
suddenly at his seat there." 

" On the 19th he dined well, and so continued till about 
4 P. M. when he seemed something indisposed and quick- 
ly complained of a pain in his head ; about 6 he betook 
himself to his bed, his pain and illness increasing he then 
said, See what need we have to be always ready ! &c. 
At twelve the next day he expired to the almost unexam- 
pled sorrow of all that saw or since have heard of it, not 
only through all that government, but the whole land." 

" He was born at Haverhill of a very ancient family which 
flourished for several ages at Kiliingsly in Yorkshire in 
England. This gentleman went from Cambridge 
when very young, just upon his master's degree in the 
College there, at the earnest desire of the people in New 
London, where he was their- minister for many years, 
and greatly esteemed, for excelling service in that station." 
" He was early observed to have a great genius and ca- 
pacity in public affairs, and in his very youth was chosen 
agent for the colony of Connecticut to England, and in 
matters of importance was always consulted, until at last 
in the year 1707 by the pressing instances of the General 
Assembly after mature deliberation and the judgment of 
divers of the most grave and learned of the clergy he was 
prevailed upon to take the care and government of them 
more directly and fully into his own hands, ever since 
which he has been annually chosen governor to the great 
satisfaction of all wise, good and impartial men. And 
indeed it was scarce possible it should be otherwise, for 
he was a just, wise and indulgent father to them, being 
peculiarly formed for the benefit and delight of mankind* 
He had a wonderful quickness of thought, and yet as 
strange an attention and closeness, a bright, lively, beau- 
tiful imagination yet a very correct judgment. His ex* 


ccllencies seemed to meet in the most happy composition, 
his correct judgment presented a wild luxuriancy in his 
fancy, and the beauty and easiness of that softened the 
severity of the other. He had a great compass of learn- 
ing, was a profound divine, a great judge in the law, and 
a consummate statesman. He made excellent observa- 
tions in natural philosophy, and had a peculiar genius and 
skill in the mathematics, not to mention his lighter studies 
in philology, history* geography, &c. in each of which he 
excelled enough to have made any other man very fa- 
mous. His person, mien and aspect were equally at* 
tractive of love and admiration ; the superiority and pene- 
tration of his great mind seemed to shew themselves to 
our "very senses in the natural majesty of his eye, look 
and deportment, and yet a flowing benevolence and kind- 
ness seemed equally visible in the complaisance and easi- 
ness of them, that it was scarce possible for a man that 
had the opportunity of conversing with him, to put on ill 
nature enough not to love and admire him, and especial- 
ly if they saw him in the place of an orator, where the 
agreeableness and even music of his voice, the strength 
and perspicuity of his reasons, the beauty and sprightli- 
ness of his allusions, the easy coherence, genuine relation 
and connection in his transitions, the choice of his words 
and if it may be so expressed concise fulness in his diction 
and stile, the charms in his appearance, air and gesture, 
commanded the eyes, the ears, the soul, the whole man 9 
in all that were near him, in such a strange and wonder- 
ful manner, that when he has sometimes spoken for hours 
together, there has appeared nothing but satisfaction, de- 
Ught and rapture, till they have all complained that he left 
oif and robbed them of their happiness so soon." 

" He was as great a Christian as he was a man, and 
seemed to be peculiarly fitted for glory in the next world, 
as he was for usefulness and the highest esteem in this." 

" His most accomplished and virtuous lady survives. 
He left seven children, three sons and four daughters, and 
to each of them a plentiful fortune. He inherited ar^ 
estate in Yorkshire, England." 


Extracts from a Funeral discourse upon the death of 
Gov. 8, by the Rev. Eliph. Adams of New- London. 

" How doth the whole land shake at his fall ! How 
much of our glory, how much of our peace and safety is 
buried in this one grave ! Every heart aches at the hear- 
ing of it, and every eye plentifully pours out tears unto 
God ! The heavy tidings passeth swiftly from place to 
place, astonishing all as it goes and every man amazed at 
the news tells it to his trembling neighbour, and all with 
one consent begin to say, The crown is fallen from our 
head, wo unto us that rue have sinned. This is a most 
awful dispensation of divine providence indeed, whether 
we consider the suddenness and surprisingness of the 
stroke, or his very great worth and excellent accomplish- 
ments, or the eminent station in which he was placed, and 
how well he filled and adorned it. ' ' 

" Often have I trembled to think how much of our 
glory and safety was bound up in him, and what a migh- 
ty blow we should be made to feel in the day when it 
should please God to remove him from us. The melan- 
choly hour is at length come, this wise, great, and good 
man is fallen, with all his glories yet fresh about him, as 
if the sun should go down at noon. Every mouth is 
filled with his praises, and can scarce speak of any thing 
else but our heavy loss. And indeed, here is a most 
copious subject for panegyrick — it is hard to say what 
should be passed in silence, where every thing may be 
said, and too much plenty makes us poor. 

" Who did not admire his consummate wisdom, pro- 
found learning, his dexterity in business and indefatigable 
application, his intimate acquaintance with men and 
things, and his superiour genius ? And what was more 
than all this, his unaffected piety and love to God's house, 
his exact life and exemplary conversation ? In what part 
of learning did he not excel V 9 

" Wc stood with a fixed attention with our ears chain- 
ed to his lips. Would his modesty have permitted he 
might justly have made use of the words of Job." Unto 
me men gave ear and waited, and kept silence at my 
counsel. After my words they spake not again," 


After a minute and most exalted character he says, 
"You that hear me this day know the truth of these 
things, before whom therefore / speak freely, and that 
there is little danger of exceeding upon so copious a 
subject, that ail which I can well say will fall short of his 
due character, and that it must be a tongue or pen like 
his own that can do him justice. Say now if our loss^e 
not heavy and amazing. Shall we not lift up our voices 
and weep and say, The crown is falling from our 
heads I" 


port, County of Cumberland, and District 
of Maine. By Key, Mr. .Reuben Nason. Ju- 
ly, 18i5. 

X REEPORT is situated on a branch of Casco Bay, by 
which it is bounded on the south east ; on the south west 
it is bounded by North Yarmouth, on the north west by 
Pownal and Durham, and on the north east by Bruns* 
wick. Its average breadth is 4 or 5 miles, and length 
6 or 7; This town and Pownal, which was formerly in- 
cluded in it, were originally part of North Yarmouth, 
with the exception of a tract of land on the north east 
quarter, called Prout's gore. Freeport was incorporated 
in 1789, and Pownal was separated from it and formed 
into a town in 1808. The distance of the principal seat 
of business from Portland is eighteen miles, and from 
Boston one hundred and thirty three miles. 

Rivers. None of a considerable size. The principal 
one is navigable for vessels of considerable burthen to 
Porter's landing and to the mast landing, not more than 
two or three miles from its mouth. At these landings, 
vessels of four hundred or five hundred tons have been 
built. There are several small creeks in which coasters 
load with wood. 

Face of the country, soil, &fc. The face of the town 
is broken and rocky, though there are no large hills 
or mountains. The soil is for the most part clay and 


a clayey loam. Neither rye nor Indian corn flourish. 
Wheat has in some seasons succeeded pretty well. Barley, 
oats, and especially potatoes, succeed very well. Where 
the land has been cultivated, it produces good crops of 
hay ; principally clover and herd's grass. It is difficult at 
present to determine what may eventually be the agricultur- 
al" character of this town. The first settlers were, many of 
them, ship carpenters, and depended chiefly upon that 
business for subsistence. Others were mariners, and of 
course their land was much neglected. Others have de- 
pended upon the sale of wood and timber, and while they 
have divested the land of its principal growth of wood, 
have left it in a state very difficult to be brought into cul- 
tivation. Little produce of any kind has yet been raised, 
more than for home consumption ; and a large portion of 
the people depend more or less upon other places for their 
supply of bread. 

Minerals. Probably some which are valuable, but they 
have not been sufficiently investigated to warrant a de- 
scription of them. 

Wood. Spruce and hemlock prevail in some sections, 
and in others beech, black and yellow birch, and white 
and rock maple. Of the first mentioned, large quanti- 
ties were formerly exported for spars, and for masts of 
small vessels. But nearly all of this which remained, and 
was valuable, was a few years since killed, as it is said, 
by a species of small worms, somewhat similar to the 
canker worms, which have proved destructive to orchards. 
The hemlock was considered valuable chiefly for its bark, 
which was taken off and sold for fuel or for tanning, 
and the bodies of the trees left to rot on the ground, or 
were burnt to clear the land. But a small quantity of 
this wood remains. The other kinds of wood have been 
exported in large quantities to Portland, Boston, and 
other places for fuel ; and while the owners of the land 
and those employed in cutting and conveying it to mar- 
ket have obtained a scanty subsistence, the traders and 
exporters have in several instances acquired handsome 
estates. This source of business is nearly exhausted, 
and the place has a decaying aspect. 

24 VOL. IV. 


Fruits. Fruit trees have never been much attended to. 
Pear trees will not thrive : apple trees, either from the un- 
friendliness of the soil, or for want of proper culture, have 
come forward very slowly. Indeed but few attempts 
have yet been made to plant orchards ; and not even one 
cyder mill has been set up within the town. 

Roads. The broken state of the land requires great ex- 
pense to make them passable ; and as little sand or gravel 
can be obtained, and they must be made chiefly of clay, 
they are unavoidably in a bad state a considerable portion 
of the year. 

Mills. There are two or three saw mills on small 
streams., which are wrought but a part of the year ; and 
these do little more than supply the inhabitants with an 
inferiour kind of lumber, there being no valuable pine 
timber in the town. There are three or four grist mills, 
one of which is a tide mill ; and two carding machines 
have been set up. There are here no distilleries and no 
other than common domestick manufactories. 

Trades, £sV. A large portion of the inhabitants have 
been educated to the business of ship building ; which 
was formerly carried on extensively ; but at present 
upon a smaller scale. Some of the inhabitants are con- 
nected with ship owners in Portland and other places ; 
and a number of coasting vessels, and some which 
occasionally go to the West Indies are owned wholly 
in the place. 

Taverns and stores* There are within the town three 
taverns ; two at the corner, and one about two miles dis- 
tant, towards Brunswick, and ten retailing stores. 

Schools, &fc. Schools have been greatly neglected. 
The town is divided into eleven school districts, in 
which masters are employed from two to four months in 
a year. In some of them, female instructers are employ- 
ed for a short time in the summer. The people do not 
encourage instructers who are duly qualified, but, with 
few exceptions, seek for those who can be obtained at a 
cheap rate ; from ten to fifteen dollars a month, board in- 


No more than three young gentlemen have been sent 
from this town to any college ; viz. Alfred Johnson, jun. 
Cornelius Dennison, graduated at Bowdoin College, and 
Jacob Scales, now a student at Dartmouth College, and 
one is preparing to enter Bowdoin College, at the ensu- 
ing commencement. No more than two men of colle- 
giate education reside in the town, viz. Leonard Morse, 
Esq. alumnus of Harvard University, and Mr. Samuel 
Hoi brook, of Yale College, 

There is one physician, John A. Hyde, Esq. M. M. S. S. 
and one counsellor at law, Josiah W. Mitchel, Esq. nei- 
ther of whom received a liberal education. 

History. As this town was formerly included in North 
Yarmouth, its early history is merged in the history 
of that town. A few families from North Yarmouth set- 
tled in the western section at an early period. The In- 
dian name of the town, or of that part near the river, was 
Harraseekit. The middle and eastern portions remain- 
ed unsettled in a great measure till within forty-five or 
fifty years. In the vicinity of Brunswick several of the 
first settlers, (as well as most of the original inhabitants of 
that town,) were from the north of Ireland, and some 
from the western part of the District of Maine. Of the 
former, were a family of the name of Mann, and another 
of the name of Anderson, whose descendants are nume- 
rous. Of the latter, were individuals of the name of 
Chase, Jameson, and Means. 

Several families settled in different parts of the town 
were from Plymouth colony. Those whose descendants 
are most numerous were of the names Sylvester, Soule, 
Townsend, Dillingham, Curtis, and Brewer. Messrs. 
David and Abner Dennison from Gloucester, who 
were among the first inhabitants, have left a numerous 
posterity. Besides these a family of Talbots from the 
vicinity of Boston, and a family of Mitchells, first estab- 
lished "in that part now North Yarmouth, have left many 
descendants. A Mr. Coffin, originally from Newbury, 
was one settler, and many of his descendants remain. 
These which have been enumerated constitute at present 
a large portion of the inhabitants. The rest, or their an- 


cestors, have at different times immigrated from various 
places. In the eastern part of the town an attack was 
made by the Indians, in the year and Mr. Means, 

father of the present Maj. Thomas Means, was killed a 
few months before the latter was born. 

The Congregational church was gathered December 
21, 1789. The exact number of its original members 
cannot now be ascertained. A covenant and brief con- 
fession of faith were adopted, and have continued in use, 
without alterations, taken in substance from those used by 
the primitive churches of New England, found in Dr. 
Mather's Ratio Discipline. 

On the 28th December, 1789, Rev. Alfred Johnson, a 
native of Plainfieid in Connecticut, graduated at Dart- 
mouth College, 1785, was ordained pastor. He continu- 
ed in office till September 11, 1805, when his pastoral 
connection was dissolved at his own request, and he was 
during the same month installed pastor of the church in 
Belfast. The council at his ordination consisted of 
Rev. Tristram Gilman of North Yarmouth, Rev. Sam- 
uel Eaton of Harpswell, Rev. Ephraim Clark, Cape 
Elizabeth, Rev. Ebenezer Williams, Falmouth, and 
Rev. E. Kellogg, Portland. Mr. Gilman preached, Mr. 
Eaton gave the charge, and Mr. Kellogg the right hand 
of fellowship. At the time of Mr. Johnson's dismission 
seventy-one members appear to have been received into 
the church, including those first embodied, of whom fifty- 
one remained. Mr. Johnson's salary was one hundred 
pounds per annum. 

December 10, 1806. Rev. Samuel Veazie was or- 
dained pastor of this church. Rev. John Foster of Cam- 
bridge (now Brighton) preached from Thess. v. 12, 
13, Rev. Samuel Eaton of Harpswell gave the charge, 
and Rev. Wm. Jenks of Bath, the right hand of fellowship. 
Mr. Veazie was a native of Braintree, and was graduated 
at Harvard University, A. D. 1800. He continued some 
time at college, and pursued his theological studies un- 
der the direction of professor Tappan. He was highly 
acceptable to his people in general ; and his church 
received considerable additions during his short ministry. 


In the latter part of the year 1 808 his health declined ; 
the was, however, confined from his pulpit labours no 
jimore than two or three sabbaths. The circumstances of 
flhis death were peculiarly distressing. On the night of 
jFebruary 5, 1 ,09, while confined to his chamber, in the 
Ihouse of Mrs. V.'s mother, and supposed to be near 
ihis dissolution, the lower part of the house was discover- 
|ed to be in flames. He was with difficulty removed to 
■the house of Mr. Bartol his brother in law, in one of the 
Imost severe snow storms known for many years. The 
[exposure was thought to have accelerated his exit, 
Iwhich took place the next day. Several of the family, 
jamong others Mrs. V. with difficulty escaped from the 
jflames. Most of their furniture and clothes, and all his 
jbooks, manuscripts, church records, Sec. were consumed. 
His funeral was attended on the 10th February, at which 
a pertinent and affecting discourse was delivered by Rev. 
iW. Jenks of Bath, from John ix. 4. Mr. Veazie's salary 
(Was six hundred dollars. 

In June, 1809, the church and parish gave a call to 
jMr. Jaazaniah Crosby to become their minister, which 
| he declined ; and he was afterwards settled at Charles- 
town, N. H. 

Rev. Reuben Nason was ordained February 7th, 1810. 
He was a native of Dover, N. H. graduated at Harvard 
University, A. D. 1802. The Rev. Jesse Appleton, 
President of Bowdoin College preached from Heb xiii. 
8. ; Rev. Samuel Eaton gave the charge, and the Rev. 
Caleb Bradley of Falmouth the right hand of fellowship.* 
He continued labouring in the ministry till the spring of 
1815. Previously, during the embarrassments of the 
war, he had found it necessary to relinquish a considerable 
part of his salary ; still, through the prevalence of a secta- 
rian spirit in part, and partly from the diminution of the 
means of paying his salary, he found it necessary to 

* The pastors who were on the council were Rev. Samuel Eaton, Harpswell, 
Rev. William Jenks, Bath, Rev. Jacob Herriek, Durham, Rev. Elisha Mosely, 
New Gloucester ; Rev. Daniel Weston, Gray ; Rev. Caleb Bradley and Rev. 
William Miltimore, Falmouth; Rev. Ichabod Nichols, Rev. Eljah Kellogg, and 
Rev. Edward Payson, Portland ; Rev. Francis Brown and Rev. John Dutton, 
North Yarmouth ; Rev. Asa Rand, Gorham, and Rev. Jesse Appleton, President 
of Bowdoin College. 


call a council for advice. A council was accordingly 
convened by him and the church March 23d, 1815, con- 
sisting of Rev. Dr. Appleton, Rev. Jacob Herrick of 
Durham, Rev. Francis Brown of North Yarmouth, and 
Rev. Perez Chapin of Pownal. After hearing the pas- 
tor's statement and a report from a joint committee of 
the church and parish, they voted, " that it was expedient 
the pastoral connexion should be dissolved ; but whereas 
no suggestion had been made tending to impeach in any 
measure Mr. N.'s ministerial character, and whereas it 
appeared that he had made important sacrifices to the 
good of this people, it was unreasonable, that he should 
immediately be deprived of his stipulated support, they 
were of opinion the pastoral connexion should continue 
three months, unless he should desire a dissolution of it 
sooner." It was accordingly dissolved June 23d. 1815. 
Mr. Nason's salary at his settlement was six hundred j 
dollars ; this, for two years previous to his dismission, 
he consented should be reduced to four hundred and fifty. 

At the time of Mr. N.'s ordination the church con- 
sisted of seventy nine members. During his ministry 
were added 4 in 1810; 5 in 1811; 3 in 1812; 6 in 
1813; 13 in 1814; in all 31. By death or otherwise, 
16 had been removed, leaving the number 94 ; of these 
25 were males. Baptisms were 28 in 1810 ; 17 in 1811 ; 
18 in 1812 ; 5 in 1813 ; 14 in 1814 ; 6 in 1815. Whole 
number 88. 

Deacons of the church, Ambrose Talbot, elected May 
,15, 1790; died May 2, 1804. Hon. John Cushing,* 
elected April 24, 1793 ; died December 26, 1812, in 
the 72d year of his age. William Soule, elected April 
28, 1808. Moses Soule, jr. elected April 29, 1813. 

Baptist Society* In 1808 a Baptist society was incor- 
porated in Freeport, a church gathered, and a handsome 

of the 

* He was the only son of the Rev. John Cushing of Boxford, and grandson 
Rev. Caleb Gushing of Salisbury. He graduated at Cambridge, A. D. 1761. 
many years he held the most important offices in Freeport, of which town he be- 
came an inhabitant soon after its incorporation. He was often elected a represen- 
tative to the General Court ; and for several years was a senator for the Cumber- 
land district. He was an active member of the Board of Overseers of Bowdoin 
College ; and discharged with fidelity the office 01 deacon in the church for twenty 


heeting house erected. In this society Rev. Silas Stearns, 
fir. Ebenezer Pinkham, and Rev. Daniel Mason have of- 
ficiated as stated preachers, the last mentioned of whom 
fill continues. In 1814 the whole number of commu- 
jicants in the church was 49. It had then suffered some 

i Unrversalist Society. Several individuals of this de- 
pmination many years ago settled in Freeport, the prin- 
npal part of whom were from Gloucester. About the 
(ear 1810, they were organized as a society, and erected 

convenient meeting house. Rev. Thomas Barnes has 
reached for them several years about one sabbath in 
pur. Lately the methodists have sent some of their 
tinerants to supply them a part of the time. 

There is a considerable number of free will baptists, 
nd a few quakers in the town ; who, except occasionally 
yhen itinerant preachers come among them, attend wor- 
hip in Brunswick and Durham. 

The population of Freeport by the census of 1810 
vas 2284. 

The deaths in 1810 were 22. 

6 of 40 years and upwards, viz. 87, 77, 74, 62, 50 
[ and 48 ; all males. 

3 from 20 to 40, viz. 30, 25, 22 ; all females. 

6 from 10 to 20, viz. 19, 17, 15, 2 of 13, and 10 ; all 


7 under 10 years. 


The deaths in 1811 were 26. 

7 of 40 years and upwards, viz. 97, 86, 75, 70, 2 of 
65, 45 ; 4 males and 3 females. 

4 from 20 to 40, viz. 35, 30, 26, 20 j 1 male and 3 

6 from 10 to 20, viz. 2 of 18, 3 of 17, 12 ; 4 males 

and 2 females. 
9 under 10 years. 




The deaths in 1812 were 43. 

11 of 40 and upwards, viz. 88, 87, 83, 79, 78, 75, 

73, 72, 71, 68, 59; 5 males and 6 females. 
10 from 20 to 40, viz. 37, 36, 35, 31, 3 of 27, 2 of 

25, 23 ; 4 males and 6 females. 
from 10 to 20. 
22 under 10, one of these 7, all the others under 2 



In 1813 the deaths were 21. 

6 of 40 and upwards, viz. 92, 74, 70, 59, 50 and 44; 
5 males, 1 female. 

6 from 20 to 40, viz. 28, 2 of 27, 22, 2 of 20 ; all 

2 from 10 to 20, viz. 19, 18 ; 1 male, 1 female. 

7 under 10. 

In 1814 the deaths were 30. 

9 of 40 and upwards, viz. 92, 83, 75, 73, 67, 50, 

49, 46, 42 ; 3 males 6 females. 
2 from 20 to 40, viz. 34, 29 ; 1 male, 1 female. 
5 from 10to 20, viz. 15, 14, 2 of 11, 10 ; 3 males, 

2 females. 
14 under 10, and none of them exceeding 2 1-2 years. 


a topographical and historical sketch of saco, 
County of York, District of Maine. By Rev. 
Mr. Jonathan Cogswell. August, 1815. 

oACO is pleasantly situated upon the N. E. side of Sa- 
co river, from which it derives its name. It is nine 
miles long, and four miles wide, forming a parallelogram. 
Its distance from Boston is one hundred miles, and it is 
fifteen miles S. W. of Portland. It is bounded north 
east by Scarborough ; south east by the sea ; north west 
by Buxton, and south west by Saco river, which sepa- 
rates it from Biddeford. 


Till 1762, Saco and Biddeford, which are separated by 
the river Saco, were one town. The town, now called 
Saco, by an act of the Legislature, 1803, was then incor- 
porated by the name of Pepperellborough, in honour of 
Sir William Pepperell, one of the principal proprietors 
of the town. 

Saco river, as it runs, is in length about one hundred 
and sixty miles, and in width (ten miles from the sea) 
about one hundred yards. Its general course is S. S. E. 
The western branch, which is called the main branch, 
has its source just beyond the notch of the White Moun- 
tains. What is worthy of notice, the source of the Con- 
necticut river is so near, that a spectator may see one 
running one way and the other another, at the same time. 
The sources are less than two rods from each other. 

The eastern branch, called Ellis' river, which is eigh- 
teen miles long, has its source in the easterly part of the 
White Mountains, not far from the source of the An- 
droscoggin, Onl) a beaver dam separates them. There 
is another branch, called the middle branch, which joins 
the main stream at Bartlett. 

Saco river runs thirty-three miles in the town of Frye- 
burgh, without making but four miles progress, forming 
the rich intervals of that town. There are several falls in 
the river, the principal of which are at Hiram seventy 
two feet, called Great Falls, at Lymington twenty feet, 
called Steep Falls, at Buxton thirty feet, called Salmon 
Falls, and at Saco forty- two feet, called Saco Falls. A 
great number of small streams fall into this river ; which 
make it one of the most important rivers in Maine. Im- 
mense quantities of logs, which are sawed into boards 
and timber, ccme down the river at the time of the 

All kinds of wood and timber are found in Saco, and 
upon the banks of the river in different towns. In addi- 
tion to the evergreens, which are found in every part of 
Maine, the maple, beech and birch prevail considerably. 
Oak, elm, walnut and cherry-tree are also found on par- 
ticular spots. 

25 rot; jv. 


Fruit trees of almost every kind flourish very well in 
this town. The peach tree is seldom cultivated with 
much success The climate is too cold for this tender 
tree. Melons flourish very well and are very fine In- 
deed, with proper attention, almost every thing will 
grow here, that is found in the neighbourhood of 
Boston. Vegetables, on account of the shortness of the 
season and their rapid growth, are better than in places 
farther south. 

The quantity of cider, made in this town annually, 
is from 300 to 400 barrels. 

There is no town in Maine where the roads are better, 
if so good, as here. 

At the fails, called Saco Falls, are saw-mills, which 
contain eighteen saws, which cut about 36G00 feet of 
boards every twenty-four hours. There are also three 
grist mills, one fulling mill and one iron factory. The iron 
factory is on a large scale, and has the best accommoda- 
tions of any one in the country. The machinery is in a 
very perfect state. One machine will, with the help of a 
boy of twelve or fifteen years of age, make 150 shingle 
nails in one minute ; and another of stronger powers, 100 
of the largest kind of nails in a minute. There are now 
five machines. There is also a rolling mill under the 
same roof. It is no exaggeration to say, there is probably 
not a better place in the world for all kinds of mills and 
factories. Vessels of 10Q tons can come up within a few 
rods of all these mill seats, where there is through the 
year water enough for 2000 mills and factories. This 
town will, at some future day, be celebrated for its 

The markets in Saco are very good for so small a 
place. Wood seldom exceeds two dollars per cord, 
brought to the door, and of the best quality. 

The price of land is, according to its situation and qual- 
ity, from five hundred dollars to two dollars per acre. 
About one third of the land is very good, about one third 
extiemely light, and the remaining third indifferent. 

Every kind of fish which is brought into Boston mar- 
ket is caught near our shores, or in the river. Salmon 


is scarce, owing, it is said, to the saw mills on the river. 
The same kind of quadrupeds and birds are found hue 
and in this vicinity, as in the towns about Boston. It is 
however a remarkable fact, that birds of no kind abound 
in Maine. There. are in this town mechanicks oi every 
kind, according to the necessities of the town and vicini- 
ty. There are 3 taverns, 20 stores, and about 3000 or 
4000 tons of shipping. Shipbuilding has been earned 
on to considerable extent in this town. No distillery 
has as yet been established here. 

There are 10 district schools in the town, and one 
grammar school. The salary of the grammar school 
master is from 300 to 400 dollars. There is also a very 
handsome and flourishing academy, under the direction 
of an excellent board of trustees. The number of schol- 
ars is uniformly fifty, and the salary of the preceptor 
from six to eight hundred dollars. In the choice of 
instructers, Harvard College has the preference, as the 
place of their education. Very few have been sent from 
this town to any college. Three have been sent to Cam- 
bridge and one to Brunswick.' In future the number 
will be increased, probably very much. None of those, 
already educated, have become eminent. There are now 
established here, four lawyers, four physicians, and one 
minister, all liberally educated, except two of the phy- 

There is a social library, which contains about 200 
volumes of well selected books. There are four com- 
panies of infantry and one of artillery in the town. 

The employments of the people are various ; some 
are farmers, some merchants, some mechanicks and some 

The products of the soil are various according to 
its quality. From 20 to 40 bushels of corn may be 
raised upon an acre, from 200 to 300 bushels of pota- 
toes, and from one to three tons of hay ; other things are 
in proportion. 

There were some settlements made in Saco as early as 
1636. The first settlers were Richard Benython, Rich- 
ard Vines, and Thomas Lewis, with several others. 


The church was gathered in 1762, about which time 
Rev. John Fairfield was ordained as their pastor. Ser- 
mon by the Rev. Moses Morrill, of Riddeford. The num- 
ber of maleTnembers was ten. The covenant is express- 
ed in general terms, and seems to favour the sentiments 
contained in the Assembly's Catechism 

Mr. Fairfield continued in the ministry about 38 years, 
at which time he was dismissed. 

In about a year from his dismission, Rev. Elihu 
Whitcomb was ordained, (sermon by the Rev. Mr. Thay- 
er of Hampton) and in 1810 was dismissed. The same 
year was ordained Rev. J. Cogswell, who, with the other 
gentlemen, is still living. 

The church edifice is the most elegant, as well as one 
of the largest in Maine ; 74 by 54 feet, built 1806. The 
former house of worship, 54 by 40 feet, built 1758, still 
remains, and is used for a town house. 

There is a small free-will baptist society in one corner 
of the town ; also, a few other baptists, and some metho- 
dists, besides many nothingarians. 

The number of baptisms, during Mr. Fairfield's min- 
istry, was 739 ; 63 during the ministry of Mr. Whit- 
comb ; 72 since the ordination of the present pastor of 
the church. The admissions to full communion during 
Mr. Fairfield's ministry, and after the church was first 
gathered, were 9; during Mr. Whitcomb's, including 
8 or 10 who were chosen from the people at the time of 
his ordination, 19 ; since the ordination of the present 
pastor, 64; in all 92. The admissions to the covenant 
during Mr. F.'s ministry 177, during Mr. W.'s 17, in 
ail 194. 

The number of deaths lias usually been about 30 an- 
nually, though no disease has prevailed ; and the num- 
ber of marriages about 25. The number of inhabitants 
is 2500 ; families 300, and houses 250. 

The principal curiosity is the great falls, which, when 
there is a freshet, is an object truly sublime. The banks 
upon the opposite sides of the river are lofty, and an im- 
mense body of foaming water tumbles over a ledge 
of cragged rocks with great noise and violence. 


The whole scenery about the falls during the summer 
months is truly delightful* The beach is remarkably 
fine, extending about four miles on a perfect level, 
and about four miles from the centre of the town. 
The road from Boston to Portland formerly was near the 

There are three wooden bridges, which connect Saco 
and Biddeiord, one of which is free. 

This town, except a small part, is remarkably level. 
On the high lands the White Mountains may be distinct- 
ly seen. There are two islands in the- river at the falls ; 
one of which, Indian Island, containing 28 acres, is val- 
uable for the fertility of its soil and its numerous mill- 
seats. There are no creeks nor harbours. The river 
affords all the harbour necessary for small vessels. Win- 
ter harbour, near the mouth of the river, is upon the 
Biddeford side. This is safe during the violent storms. 
Though the water upon the bar is only 14 feet, ships of 
5 or 600 tons are built four miles from the sea just be- 
low the falls, and are easily carried below to the outer 
harbour. On the whole, the local situation of Saco is re- 
markably pleasant, the atmosphere salubrious, and the 
state of society rapidly improving. The votes at the last 
election were, for Dexter, 280 ; for Strong, 47. 

Historical Sketch of North Hampton, N. H. 
By Hev. Mr. Jonathan French. June, 26, 1813. 

NORTH H AMPTON is a town in Rockingham coun- 
ty, New Hampshire, incorporated in 1742. The num- 
ber of inhabitants has varied but little from 650 for many 
years. This state of population is not to be attributed 
to barrenness either of soil or inhabitants, but to the fre- 
quent emigrations of the branches of many families to 
places where they can obtain larger farms for less money. 
The people are probably as nearly on an equality re- 
specting property as in any place. None are very rich 
and very few are poor. Three persons only at present 
are maintained at the town charge. There have been 


very few paupers for many years. The people are all 
farmers : many of them have trades as well as farms, and 
those who live near the sea attend to fishing at some 

There is but one trader, one tavern, and one phy- 
sician. There are three schools, instructed by females 
in the summer season and by men in the winter, and a 
social library of about 150 volumes, among which are 
Henry's Commentary on the Bible, Doddridge's Family 
Expositor, the works of Flavel, Watts and Newton, and 
the Commentaries of Patrick, Lowth and Whitby. 

There is a Female Charitable Society of about 40 
members, who have a small library of tracts and serious 
books which they circulate through the town. There 
are about 1 10 houses. About one third of them contain 
two families. 

This town was formerly a parish of Hampton, called 
North Hill. It is yet called in this vicinity North Hill, 
as often perhaps as North Hampton. There are two 
small rivers in the town ; one of them is called Little 
river. It springs from the low grounds in the north part 
of the town, and running a mile or two in a S. E. direc- 
tion takes an east course and empties into the sea, between 
Little Boar's Head in North Hampton and Great Boar's 
Head in Hampton. The mouth of this little river was 
anciently the boundary between Portsmouth and .Hamp- 

On Little river are three saw mills and three grist mills, 
but the stream is not sufficient to carry them in the dry 
season of the year. The other river is Winnicot, which 
springs in the meadows and pastures near the centre of 
the town, and running west, as a brook, waters several 
farms, then taking a north west direction and becoming a 
small river passes out of North Hampton at its north west 
corner, runs through a small part of Stratham and through 
Greenland, where it empties into Great Bay. On this 
stream are a saw mill, 2 grist mills, and a fulling mill, 
where the stream passes through the borders of Strat- 

* See Belknap's Xew Hampshire, Vol. I. Appendix, No. 6. 


jham, called Winnicot mills, also a grist mill in Green- 
land. These mills go except in very dry seasons. 

The meeting house in this town is on the post road 
from Portsmouth to Newbury port. The distance from 
I this meeting house to Portsmouth is 10 miles, to Piscata- 
jqua Bridge 10 miles, to Essex Merrimack Bridge 11 
! miles. In an east direction to Rye meeting house 4 
miles ; N. to Greenland 4 miles ; N. W. to Stratham 5 
miles ; W. to Exeter 6 miles; S. to Hampton 3 miles. 

Rev. Nathaniel Gookin, the first minister in this place, 
then a parish of Hampton, was ordained Oct. 31, 1739. 
He died Oct. 22, 1776, aged 53 years, 8 months, and 
4 days. His ministry was about 27 years. 

Rev. Joseph Stacey Hastings was ordained pastor of 
this church, Feb. 11, 1767. His ministry was between 
7 and 8 years. He embraced Sandemanian sentiments, 
and resigned his office July 3, 1774. Mr. Hastings went 
to Nova Scotia, removed thence to Boston, where he kept 
a grocery shop. He died on a journey or visit in Ver- 

Rev. David Maeclure, now pastor of the church in 
E. Windsor, Conn, a Trustee of Dartmouth College, 
and a D. D. was installed to the pastoral care of the 
church in North Hampton,* Nov. 13, 1776. His minis- 
try was between 9 and 10 years. He resigned his office 
Aug. 30, 1785. 

Rev. Benjamin Thurston was ordained Nov. 2, 1785. 
His ministry was about fifteen years. He resigned his 
office, October 27, 1800. The present minister of this 
church, Jonathan French, was ordained Nov. 18, 1801* 
Tnis people were strictly Congregationalists, and I be- 
lieve continued so unanimously till about the year 1782, 
when a few families withdrew, professing to believe that 
the war against Great Britain was wrong, and renouncing 
the principles of infant baptism. There are no less than 
20 families, who profess antipaedobaptist sentiments. 
These few do not often come together in one place. 
The Congregational church consists of about 80 mem- 


The church records, kept by Mr. Gookin, were, by 
some means, lost during Mr. Thurston's ministry. 

The admissions to the church since the commence- 
ment of the year 1767 have been 175. The whole num- 
ber of burials in this town since the beginning of the year 
1767 is 354. The ages of but 277 are recorded. Of 
these 68 lived to be more than 70 years-old ; 10 of them 
to be more than 90. 

Historical Sketch op Tyngsbqrough ? Middlesex, 

Massachusetts. By the Rev. Mr, Nathaniel 
Lawrence. October, 18i5. 

Situation. 43? NORTH lat. 71o 15' # long. The 
greatest length 9 miles ; the greatest breadth 5 miles. 

Boundaries. Bounded north by Dunstable, New 
Hampshire ; east by Dracut and Pelham ; south by 
Chelmsford and Westford ; west by Dunstable, Massa- 
chusetts, and Groton. Distance from Boston on the old 
road, 30 miles; on the Middlesex turnpike, 27 miles. 
The turnpike has been travelled about four years ; is in a 
small degree circuitous, in good repair, much used by 
teams and carriages, and on it are several licensed houses 
for the traveller's accommodation. 

Rivers. The Merrimack passing through and divid- 
ing the town, is a river of very considerable importance, 
and may be viewed as a source of convenience and opu- 
lence. From this place to its head, Winnipiseogee lake, 
is 100 miles ; in which distance many streams empty into 
it, which serve to increase its size. For five miles, as it 
passes through this place, its average width is from 35 to 
40 rods. Property to a vast amount floats down this riv- 
er annually, in all kinds of lumber, both by rafts and boats. 
The boats, loaded with produce and wood, discharge 
their contents generally at Charlestown and Boston, from 
which places they receive cargoes and convey them 
to the port of destination. Until bridges, dams and oth- 
er obstructions were multiplied, it abounded with shad 
and salmon, but now the fishery has become less lucrative. 


Ponds. There are two ponds in the town ; one called 
Mud Pond, from the turbidness of its bottom, is about 
half a mile in length, and nearly the same in width. The 
other is one mile and a half in length and three fourths of 
a mile in breadth, called Tyng's Pond after the Hon. 
John Tyng, whose family, with the Farwells, were among 
the first settlers of the place. The waters of the latter, 
are richly stored with fish, particularly the pike and perch. 
These ponds are in the easterly part of the town. 

Ferries. There is one pub lick ferry in this town on 
the Merrimack, opposite the meeting house and school 
house, where may be found constant attendance and safe 
conveyance for teams and carriages. Rate of carriage es- 
tablished by law, two cents foot passengers, six cents 
man and horse, twelve and a half chaise. Distance at the 
ferry ways from shore to shore 40 rods. 

Soil. In some parts of the town light. On approach- 
ing the river good, and on the intervales, of which there 
are about six hundred acres, luxurious and highly pro- 
ductive ; and yielding to the cultivator large crops of rye, 
barley, oats, wheat, Indian corn, and the best of hay.* 

Stones. Some parts of the town contain a great quan- 
tity of -stone of super iour quality for door steps, underpin- 
ning, pillars, and elegant edifices. The whiteness of the 
stone, the firmness of its contexture, and the readiness 
with which it yields to the wedge and hammer, greatly 
enhance its value. Though an immense quantity has 
been used in the Middlesex Canal and for other purposes, 
yet there remains a full supply for every demand. Its 
nearness to the waters of the Merrimack, and the facility 
and safety with which it may be conveyed to the metrop- 
olis on the canal, are important considerations, and will, 
undoubtedly, at some future time, render it an article of 
much consequence. 

Wood. Few towns of its size in the commonwealth 
ten years since contained more beautiful forests and rich- 

* The quantity of grain, annually raised, is supposed to exceed twelve thousand 
bushels; of potatoes, four thousand bushels. The quantity of rye to the acre is 
from ten to twelve bushels ; wheat the same ; Indian corn from twenty-five to 
thirty ; oats, from thirty to thirty -five ; barley, from nine to twelve ; potatoes two 
hundred ; hay, a ton and an half The quantity of cyder annually made is from 
one thousand to twelve hundred barrels, 

YOJL. IV. 26 


er wood lots ; but since the canal has been in operation, 
the axe has been laid at the roots of the trees, and many 
of our groves and forests are turned into pastures and 
fields. Several kinds of wood are natural to the soil. 
The yellow pine, various kinds of oak and the walnut, 
most prevail, of which there remains at present a plenti- 
ful supply. 

Fruit trees. Of these, the town affords a variety, 
but the most numerous and important are apple trees. 
These are cultivated with care and attention, and, 
when the season is propitious, yield their fruit in great 
abundance. Many farms produce annually from one to 
two hundred barrels of cyder. 

Roads. The inhabitants are well accommodated with 
town and county roads, some of which, having been late- 
ly made, are not in perfect repair. Great exertions are 
made and much labour is expended on the publick 
roads, and they are kept in a state satisfactory to travel- 

Mills. There are in town three saw mills and one 
grist mill, so situated as to well accommodate the inhab- 
itants. There is one woolen carding machine. The 
grist mill is on the west bank of the river near the meet- 
ing-house and within one rod of the publick road, contain- 
ing two pairs of stones and in excellent repair. 

Taverns and stores* There are two commodious 
publick houses, both on the great road, and very plea- 
santly situated on the banks of the Merrimack,* also two 
stores containing English and West India goods. 

Trades* The inhabitants generally compose a body of 
intelligent and industrious farmers, together with a con- 
venient number of ingenious and faithful mechanicks, 
who have wisdom to know and suitably appreciate their 
rights and privileges as citizens. Several gentlemen in 
the town are members of the Middlesex Agricultural 

Schools. The inhabitants from their first incorpora- 
tion have considered it their duty and interest to support 

• The principal hinholder in the town, for many years, was a black man by the 
name of Houston. He left a property of about 5 or 6000 dollars. His eldest son 
■was fitted for college* 


one publick school, which has been kept by students and 
graduates from different colleges, principally from Cam- 
bridge and Dartmouth, and no one year, in any instance, 
has elapsed without a regular and approved instructer. 
The present instructer is from Cambridge, and is allowed 
about 300 dollars a year. Besides this publick grammar 
school, there are employed six or seven approved females 
as instructresses during the summer season for the bene- 
fit of small children of both sexes, which render the whole 
annual expense from five to six hundred dollars. 

Social Library. There is one social library consisting 
of 140 volumes mutually owned and improved by the 
inhabitants of this town and of Dunstable, New Hamp- 
shire. The books have been selected with judgment, 
and are calculated to afford much religious, moral, and 
other useful instruction. The constitution 6f the socie- 
ty makes provision for the annual increase of the library. 

State of the Society. The town is undisturbed with 
sectaries, and forms one congregational society, acknow- 
ledging the Cambridge platform of discipline their rule, 
as far as it agrees with the word of God. The judgment 
of the people and their love of order have rendered many 
sectarian attempts to disunite and divide them unsuccess- 
ful, and to the present time they remain attached to the 
congregational principles and mode of worship. As a 
society they enjoy much peace and harmony, having a 
number of members respectable for talents, literature and 
property, among whom are three persons, who received 
their education at Cambridge University. The society 
enjoys the labours of one clergyman, one physician and 
two lawyers. The latter, in their profession, find but 
small encouragement from the inhabitants, as they are 
generally averse to law suits. 

History. Tyngsborough is an inland town, lying up- 
on and divided by the Merrimack, which retains its In- 
dian name, about one third part of which lies on the east 
side, the other two thirds on the west side of the river. 
The meeting house and school house are on the west 
bank, about twenty-five rods from the water. Against 
these publick buildings, a large ferry boat is kept at the 


expense of the town for the accommodation of the inhab- 
itants, who pass and repass, toll free, on all publick oc- 
casions. Formerly it was a part of Dunstable, which 
town, about eighty years since, included Nottingham- 
west, Litchfield, Merrimack, Holiis, the two Dunstables 
and Tyngsborough. This town was taken from Dun- 
stable in Massachusetts.* 

On the benevolent proposal of Madam Sarah Wins- 
low, originally Sarah Tyng, to fund a sum of money 
which should afford an annual income of /.80 lawful 
money, to be devoted equally to support a congregational 
minister and a grammar school, the present society 
gratefully received the proposals of their benefactress, 
associated themselves together, and at their petition and 
from respect to Mrs. Winslow, they were by act of 
court separated from Dunstable and incorporated as the 
district of Tyngsborough. This act passed June 22, 
1789. The inhabitants finding, from an increase of pop- 
ulation, they had a legal right to immunities not enjoyed, 
they again petitioned the General Court, and in the year 
1809 were invested with all the rights and privileges of a 

Since its first incorporation the inhabitants have en- 
joyed a great degree of prosperity, as will readily appear 
from the statement of a few facts. Within the number 
of twenty six years the meeting house has been repaired 
and painted, a bell obtained, the steeple removed, and cu- 
pola erected,! 6 schoolhouses built, and 40 dwelling 
houses, besides many other buildings. Several of the 

* The name of the first white inhabitant was Cromwell, originally from Eng- 
land, but last from Boston. It is about 150 years since he erected a but in this 
place, on the bank of the Merrimac, for the purpose of trading with the Indians, 
This, at that time, was the only English settlement, on the south to Woburn, and 
on the north, between there and Canada Cromwell, for some time, carried on 
a lucrative trade with the Indians, weighing their furs with his foot, till, enraged 
at his supposed, or real deception, they formed the resolution to murder him. 
This intention was communicated to Cromwell, who buried his wealth, and made 
his escape. Within a few hours after his flight, a party of the Pennacook tribe ar- 
rived, and not finding the object of their resentment, burnt his hut. Sometime af- 
ter, pewter was found in the well, and an iron pot and trammel in the sand ; the 
latter are preserved. The present owner of the place was ploughing near the spot, 
and found his plough moving over a flat stone which gave a hollow sound. On re- 
moving th« earth and 6tone, he discovered a hole, stoned, about six inches in dkv 
sneter, from which he took a sum of money. 

f This cupola was blown down in "the great storm/' September 23, 1815, 


houses are large and elegant. On the 6th of January, 
1790, a minister was ordained ;* the grammar school 
commenced at the same time, and both have been con- 
tinued upon the plan of the aforementioned donation. 

There have been added to the church 80 persons, bap- 
tized 178, marriages 117. Deaths, inhabitants and stran- 
gers, 158, of which number were 5 over 90, 10 over 80 ; 
average of deaths for a year, six. 

During the period above mentioned, the town has not 
been visited with any distressing epidemick, except in 
the winter and spring of 1813, when about 60 cases of 
the spotted fever, so called, occurred ; but, through the 
blessing of providence, on the application of medical aid, 
no one of the above cases proved mortal. 

In the town are 120 families, about the same number 
of dwelling houses, and, by the last census, 704 inhab- 

Real estate has much increased in value. Land, 
which 25 years since might have been purchased for less 
than §15 per acre, is now selling, on the banks of the 
Merrimack, for more than 8100. Hard wood on the riv- 
er bank, from 2,50 to 3 dollars per cord. The price of 
grain much depends on Boston market price. The wa- 
ges of a labouring man, about 12 dollars a month ; of a 
female domestic, from 66 cents to 1 dollar per week. 

There have been some instances of considerable lon- 
gevity. The oldest person who ever died in Tyngsbo- 
rough was the Hon. John Tyng, in the 93d year of his 
age. The oldest person now living in the place, is 
one of his female white domesticks, who is in the 97th 
year of her age ; and in the same house, there lived the 
last year, four persons whose ages added, amounted to 
322 years. 

* The author of this article. The churches present on this occasion were, 
Chelmsford, Billerica, Lexington, Burlington, Woburn, Reading, (now S. Read- 
ing) Groton, Pepperell, Dunstable, Mass. Dunstable, N. H. The introductory- 
prayer by the Rev. Mr. Prentiss, of Reading ; sermon by Rev. Mr. Sargeant, 
of Woburn ; ordaining prayer by Rev. Mr. Marrett, of Burlington ; charge by 
Rev. Mr. Clark, of Lexington ; right hand of fellowship by Rev. Dr. Cumings, of 
Billerica, and concluding prayer by Rev. Mr. Kidder, of Dunstable, N. H. The 
salary of the minister is one, hundred pounds and twenty cords of wood per 


The following statement may deserve some notice. 
In the year 1791 there were but two instances of mor- 
tality in the place ; one of which was Madam Sarah 
Winslow, who died of a lethargy October 9th, in the 71st 
year of her age. She was esteemed in life, at her death 
embalmed with tears ; and to this day her memory is 
precious. In 1792 and 1793, four deaths each year. 
In 1794, 95 and 1800, three deaths each year. In 1802, 
four deaths, and in 1808, the same number, three of 
whom died in succession, whose ages added, were 251 

The subsequent information the writer obtained from 
a relative of the heroine. More than 100 years since, 
nine Indians passed this town on the Merrimack, with a 
captive, Mrs. Duston, taken from Haverhill, till they ar- 
rived at an island in the river, about 55 miles distant, the 
place of rendezvous, where was an Indian wigwam, on 
entering which, the savages overcome with fatigue laid 
down to rest themselves, and soon fell into a sound sleep. 
Mrs. Duston, to determine whether their sleep was feign- 
ed or real, rose and went out of the wigws^a and return- 
ed without their knowledge. After repeating the exper- 
iment without their notice, she drew an Indian tomahawk, 
and with nine well directed strokes dispatched the whole 
band and repassed this place in a canoe with nine Indian 
scalps, the trophies of her heroism and victory ; for 
which act she received a handsome pecuniary compen- 

Letter to Governour John Winthrop, from 
the original. 

Right worshipful 

oUR my humble service remembered first to 
yourselfe Major Endicott, Mr. Downing, Mr. John 
Wentrupe and whosoever hath wished my good ; with 
hartie thanks for all your lovinge kindnesses. First I 
desire pardon that I did not personally take my leave of 
your worshipe and some other of my good frinds but 


Mr. Rainsford can showe that acidentall hast was the 
cause ; for I lost allsoe 10s that my landlord's sonn is 
to have of goodman Allen that took my house, only for 
his good will, a very unjust thinge. Goodman **** 
tooke the house for me and can certifie that I have made 
the house tennantable and saleable that the land lord 
yeelded for as good as lost. If goodman **** recover 
it, I desire it may be given to the poorr, and not given 
to them that need it not, nor hath right to it. 

I desire to give your worship a touch of the causes of 
my passage, howe first I was promised 5s a day by Doc- 
tor Child for myselfe and my sonn, and two cows and 
house rent free, and land for me and all my children ; 
also covenants for the same. But they deffered the cov- 
enants, and I never had them nor performance, to my 
great losse ; and if you knew all, a greater, losse to the 
covenantor. I should have come over about the tyme 
that Mr. John Wentrupp cam over. If I had, the iron 
mynes of Newe Ingland had been tryed with less cost ; 
for 1 tryed most of the mynes in Derbasharre with a 
bloom harth. I told Mr. Doctor Child more of the 
Nehaunte myne then I can now spick of. For most 
parte of the York mynes, they lye at the day, and are 
partly cutt from their life, and the speritt of feusion and 
sollidditie is not in them. But the swomp myne is liv- 
ing and good. Great riches concerning whit glass and 
two other things not to be spoken of are within four 
myles of Boston. More at large I will write, when it 
shall please God that I write the good news from Ber- 
moodos ; and what I profit there, you shall surely knowe, 
and howe I prosper. It may please God I may see you 
next springe, for there is greate things for me to doe» 
The second cause is, longe strong winter ; 3 cause, the base 
disaster of strong Furnald's wife against my poore harmless 
wiffe ; 4thly the contrie pay is bad to get, when a poore 
man hath earned it, that it comes to little or nothing; 5 
beinge now ***** all things pre vaile against me ; 6 
I see such hard dealinge with shopkeepers, both in price, 
weight and measure, and they that professe much, and 
also such sewing one another in Courts, that I thinke 


love is wantinge, which is the maine key of religion, for 1 
without love it is nothinge. More I have to say, but 
not at this time. Soe, with my hartie prayers for this 
countrie, and the good ****** and all your healths, 
wealths and prosperities, I begg pardon for my boldness. 
I leave your worship and all the rest to the protection of 
the almightie God, and rest your humble servant to 

WILLIAM WHITE, from abord the Returne 
this 24 July or 5 month 1648. 
To the Right worshipfull 

Mr. Wentrupp Gover- 

nour of Newe Ingland, 

at his house at Boston. 
These presents. 

Note on an ancient Manuscript, ascertained to 

be a Part of Goyernour Winthrop's Journal. 
Communicated, to the Historical Society, 25 JLpril P 1816. 

1 HIS MS. volume was lately found among the Col- 
lections of Rev. Thomas Prince, deposited in the Old 
South church, in Boston* Though at the time of its 
discovery it was buried beneath a mass of pamphlets and 
papers, it attracted instant notice by its fair parchment 
binding, and the silken strings by which its covers were 
tied, and the whole work perfectly preserved. On the 
cover is written, in an ancient hand, " 3 Book of the An- 
nals of N. England;" and beneath, in the hand writing 
of Mr. Prince,'' " Vol III. a Sept. 17. 1644 to Jan. 11. 
1648 — 9." It contains 127 folio pages, fairly written, 
but in so obsolete a hand, as not to be read without diffi- 
culty. A neat margin is uniformly kept, in which are 
noted the principal subjects of the book. It was careful- 
ly examined, without and within, for some indication of 
its author, but in vain. This was, at length, found in an 
" Advertisement," prefixed by Mr. Prince, to his intend- 
ed second volume of the Chronological History of New 

* These words eannot be satisfactorily made out. 


England, which decisively proves, that this MS. is the 
Journal of Gov. Winthrop. The words of Mr. Prince 
are : " Having brought our Annals of New England 
" down to the settlement of the Massachusetts Colony in 
" the 1st. Volume, and having lately received a most au- 
" thentic and valuable Journal of events relating to said 
- 1 Colony, From the time when their first Gov. Win- 
" throp, Dep. Gov. Dudley,, eleven Assistants, with their 
H Charter, Four Ministers, and about 1500 people were 
u waiting at the Isle of Wight and other places, in the 
" South & West of England, to sail for this desired 
" land ; viz. From Monday March 29th, 1630, to Jan. 
" 11. 1648 — 9; Wherein are many remarkables not to 
" be found any where else, and whereby alone we are 
"enabled to correct many mistakes, and ascertain the 
•' dates of many articles in others ; all wrote with the said 
" Gov. Winthrop's own hand, who deceased in the very 
" house I dwell in* on the 26th of March after : I may 
u now proceed with a farther enlargement of intelligence, 
" and with a greater certainty and exactness." 

The dates of the printed Journal of Governour Win- 
throp and of the MS. exactly correspond with this 
description ; the one beginning at March 29th, 1630, 
and the other terminating at Jan. 11, 1648 — 9. We 
may therefore pronounce this MS. " A continuation of 
Governor Winthrop's Journal," containing all of that 
valuable work, which has not been published. It was 
written in three separate books. The two first " continu- 
ed unpublished and uncopied," in possession of the elder 
branch of the Winthrop family, until the revolutionary war, 
when Governor Trumbull of Connecticut procured the 
MS. and, with the assistance of his Secretary, copied a con- 
siderable part of it. After Governor Trumbull's death, 
Noah Webster, Esq. by consent of the descendants of 
Governor Winthrop, published the whole MS. believing 
it to be the entire work. It was printed at Hartford by 
Elisha Babcock in 1790, in an octavo volume of 370 
pages ; and brought down the Journal to the 26th day of 
the" 8th month, 1644. The unpublished MS. before us, 
being the third and last book, commences where that 
vol. iv. $7 


volume closed, and continues the Journal to Jan. 1649, 
which was within about ten weeks of Gov. Winthrop's 
death ; including a period of 4 years and almost 4 
months. The whole MS. Journal, it appears, was, in 
the year 1755, in the hands of Mr. Prinee ; but this part 
of it was not used in his work, which was never brought 
down lower than the year 1633. This last book has, it 
is presumed, lain concealed among Mr. Prince's Collec- 
tions for sixty years, not only uncopied, but unnoticed, 
having, in the dormitory of the Old South church, com- 
pletely eluded the vigilance of the historians and antiqua- 
ries of New England. 

The name alone of Gov. Winthrop gives a high 
value to this MS ; the circumstances of its having been 
written by his own hand 167 years ago still heightens its 
value to the antiquary ; and the interesting period of 
which it treats, must render it inestimable to the histo- 
rian. It includes, among other important articles, an ac- 
count of the Second Synod at Cambridge ; of the early 
attempts to christianize the Indians ; and of a dispute 
between the deputies and the Governour and assistants, 
concerning the powers of the executive in the recess of 
the general court. The publication of this MS. wpuld 
unquestionably bring a valuable accession to the early 
histories of N. England. It will soon be deposited in 
the library of the Historical Society, and may be pub- 
lished in the Society's Collections. 

Supplementary Note. At the same meeting of the 
Historical Society, at which the preceding communica- 
tion was made, a MS* volume of Gov. Winthrop, from 
which the printed copy had been derived, was taken out 
from the Trumbull Collection, in the Society's room, 
and compared with this MS. and found to be written by 
the same hand. 

Deposition of John Odlin and other Inhabitants 
of Boston, respecting Blackstone's Sale. 

I HE deposition of John Odlin, aged about Eighty two 
yeares, Robert Walker aged about Seventy Eight yeares, 


Francis Hudson aged about Sixty eight yeares, and 
William Lytherland aged about Seventy Six yeares. 
These Deponents, being ancient dwellers and Inhabitants 
of the Town of Boston in New-England from the time 
of the first planting and Setling thereof and continuing so 
at this day, do jointly testify and depose that in or about 
the yeare of our Lord One thousand Six hundred thirty 
and four the then present Inhabitants of said Town of 
Boston (of whome the Honourable John Winthrop Esq. 
Governour of the Colony was chiefe) did treate and 
agree with Mr. William Blackstone for the purchase of 
his Estate and right in any Lands lying within the said 
neck of Land called Boston, and for said purchase agreed 
that every householder should pay Six Shillings, which 
was accordingly collected, none paying less, some con- 
siderably more then Six Shillings, and the said sume 
collected, was delivered and paid to Mr. Blackstone to 
his full content and Satisfaction, in consideration whereof 
hee Sold unto the then Inhabitants of said Town and their 
heirs and assigns for ever his whole right and interest in 
all and every of the Lands lying within said Neck Re- 
serving onely unto him selfe about §ix acres of Land on 
the point commonly called Blackstons point on part 
whereof his then dwelling house stood ; after which pur- 
chase the Town laid out a place for a trayning field ; 
which ever since and now is used for that purpose, and 
for the feeding of cattell : Robert Walker, and William 
Lytherland farther Testify that Mr. Blackstone bought a 
stock of Cows with the Money he received as above, and 
Removed and dwelt near Providence where he liv'd till 
the day of his Death. 

Deposed this 10th of June 1684, by John Odlin, Rob- 
ert Walker, Francis Hudson, and William Lytherland 
according to their respective Testimonye 

Before us 

S. Bradstreet, Governour \ 

Sam. Sew all, Assist. 


General Gage's Instructions, of S2d February, 


To Captain Brown and Ensign D'Bernicre, (of the army under his 
command) whom he ordered to take a sketch of the roads, passes, 
heights, &c. from Boston to Worcester, and to make other observa- 
tions : With a curious Narrative of Occurrences during their mis- 
sion, wrote by the Ensign, Together with an Account of their do- 
ings, in consequence of further Orders and Instructions from Gen- 
eral Gage, of the 20th March following, to proceed to Concord, to 
reconnoitre and find out the state of the provincial magazines; what 
number of cannon, &c. they have, and in what condition. 

Also, an Account of the Transactions of the British troops, from the 
time they marched out of Boston, on the evening of the 1 8th, till 
their confused retreat back, on the ever memorable nineteenth of 
April, 1775 ; and a return of their killed, wounded and missing on 
that auspicious day, as made to Gen. Gage. 

[Left in town by a British officer previous to the evacuation of it by 
the enemy, and now printed for the information and amusement 
of the curious.] 

Boston : Printed, and to be sold, by J. Gill in Court Street. 1779. 

Boston, February 22, 1775. 

I OU will go through the counties of Suffolk 
and Worcester, taking a sketch of the country as you 
pass ; it is not expected you should make out regular 
plans and surveys, but mark out the roads and distances 
from town to town, as also the situation and nature of 
the country ; all passes mqst be particularly laid down, 
noticing the length and breadth of them, the entrance in 
and going out of them, and whether to be avoided by 
taking other routs. 

The rivers also to be sketched out, remarking their 
breadth and depth and the nature of their banks on both 
sides, the fords, if any, and the nature of their bottoms, 
many of which particulars may be learned of the country 

You will remark the heights you meet with, whether 
the ascents are difficult or easv ; as also the woods and 


mountains, with the height and nature of the latter, 
whether to be got round or easily past over. 

The nature of the country to be particularly noticed, 
whether inclosed or open ; if the former, what kind of 
inclosures, and whether the country admits of making 
roads for troops on the right or left of the main road, or 
on the sides. 

You will notice the situation of the towns and villages, 
their churches and church-yards, whether they are ad- 
vantageous spots to take post in, and capable of being 
made defencibie. 

If any places strike you as proper for encampments, or 
appear strong by nature, you will remark them particu- 
larly, and give reasons for your opinions. 

It would be useful if you could inform yourselves of 
the necessaries their different counties could supply, such 
as provisions, forage, straw, &c. the number of cattle, 
horses, &c. in the several townships. 

I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient humble servant, 


To Capt. Brown, 52d regiment, ' 

and Ensign D'Bernicre 10th 


Narrative, &c. 

The latter end of February, 1775, Capt. Brown and 
myself received orders to go through the counties of 
Suffolk and Worcester, and sketch the roads as we went, 
for the information of Gen. Gage, as he expected to have 
occasion to march troops through that country the ensu* 
ing Spring. 

We sat out from Boston on Thursday, disguised like 
countrymen, in brown cloaths and reddish handkerchiefs 
round our necks ; at the ferry of Charlestown, we met 
a sentry of the 52d regiment, but Capt. Brown's servant, 
whom we took along with us,, bid him not take any no- 


lice of us, so that we passed unknown to Charlestown. 
From that we went to Cambridge, a pretty town, with a 
college built of brick, the ground is entirely level on 
which the town stands. We next went to Watertown, 
and were not suspected. It is a pretty large town for 
America, but would be looked upon as a village in 
England ; a little out of this town we went into a tavern, 
a Mr. Brewer's, a whig, we called for dinner, which 
was brought in by a black woman, at first she was very 
civil, but afterwards began to eye us very attentively ; 
she then went out and a little after returned, when 
we observed to her that it_ was a very fine country, upon 
which she answered so it is, and we have got brave fel- 
lows to defend it, and if you go up any higher you will find 
it so. — This disconcerted us a good deal, and we imag- 
ined she knew us from our papers which we took out be- 
fore her, as the general had told us to pass for surveyors ; 
however, we resolved not to sleep there that night, as we 
had intended, accordingly we paid our bill which amount- 
ed to two pounds odd shillings, but it was old tenor. 
After we had left the house we enquired of John, our 
servant, what she had said, he told us that she knew 
Capt. Brown very well, that she had seen him five years 
before at Boston, and knew him to be an officer, and that 
she was sure I was one also, and told John that he was^t 
regular — he denied it ; but she said she knew our errant 
was to take a plan of the country ; that she had seen the 
river and road though Charlestown on the paper ; she al- 
so advised him to tell us not to go any higher, for if we. 
did we should meet with very bad usage : Upon this we 
called a council, and agreed that if we went back we 
should appear very foolish, as we had a great number of 
enemies in town, because the General had chose to em- 
ploy us in preference to them ; it was absolutely neces- 
sary to push on to Worcester, and run all risk rather 
than go back until we were forced. — Accordingly we 
continued our rout and went about six miles further ; we 
met a country fellow driving a team, and a fellow with 
him whom we suspected to be a deserter ; they both 
semed very desirous to join company with us and told 


us, upon our saying- we were going towards Worcester, 
that they were going our way : As we began to suspect 
something we stopped at a tavern at the sign of the gol- 
den^ball, with an intention to get a drink and so proceed ; 
but upon our going in the landlord pleased us so much, 
as he was not inquisitive, that we resolved to lye there 
that night ; so we ordered some fire to be made in the 
room we were in, and a little after to get us some coffee ; 
he told us we might have what we pleased, either tea or 
coffee. We immediately found out with whom we were, 
and were not a little pleased to find, on some conversation, 
that he was a friend to government ; he told us that he 
had been very ill-used by them some time before ; but 
that since he had shewed them that he was not to be bul- 
lied, they had left him pretty quiet. — We then asked him 
for the inns that were on the road between his house and 
Worcester, he recommended us to two, one at about 
nine miles from his house, a Mr. Buckminster's and 
another at Worcester, a namesake of his own, a Mr. Jones. 
The second day was very rainy and a kind of frost, 
with it however we resolved to set off, and accordingly 
we proceeded to Mr. Buckminster's ; we met nothing 
extraordinary on the road ; we passed some time in 
sketching a pass that lay on our road, and of consequence 
were very dirty and wet on our arrival : On our entering 
the house we did not much like the appearance of things ; 
we asked for dinner and they gave us some sausages, we 
praised every thing exceedingly, which pleased the old 
woman of the house much ; wlj^n we told them we in- 
tended staying the night, they gave us a room to our- 
selves, which was what we wanted ; after being there 
sometime we found we were pretty safe, as by that time 
we perceived that the coate de pay's was not a dangerous 
one ; of consequence we felt very happy, and Brown, I, 
and our man John, made a very hearty supper ; for we 
always treated him as our companion, since our adven- 
ture with the> black woman. We slept there that night, 
and the next morning, being a very fine one, we resolved 
to push on for Worcester, which was about thirty miles 
from us ; we proceeded about nine miles without any 


thing extraordinary happening, except meeting two men 
whom we suspected to be deserters. We then dined in 
the woods on a tongue and some cherry brandy we 
brought with us, and changed our stockings, which re- 
freshed us much, our feet being very wet. We then 
travelled through a very fine country, missed our way 
and went to Southborough ; we were obliged to turn 
back a mile to get the right road. We then passed 
through Shrewsbury ; all a fine open cultivated country. 
We came into a pass about four miles from Worcester, 
where we were obliged to stop to sketch. W"e arrived 
at Worcester at five o'clock in the evening, very much 
fatigued ; the people in the town did not take notice of us 
as we came in, so that we got safe to Mr. Jones's tavern ; 
on our entrance he seemed a little sour, but it wore oft' 
by degrees and we found him to be our friend, which 
made us very happy ; we dined and supped without any 
thing happening out of the common run. The next day 
being Sunday, we could, not think of travelling, as it was 
contrary to the custom of the country ; nor dare we stir 
out until the evening because of meeting, and no -body 
is allowed to walk the streets during divine service, with- 
out being taken up and examined ; so that thinking we 
could not stand the examination so well, we thought it 
prudent to stay at home, where we wrote and corrected 
our sketches. The landlord was very attentive to us, 
and on our asking what he could give us for breakfast, he 
told us tea or any thing else we chose- — that was an open 
confession what he was ; but for fear he might be im- 
prudent, we did not tell him who we were, tho' we were 
certain he knew it. In the evening we went round the 
town and on all the hills that command it, sketched every 
thing we desired, and returned to the town without being 
seen. That evening about eight o'clock the landlord 
came in and told us there were two gentlemen who want- 
ed to speak with us ; we asked him who they were ? on 
which he said we wou'd be safe in their company ; we 
said we did not doubt that, as we hoped that two gentle- 
men who travelled merely to see the country and stretch 
our limbs, as we had lately come from sea, could not 


meet with any thing else but civility, when we behaved 
ourselves properly ; he told us he would come in again 
in a little time, and perhaps we would change our minds, 
and then left us ; — an hour after he returned, and told 
us the gentlemen were gone, but had begged him to let 
us know, as they knew usUo be officers of the army, that 
all their friends of government at Petersham were disarm- 
ed by the rebels, and that they threatened to do the same 
at Worcester in a very little time ; he sat and talked 
politicks, and drank a bottle of wine with us— and also 
told us that none but a few friends to government knew 
w r e were in town ; we said it was very indifferent to us 
whether they did or not, tho' we thought very differ- 
ently ; however, as we imagined we had staid long enough 
in that town, we resolved to set off at day-break the 
next morning and get to Framingham ; accordingly off 
we set, after getting some roast beef and brandy from 
our landlord, which was very necessary on a long march, 
and prevented us going into houses where perhaps they 
might be too inquisitive ; we took a road we had not 
come, and that led us to the pass four miles from Wor- 
cester ; we went on unobserved by any one until we pass- 
ed Shrewsbury, where we were overtaken by a horseman 
who examined us very attentively, and especially me, 
whom he looked at from head to foot as if he wanted to 
know me again ; after he had taken his observations he 
rode off pretty hard and took the Marl-borough road, but 
by good luck we took the Framingham road again to be 
more perfect in it, as we thought it would be the one 
made use of. We arrived at Buckminster's tavern about 
six o ''clock that evening, the company of militia were ex- 
ercising near the house, and an hour after they came and 
performed their feats before the windows of the room we 
were in ; we did not feel very easy at seeing such a num- 
ber so very near us ; however, they did not know who 
we were, and took little or no notice of us. — After they 
had done their exercise, one of their commanders spoke 
a very eloquent speech, recommending patience, cool- 
ness and bravery, (which indeed they much wanted) par- 
ticularly told them they would always conquer if they 
vol. iv. 28 


did not break, and recommended them to charge u$ 
cooly, and wait for our fire, and every thing would suc- 
ceed with them — quotes Caesar and Pompey, brigadiers 
Putnam and Ward, and all such great men ; put them 
in mind of Cape Breton, and all the battles they had 
gained for his majesty in the last war, and observed that 
the regulars must have been ruined but for them. — After 
so learned and spirited an harangue, he dismissed the pa- 
rade, and the whole company came into the house and 
drank until nine o'clock, and then returned to their respec- 
tive homes full of pot- valour. We slept there that night 
and no-body in the house suspected us. Next morning 
we set off for Weston, had a very agreeable day, having fine 
weather and a beautiful country to travel through ; we 
met nothing extraordinary on the road ; no-body knew 
us, and we were asked very few questions : On our arri- 
val at Mr. Jones's, we met with a very welcome recep- 
tion, he being our friend ; we received several hints from 
the family not to attempt to go any more into the coun- 
try ; but as we had succeeded so well heretofore, we 
were resolved to go the Sudbury road, (which was the 
main road that led to Worcester) and go as far as the 
thirty-seven mile-stone, where we had left the main road 
and taken the Framingham road. We slept at Jones's 
that night, and got all our sketches together and sent them 
to Boston with our man, so that if they did stop and 
search us, they would not get our papers. The next day 
was very cloudy and threatened bad weather, towards 
twelve o'clock it snowed ; we dined soon in hopes the 
weather would clear up. — At two o'clock it ceased snow- 
ing a little, and we resolved to set off for Marlborough, 
which was about sixteen miles off ; we found the roads 
very bad, every step up to our ankles ; we passed through 
Sudbury, a very large village, near a mile long, the cause- 
way lies across a great swamp, or overflowing of the river 
Sudbury, and commanded by a high ground on the op- 
posite side ; nobody took the least notice of us until we 
arrived within three nales of Marlborough, (it was snow- 
ing hard all the. while) when a horseman overtook us and 
asked us from whence we came, we said from Weston, 


he asked if we lived there, we said no; he then asked 
us where we resided, and as we found there was no eva- 
ding his questions, we told him we lived at Boston ; he 
then asked us where we were going, we told him to 
Marlborough, to see a friend, (as we intended to go to 
Mr. Barns's, a gentleman to whom we were recommend- 
ed, and a friend to government ;) he then asked us if we 
were in the army, we said not, but were a good deal 
alarmed at his asking us that question ; he asked sev- 
eral rather impertinent questions, and then rode on for 
Marlborough, as we suppose, to give them intelligence 
there of our coming, — for on our entering the town, the 
people came out of their houses (tho' it snowed and 
blew very hard) to look at us, in particular a baker asked 
Capt. Brown where are you going master, he answered 
on to see Mr. Barnes.-— We proceeded to Mr. Barnes's, 
and on our beginning to make an apology for taking the 
liberty to make use of his house and discovering to him 
that we were officers in disguise, he told us we need not 
be at the pains of telling him, that he knew our situation, 
that we were very well known (he was afraid) by the 
town's people. — We begged he would recommend some 
tavern where we should be safe, he told us we could be 
safe no where but in his house ; that the town was very 
violent, and that we had been expected at Col. Wil- 
liams's the night before, where there had gone a party 
of liberty people to meet us,— (we suspected, and indeed 
had every reason to believe, that the horseman that met 
us and took such particular notice of me, the morning 
we left Worcester, was the man who told them we should 
be at Marlborough the night before, but our taking the 
Framingham road when he had passed us, deceived him ;) 
— Whilst we were talking, the people were gathering in 
little groups in every part of the town,— Mr. Barnes asked 
us who had spoke to us on our coming into the town, 
we told him a baker ; he seemed a little startled at that, 
told us he was a very mischievous fellow, and that there 
was a deserter at his house ; Capt. Brown asked the 
man's name, he said it was Swain, that he had been a 
drummer ; Brown knew him too well, as he was a man 


of his own company, and had not been gone above a 
month — so we found we were discovered. — We asked 
Mr. Barnes if they did get us into their hands, what they 
would do with us ; he did not seem to like to answer ; 
we asked him again, he then said we knew the people 
very well, that we might expect the worst of treatment 
from them. — Immediately after this, Mr. Barnes was 
called out ; he returned a little after and told us the doc- 
tor of the town had come to tell him he was come to sup 
with him — (now this fellow had not been within Mr. 
Barnes's doors for two years before, and came now for no 
other business than to see and betray us)— Barnes told 
him he had company and could not have the pleasure of 
attending him that night ; upon this the fellow stared 
about the house and asked one of Mr. Barnes's children 
who her father had got with him, the child innocently 
answered that she had asked her pappa, but he told her 
it was not her business ; he then went, I suppose to tell 
the rest of his crew. — When we found we were in that 
situation, we resolved to lie down for two or three hours, 
and set off at twelve o'clock at night ; so we got some 
supper on the table and were just beginning to eat, when 
Barnes (who had been making enquiry of his servants) 
found they intended to attack us, and then he told us 
plainly he was very uneasy for us, that we could be no 
longer in safety in that town : upon which we resolved 
to set off immediately, and asked Mr. Barnes if there was 
no road round the town, so that we might not be seen ; 
he took us out of his house by the stables, and directed 
us,a bye road which was to lead us a quarter of a mile 
from the town, it snowed and blew as much as ever I 
see it in my life ; however, we walked pretty fast, fear- 
ing we should be pursued ; at first we felt much fatigued, 
having not been more than twenty minutes at Mr. 
Barnes's to refresh ourselves, and the roads (if possible) 
were worse than when we came ; but in a little time af- 
ter it wore off, and we got without being perceived, 
as far as the hills that command the causeway at Sudbu- 
ry, and went into a little wood where we eat a bit of 
bread that we took from Mr. Barnes's, and eat a little 


snow to wash it clown. — After that we proceeded about 
one hundred yards, when a man came out of a house and 
said those words to Capt. Brown, 4t What do you think 
will become of you now," which startled us a good deal, 
thinking we were betrayed. — We resolved to push on at 
all hazards, but expected to be attacked on the cause- 
way ; however we met no-body there, so began to think 
it was resolved to stop us in Sudbury, which town we 
entered when we passed the causeway ; about a quarter 
of a mile in the town we met three or four horsemen, 
from whom we expected a few shot, when we came nigh 
they opened to the right and left and quite crossed the 
road, however they let us pass through them without 
taking any notice, their opening being only chance ; but 
our apprehensions made us interpret every thing against 
us. — At last we arrived at our friend Jones's again, very- 
much fatigued, after walking thirty-two miles between 
two o'clock and half-after ten at night, through a road 
that every step we sunk up to the ankles, and it blowing 
and drifting snow all the way — Jones said he was glad to 
see us back, as he was sure we should meet with ill-usage 
in that part of the country, as they had been watching 
for us sometime ; but said he found we were so deaf to 
his hints, that he did not like to say any thing for fear we 
should have taken it ill : we drank a bottle of mulled 
Madeira wine, which refreshed us very much, and went 
to bed and slept as sound as men could do, that were 
very much fatigued. The next morning, after breakfast, 
we set off for Boston. Jones shewed us a road that took 
us a quarter of a mile below Watertown bridge, as we 
did not chuse to go through that town. We arrived at 
Boston about twelve o'clock, and met General Gage and 
General Haldiman, with their aid-de-camps, walking out 
on the neck, they did not know us until we discovered 
ourselves ; we besides met several officers of our ac- 
quaintance, who did not know us. 

A few days after our return, Mr. Barnes came to town 
from Marlborough, and told us, immediately on our quit- 
ting the town, the committee of correspondence came to 
his house and demanded us; he told them we were 


gone ; they then searched his house from top to bottom^ 
looked under the beds and in their cellars, and when 
they found we were gone, they told him if they had 
caught us in his house, they would have pulled it about 
his ears.— They then sent horsemen after us, every road ; 
but as we had the start of them, and the weather being 
so very bad, they either did not overtake us, or missed 
us. Mr. Barnes told them we were not officers, but re- 
lations of his wife's, from Penobscot, and were going to 
Lancaster ; that, perhaps, might have deceived them. 

Account of the proceedings of the aforesaid officers, in 
consequence of further orders and instructions from 
General Gage, of the 20th March following ; with 
occurrences during their mission. 

The twentieth of March Captain Brown and myself 
received orders to set out for Concord, and examine the 
road and situation of the town ; and also to get what in- 
formation we could relative to what quantity of artillery 
and provisions. We went through Roxbury and Brook- 
line, and came to the main road between the thirteen and 
fourteen mile-stones, in the township of Weston ; we 
went through part of the pass at the eleven mile-stone, 
took the Concord road, which is seven miles from the 
main road. We arrived there without any kind of insult 
being offered us, the road is high to the right and low to 
the left, woody in most places, and very close and com- 
manded by hills frequently. The town of Concord lies 
between hills that command it entirely ; there is a river 
runs through it," with two bridges over it, in summer it 
is pretty dry ; the town is large and covers a great tract 
of ground, but the houses are not close together but gen- 
erally in little groups. We were informed that they had 
fourteen pieces of cannon (ten iron and four brass) and 
two cohorns, they were mounted but in so bad a manner 
that they could not elevate them more than they were, 
that is, they were fixed to one elevation ; their iron can- 
non they kept in a house in town, their brass they had 
concealed in some place behind the town, in a wood. 


[They had also a store of flour, fish, salt and rice ; and a 
pnagazine of powder and canridges. They fired their 
morning gun, and mounted a guard of ten men at night. 
We dined at the house of a Mr. Bliss, a friend to gov- 
ernment ; they had sent him word they would not let 
[him go out of town alive that morning ; however, we 
told him if he would come with us we would take care 
of him, as we were three and all well armed, — he con- 
sented and told us he could shew us another road, called 
the Lexington road. We set out and crossed the bridge 
in the town, and of consequence left the town on the con- 
trary side of the river to what we entered it. The road 
continued very open and good for six miles, the next 
five a little inclosed, (there is one very bad place in these 
five miles) the road good to Lexington. You then come 
to Menotomy, the road still good ; a pond or lake at 
Menotomy. You then leave Cambridge on your right, 
and fall into the main road a little below Cambridge, and 
so to Charlestown ; the road is very good almost all the 

In the town of Concord, a woman directed us to Mr. 
Bliss's house ; a little after she came in crying, and told 
us they swore if she did not leave the town, they would 
tar and feather her for directing Tories in their road. 

Transactions of the British troops previous to* and at the 
Battle of Lexington ; with a Return of their killed, 
wounded and missing, as made to General Gage. 

Ox the night of the 18th of April 1774, at nine 
o'clock, the grenadiers and light infantry of the army at 
Boston, received orders to embark immediately under the 
command of Col. Smith, in the men of war's boats, and 
proceed according to his directions They embarked at 
the common in Boston, and crossed to the shore lying 
between Charlestown and Cambridge, where they landed 
and received a day's provisions : They began their 
march about twelve o'clock for Concord, that being the 
place they were ordered to go to, for the purpose of de- 
stroying some military stores laid up there by the rebels. 


The troops received no interruption in their march until 
they arrived at Lexington, a town eleven miles from 
Boston, where there were about 150 rebels drawn out in 
divisions, with intervals as wide as the front of the divi- 
sions ; the light infantry who marched in front halted, 
and Major Pitcairn came up immediately and cried out 
to the ; rebels to throw down their arms and disperse, 
which they did not do ; he called out a second time, but 
to no purpose ; upon which he ordered our light- infant- 
ry to advance and disarm them, which they were doing, 
when one of the rebels fired a shot, our soldiers returned 
the fire and killed about fourteen of them ; there was on- 
ly one of the 10th light- infantry received a shot through 
his leg ; some of them got into the church and fired 
from it, but were soon drove out. We then continued 
our march for Concord, and arrived there between nine 
and ten o'clock in the morning of the 19th April, the 
light-infantry marched on the hills that lay the length of 
the town, and the grenadiers took the lower road imme- 
diately on our arrival ; Capt. Parsons of the 10th, was 
dispatched with six light-companies to take possession of 
a bridge that lay three quarters of a mile from Concord, 
and I was ordered to shew him the road there, and also 
to conduct him to a house where there was some cannon 
and other stores hid ; when we arrived at the bridge, 
three companies under the command of Capt. Lowry of 
the 43d, were left to protect it, these three companies 
were not close together, but situated so as to be able to 
support each other ; we then proceeded to Col. Barrett's, 
where these stores were, we did not find so much as we 
expected, but what there was we destroyed ; in the mean 
time Capt. Lowry and his party were attacked by about 
1500 rebels and drove from the bridge, three officers 
were wounded and one killed, three soldiers were killed 
and a number -wounded, notwithstanding they let Capt. 
Parsons with his three companies return, and never at- 
tacked us ; they had taken up some of the planks of the 
bridge, but we got over ; had they destroyed it we were 
most certainly all lost ; however, we joined the main bo- 
dy. Col. Smith during our absence, had sent Capt. Pole 


of 10th regiment, to destroy some provisions and cannon 
that were lodged in another part of the town, he knock'd 
the trunnions off three iron 24 pound cannon and burnt 
their carriages ; they also destroyed a quantity of flour, 
and some barrels of trenchers and spoons of wood for 
their camp. Upon the different detachment's joining the 
main body, and after getting some horses and chaises for 
the wounded, we began the march to return to Boston, 
about twelve o'clock in the day, in the same order of 
march, only our flankers were more numerous and further 
from the main body ; all the hills on each side of us were 
covered with rebels — there could not be less than 5000 ; 
so that they kept the road always lined and a very hot fire 
on us without intermission ; we at first kept our order and 
returned their fire as hot as we received it, but when we 
arrived within a mile of Lexington, our ammunition be- 
gan to fail, and the light companies were so fatigued with 
flanking they were scarce able to act, and a great number 
of wounded scarce able to get forward, made a great con- 
fusion ; Col. Smith (our commanding officer) had re- 
ceived a wound through his leg, a number of officers 
were also wounded, so that we began to run rather than 
retreat in order — the whole behaved with amazing bra- 
very, but little 01 der ; we attempted to stop the men and 
form them two deep, but to no purpose, the confusion 
increased rather , than lessened : At last, after we got 
through Lexington, the officers got to the front and pre- 
sented their bayonets, and told the men if they advanced 
they should die : Upon this they began to form under a 
very heavy fire ; but at that instant, the first brigade join- 
ed us, consisting of the 4th, 23d, and 47th regiments, 
and two divisions of marines, under the command of 
Brigadier-General Lord Percy ; he brought two field 
pieces with him, which were immediately brought to 
bear upon the rebels, and soon silenced their fire, — After 
a little firing the whole halted for about half an hour to 
rest, Lord Percy then made the light-infantry march 
in front, the grenadiers next, and the first brigade brought 
up the rear and sent out flankers ; the rebels stiii kept 
firing on us, but very lightly until we came to Menot- 
vol. iv. 29 


©my, a village with a number of houses in little groups 
extending about half a mile, out of these houses they* 
kept a very heavy fire, but our troops broke into them 
and killed vast numbers ; the souldiers shewed great 
bravery in this place, forcing houses from whence came 
a heavy fire, and killing great numbers of the rebels. At 
about seven o'clock in the evening we arrived at Charles- 
town, they kept up a scattering fire at us all the way ; at 
Charlestown we took possession of a hill that commanded 
the town, the Selectmen of which sent to Lord Percy to 
let him know that if he would not attack the town, they 
would take care that the troops should not be molested, 
and also they would do all in their power for to get us 
across the ferry ; the Somerset man of war lay there at 
that time, and all her boats were employed first in getting 
over the wounded, and after them the rest of the troops ; 
the piquets of 10th regiment, and some more troops, 
were sent over to Charlestown that night to keep every 
thing quiet, and returned next day. The rebels shut up 
the neck, placed sentinels there, and took prisoner an offi- 
cer of the 64th regiment that was going to join his regi- 
ment at Castle- William. — So that in the course of two 
days, from a plentiful town, we were reduced to the dis- 
agreeable necessity of living on salt provisions, and fairly 
blocked up in Boston. 

Return of the killed \ wounded and missings on the 19th 
of April, 1775, as made to General Gage. 

IVth regiment, Lieut. Knight, at Menotomy. 
XLIIId, ditto, Lieut, Hull, bridge beyond Concord. 

IVth regiment, Lieut. Gould, bridge beyond Concord. 
Vth, ditto, Lieut. Hauxshaw, near Lexington. 

ditto, Lieut. Cox, ditto. 

ditto, Lieut. Baker, ditto. 

Xih ditto, Lieut. Col. Smith, ditto. 

ditto, Lieut. Kelly, bridge beyond Concord* 

ditto, Ensign Lester, near Concord. 


XXIIId ditto, Lieut. Col. Bernard, Menotomy. 
XXXVIIth do. Lieut. Sunderland, bridge Concord. 
XL Vllth ditto. Ensign Baldwin, near Lexington, 
ditto, Ensign McLoud, ditto. 

Ma ™ • i£L p ul s Po u S an 1 nearLexin ^- 

IVth regiment, Lieut. Gould. 
LXIVth ditto, Lieut. Hamilton. 
Marines, Lieut. Potter. 




Officers 2 - 

- 13 - 

- 3 

Serjeants - - 2 - 

7 - 

- 1 

Drummers 1 


- 1 

Rank and File 68 - 

- 154 - 

- 21 

Total, 73 174 26* 

History and Description of Scituate. 
Mass. 1815. 

oCITUATE, in the county of Plymouth, lies in latitude 
42° 12' N. longitude 70° 36' W. from Greenwich, and 
is bounded north by Hingham and Cohasset, east by 
Massachusetts Bay, south by North River, which sepa- 
rates it from Marshfield and Pembroke, and west by 
Hanover, taken from it in 1727.* It is an original cor- 
poration of Plymouth Colony, distant from Plymouth 19 
miles, and 24 to the harbour ; from Boston 17 miles, and 
28 to the harbour. 

History. Settlements began to be made at Scituate 
at a very early period ;f for it was a constablerick in 
1633, under which date we find this court order, " That 
the whole tract of land between the Brook at Scituate, 
on the north west side, and Conahasset be left undisposed 

* lis west line abuts also on Abington, a small distance. 

t 1653, Feb. 22. Ship William, Mr. Trevere master, arrived at Plymouth 
with passengers and goods for the bay- This ship came to setup a fishing stage at 
Bcituate, and to trade.— Winthrop's Journal. 


of, till we know the resolution of Mr. James Shirley, 
Mr. John Beauchamp, Mr. Richard Andrews, and Mr. 
Timothy Hatheriy,* as also that portion of land lately 
made choice of by Mr. Hatheriy." 

In 1635 " the governour, (Mr. Prence) Mr. Collier, 
Mr. Alden, Mr. Brown, and Mr. Rowland, were direct- 
ed to view that portion of ground on the north side of 
the North river, and if they find it more beneficial for 
farms to Scituate than to these parts, then to allot it 
them ; if not, to reserve it." 

1636, October 5. " It was allowed to be a township, 
provided they have, in case of justice, recourse unto 
Plymouth, as before." 

In 1637 William Gilson, Edward Foster and William 
Hatch were of the grand inquest from this town ; and in 
1642, March 7, its bounds were thus permanently fixed : 
" The bounds of Scituate township, on the westerly side 
of the said town, shall be up the Indian Head river to the 
pond, which is the head of the said river, and from thence 
to Accord pond, and from thence to the sea, by the line 
that is the bound betwixt Massachusetts and Plymouth." 

In the year 1640 the colony line was partially settled 
between Plymouth and Massachusetts, when sixty acres 
of marsh land next the sea, on Scituate side, was adjudg- 
ed, with jurisdiction, to Massachusetts, probably for the 
accommodation of Hingham at that period. 

In the year 1637, October, the tract of land alluded to 
under 1633 was granted to Messrs. Hatheriy, Andrews, 
Shirley and Beauchamp, " extending three miles up into 
the woods from the high water mark (in the brook) provi- 
ded it do not too much prejudice the town of Scituate." 
This tract Mr. Hatheriy sold, in the year 1646, (with the 
exception of his fourth part of it) for /.180 in thirty 
shares ; the purchasers are all named, all settlers of the 
town, Mr. Charles Chauncy being first named. This 
tract was bounded by Conahasset neck north, the sea 
east, the brook south, and the commons west, and proba- 
bly embraces some of the earliest settlements in this very 
ancient town. There were settlements, however, prior 

* Merchant adventurers, usually called of London. 


to this, for the Hatherly grant seems to have excited con- 
troversy. The court, however, in 1652, confirm it, ob- 
serving " that they have seen and heard the review, and 
cannot but allow and ratify the line done by their order." 
Another grant, however, appears to have issued from this 
uneasiness ; for in 1654 this occurs : " In regard of sun- 
dry contentions and intanglements betwixt Mr. Hatherly 
and some of the inhabitants of Scituate, the court doth 
grant unto Mr. H. to satisfy the partners of Conohasset,* 
a certain competency of land out of the bounds of any 
particular township, on the westerly side of the town of 
Scituate aforesaid." This led to and elucidates this sub- 
sequent call on Scituate, June, 1656, " to take some spee- 
dy course to run out their head or westerly line between 
the pond and the head of Indian Head river and Accord 
pond, otherwise, if they neglect it, and the court grant land 
that may be found to prejudice them, they may blame 

In July, 1656, the court granted unto Mr. Hatherly 
definitively " a tract of three miles square, extending 
from Accord pond three miles southerly." It was divi- 
ded into 40 parts, 27 being assigned to the Conohasset 
partners. Mr. Hatherly, in 1663, having repurchased 
10 of them, sold 23 shares to John Otis of Scituate, 
Matthew Cushing, John Thaxter, John Jacob and Ed- 
ward Wilder of Hingham for /.69. These fall within 
and make a part of Abington and Hanover. 

Scituate, as well as all other towns, made frequent ap- 
plications for further grants, complaining of necessities 
and want of room, &c. Thus, in January, 1637, a com- 
mittee of fifteen of the principal planters, led by Mr. 
Hatherly and Mr. Lothrop " complained to the colony 
court that they had such small proportion of lands allot- 
ted them that they cannot subsist upon them," when the 
court granted them " all the lands between the north and 
south rivers, provided they make a township there, in- 
habit upon them, compose their differences with Mr. 
William Vassall and others, before the next court, and 

• By " partners of Conohasset" is doubtless understood the purchase of 
1640, named above. 


establish and support a ferry at North river, which Mr. 
Vassall was willing to do, that so the removal from Scit- 
uate may be without offence." 

This is probably " the two miles" ceded to Marshfield, 

In 1638, December, Mr. Thomas Besbeech,* James 
Cudworth, William Gilson, Anthony Annable, Henry 
Cobb, Henry Rowley, Edward Foster, and Robert Lin- 
nett, as a committee, were granted Seipican, and lands 
there for the seating of a township for a congregation, 
&x. &c. This grant, which now comprises Rochester, 
was not, it seems, then accepted. It was at that early pe- 
riod an exposed frontier, as it respected the natives, 
which was probably the reason ; but on this head we are 
without data. 

Thus it appears that Mr. Lothrop, with many others 
of Scituate, had the option of two distinct places, before 
their final removal to Barnstable in 1639. 

We have met with one article coincident with these in- 
quiries in the first book of Plymouth town records, as it 
respects Mr. Chauncy, who arrived at that place, 1638, 
June, where he officiated a part of three years. " The 
freemen within the town (Plymouth) do generally con- 
sent that Mr. Chauncy shall have the place that he de- 
sire th to be granted unto him, if no way can be found 
for his staying at Plymouth ; but if any do go with him 
that should have lands elsewhere, and take them up 
there, then there shall be a rateable proportion abated of 
the land he shall have elsewhere." Mr. Chauncy about 
this time went to Scituate ; still we incline to the opin- 
ion, from the quotation above, that some other place was 
at that time contemplated. 

A further grant two miles by one, up the north river, 
was made in 1640; and in 1652 the inhabitants extin- 
guished the aboriginal tide' to the town, by a considera- 
tion of L14> to Josiah Wompatuck, sachem of Matta- 
keeset, which act was thus noticed by the colony court : 
<< Forasmuch as they have bought nothing but what was 

* Now written Bisbee. We notice him in Marshfield also; but he was a 
Scituate man. 


formerly granted, the court have remitted what might 
be a breach of order therein," the informality only being 
censured. In 1685 all original grants of townships were 
confirmed by the court, when Scituate, as here deduced, 
was ratified in ample form. Much uneasiness appears to 
have existed in this town many years on the subject of the 
" Conihasset common shares." It evidently caused sharp 
contentions, and was an injury to the town, and gave ex- 
cessive trouble to the court, calling into exercise all the 
patience of some of the best of men ; we mean those who 
at this, and at all periods, administered the prudential af- 
fairs of Plymouth Colony. It was finally, in 1671, prob- 
ably decided by a committee of eight Scituate persons, 
four on each side, in concurrence with two or three of 
the magistrates, when it was agreed that each proprietor 
should have not less than 50 nor more than 80 acres of 
land. These disputes may have arisen from the resigna- 
tion of the " committee of lands" in 1647, and other 
causes, which can only be traced in the various windings 
of the human heart. 

Name. Seteaat or Satuit was a common aboriginal 
name for certain brooks, and in this orthography Scituate 
is often written in the colony records. Hence the infer- 
ence, that it has this origin from a well known brook. 
From analogous words, it probably implies " Cold 
Brook." In Rhode Island there is a town of the same 
name, probably for the same reason, or given by emi- 
grants from this place. 

Conihasset, or Cowasset, is the first station in de- 
scribing Plymouth patent, being " a runlet" between 
Scituate and the well known place Cohasset. Here is a 
" gulph or fall of rocks" often mentioned in the records, 
a little stream coming from a pond, passing over a ledge 
of rocks of several feet ; every tide, however, ascends 
above it, and flows far into Scituate southerly, over ex- 
tensive marshes, leaving east of it an high ridge, termed 
the " Glades," in Scituate, This part of the town is very 
rocky, but pleasant ; peculiarly so in summer, and affords 
fine pastures and some good farms. One third of the 
town is estimated to be fine grazing land. Of late there 


have been tide mills erected here ; but it became necessa- 
ry to make an additional dam as a reservoir, so that the 
meadows should not be permanently flowed. These 
mills chiefly pertain to persons in Cohasset, as we are in- 

Progress of the settlement. Scituate, indebted to the 
substantial character of some of its first founders, many 
of whom it is evident came chiefly from Kent in Eng- 
land, soon became a respectable town, early taking the 
lead in rates and levies of men, which superiority it 
maintained to the latest annals of the colony.* Are you 
a Kentish man, or a man of Kent ? has its historical val- 
ue, as it respects origin. 

William Gilson, an early freeman and an assistant of 
the colony, had erected a windmill there as early as 
1637, near the third cliff. 

In 1638 a ferry was established at North river by 
Jonathan Brewster, of Duxbury. This ferry was at a place 
called " New Harbour marsh," and was probably that usu- 
ally called the " lower ferry." In 1641 Mr. Brewster sold 
his ferry privilege to Mess. Barker, Howell and others, for 
/.60. In 1645 it was kept by Ralph Chapman, who, in 
1656, implored the court to excuse him," as it would bring 
him to extreme poverty," &c. He was excused, " except 
on special occasions, as bringing the magistrates over, 
who dwell there." The first instance of a ferry in the 
colony occurs in 1633 at Jones river, Kingston, kept by 
George Moore, and where a bridge was erected in 1638. 

In 1639 Anthony Annable and Edward Foster had the 
honour to be " returned their committee (deputies) to aid 
the government in making laws, according to court 

In 1646 the publick ways were first laid out, further ex- 
tended to Cooper's Island and Hatch's Island (marsh 
islands) in 1653 ; also along North and South river. 

In 1648 Mr. Timothy Hatherly, the principal founder 
and father of the town of Scituate, requested liberty of the 
colony to erect an iron mill. It was granted in 1650, con- 

• Scituate is now (1815) the fourth town in the county in the State tax, Bridge - 
water, Middleborough, and Plymouth preceding, in the order named. 


ditional, to be erected within three years, or the privilege, 
certain woodlands about Mattakeeset Pond (now Pem- 
broke) to revert to the colony. It did not however take 
place at that period, but "a smelting furnace was erected 
on the precise grant, by Mark Despard and the family of 
Barker about 1702." 

In 1652 a " military dicipline"* was erected in Scitu- 
ate, on which occasion these officers were appointed by 
the court — James Cudworth, captain, John Vassal! lieu- 
tenant, Joseph Tilden, ensign. 

In 1675 Capt. Cudworth became general and comman- 
der in chief in military rank. He was also an assistant, 
treasurer, and commissioner of the United Colonies. 
He went to England, as colony agent, in 1681, where 
he died soon after his arrival. 

In 1656, Robert Studson, with Mr. Hatherly and Jo- 
seph Tilden, built a saw mill on the third Herring Brook, 
and which may be the first saw mill in the colony. This 
is the brook which now separates Scituate from Hano- 
ver, and where a saw mill yet stands contiguous to the 
ship yards. It was destroyed by the natives, 1676. 

These brief statements may serve to shew the prog- 
ress of the settlement, and seem to confirm the first sug- 
gestion, that Scituate made early advances in useful and 
efficient regulations. 

Topography. The first planters of this ancient town 
sometimes complained to the colony court that " their 
lands w 7 ere stony and hard to be subdued." It fell 
to their lot to encounter hardships and toils under various 
forms. Their complaint is a very correct description of 
the north east part of the town, which adjoins Cohasset ; 
yet it has a large indemnity in extensive salt marshes, and 
nutritious pasturage. The township, in one view, is of 
unequal surface ; the original growth was walnut, oak, 
and white pine chiefly, with maple, beech, hemlock, and 
cedar, while the rocky physiology does not pervade the 
whole territory. 

Agriculture was probably the exclusive employment; 
of the inhabitants for many years, but it does not continue 

* Plymouth, Duxbury and Marahfield were made a " military dioipliae/' 1643L 


so. The average annual produce of the arable lands, the* 
acre, may be stated, Indian corn twenty bushels, rye, not 
much cultivated, twelve ; barley, more cultivated/thirty, 
or more. " Fruit trees flourish and live long."* Ship 
timber is now sought in distant towns, and wood, as 
fuel, has become scarce in the eastern section of the 
town, about the harbour, whence it is occasionally pro- 
cured from Maine. The remaining woodlands, in this 
section, indeed throughout the township, command a 
very advanced price. This occasions emigrations. 

Rivers and Brooks. Several brooks, common to Scit- 
uate and Hanover, all proceed from the north west, indi- 
cating higher ground on that limit of the town. One, 
which is now a boundary between these two towns, was 
probably called by the natives " Assanipi," "rocky wa- 
ter." A meeting house on its confines is vulgarly called 
'Snappet, as we conceive, used for a contraction of the 
name, 'Snippet. On this, which is the " third herring 
brook" of the first planters, are a saw mill and grist mills. 

On " herring brook," a crooked stream, and that 
probably on which the earlier settlements were made, is a 
grist mill ; there is also a tide grist mill at the harbour. 
Scituate wants mill seats. In this respect it is rivalled 
by the towns seated above it; but in all, it is said, 
the streams occasionally fail in summer, affording then 
but a partial supply of water. At such times the mill at 
the harbour is visited by a vicinage of fourteen miles. 
Indeed we can state it as a singular fact, that, in very dry- 
summers, the grist mills on Plymouth town brook have 
been sought even from Milton in modern periods of 
time. f 

North River. North river, we are told, is eighteen 
miles long from the sea to the bridge ; an air line, on our 
state map, gives it but about six miles from the bridge 
to the sea. It is very crooked ; a certain reach in it is 
called " no gains," since, after meandering several miles, 
a small distance only is attained. The tide perceptibly 
flows more than two miles above the bridge, at which 
latter place it rises from three to five feet, and although 

* M Apple trees remain, which have produced fruit a century or more." 


ships are built at this spot, yet in summer, when the tide 
is out, it is there a mere brook. Hence getting a vessel 
of burthen out of this river is a very tedious process, per- 
formed by the agency of scows and screws. It has also 
some shallows lower down, and is narrow in all its 
course. There is at its mouth, at full tide, nine feet wa- 
ter. Its embouchure shifts, advancing south an half 
mile ; then receding as far, sometimes having one outlet 
and occasionally two, which is the fact now (1815.)* 
South river, a shorter, but more rapid tide stream, com- 
ing from Marshfield, uniting with it near the sea, aids in 
causing these variations; to which must be added the 
mighty effects of the heaving and restless ocean, the con- 
flict of winds, of tides, and contexture of the immediate 
shores. Ships of 500 tons have been built at Foster's 
building yard On the Seituate side, and from four to three 
hundred tons in all its course. One of the highest tasks al- 
lotted to man is to surmount impediments. With all the 
natural inconveniences of this river, it is gratifying to 
trace him for a long series of years l9 rendering it a princi- 
pal ship-yard of Massachusetts. The aggregate of tons, 
and the number of ship-rigged vessels, h^re constructed 
since 1700, w r ould be a curious and valuable document 
in our annals of ship building, f 

We close with the remark, that North river has two 
principal heads, namely, Indian Head river and Namassa- 
keese river, both in Pembroke. Just above North river 
bridge, there is a swamp seven miles in circuit, chiefly, 
if not wholly, in Pembroke. A brook, whose source 
is in Abington, unites with the tributaries to North river 
in Hanover. 

Harbours* The sea line of Seituate, which may 
be eight miles, affords one small tide harbour, difficult of 
access, and seldom visited, unless from distress of wea- 
ther. It cannot be entered at all at low water. At full 
tide there may be from ten to twelve feet depth ; there 

* a North river, as it approaches the sea, runs parallel with the shore, leaving 
a beach without of near three miles. This beach of round smooth pebbles from 
20 to 40 feet high is considered a curiosity." * 

f 1681. The barque "Adventure" of 40 tons sailed from North river for the 
West Indies. She was owned by Seituate and Marshfield people. 



are two wharves and a village. A light house, ex- 
hibiting one steady light, has lately (1811) been erected 
on Cedar point, its north side. The "four cliffs," 
so well known to mariners, are ail south of the harbour, 
showing sandy fronts. Scituate point, equally well known, 
is rocky. The Humane Society have houses on these 
shores for ship-wreck 'd sufferers. 

Fish.* Bass, shad, ale wives, smelts and eels seek 
North river ; cod, and other sea fish common to ail 
the bay, are taken just without the harbour. 

Hills. Coleman's, with other high grounds, bring into 
view, sea prospects on a sublime scale. All the shipping 
to and from Boston pass in fair review, while the oppo- 
site north shores of Marblehead and of Cape Ann are 
within the perspective. 

The air, pure at all times, is somewhat bleak in winter, 
but in mid summer refreshing, and generally healthful. 
There have been many instances of longevity of the past 
and later generations. " The annual average bill of mor- 
tality may be stated at about forty. Near half of these 
die of consumption, one quarter of old age, and the 
remainder of various diseases. In a section of low lands, 
in the north parish, fevers annually prevail." 

North River Bridge. It appears from colonial histo- 
ry, that Mr. William Barstow had kept it in repair from 
1662 to 1682, for /.20 sterling under the colony, when 
the towns were directed to do it, and also other bridges 
as follows : 

1682. " Ordered by the Colony Court, that Scituate 
pay /.10, Duxbury and Marshfield 1.5 each, silver 
money, towards building a cart- way bridge at Barstow's 
bridge,! North River, twenty shillings to be taken from 
Duxbury and put to Monamoiet.f Ordered also, that 
Sandwich, Barnstable, Yarmouth and Eastham pay /.5 

* 1639, December. " Licence or liberty is granted to Mr. "William Vassall to 
make an oyster bank in the North river, sixty rods in length, and across the said 
river, in some convenient place, near his farm there, called the " West New- 
land," and to appropriate it to his own use, forbidding all others to use the same, 
without his licence." Colony Records. — The inference seems to be, that the oys- 
ter was not common to this river. 

t 1662 is not the earliest date, as it respects Barstow's bridge. This man had 
erected one at an earlier date at the same place, 1656. 
$ Now Chatham. 


each toward Eel River bridge in Plymouth, and Ply- 
mouth, with other southern towns, to support the same, 
together with Jones' River bridge," (then in Plymouth, 
now in Kingston.) 

The situation of this town, on the confines of Massa* 
chusetts, protected it in a degree from Indian invasion, 
though a large aboriginal population remained many years 
about the Pembroke Ponds. In the eventful war of 
1676, nineteen houses and barns were burned by the na- 
tives in Scituate, April 18th of that year, when, it is said 
in our annals, " they were bravely encountered and re- 
pulsed by the inhabitants."* The house occupied by the 
family of Stockbridge was, it is said, "a garrison house" 
in these perilous times. 

Population at various periods. 
1638, Freemen 22, townsmen 19 are 41 
1643, Males from 16 to 60 years 100 
1670, Freemen --."-. 39 
1684, Freemen - - - - - 58 
1689, Freemen 61 

United States' 1 census— souls* 
1790, (including 65 of colour) 2862 
heads of families, 519 

1800, 2728 

Number of houses, 421 

1810, 2969 

There are now (1815) upwards of seventy blacks. 
Roads. The situation of this town, on the sea shore, is 
such as precludes it from transit travel by land. The 
post road from Boston to Plymouth crosses its north 
west corner only, a little more than two miles. The in- 
tercourse with the metropolis, however, by water, is con- 
venient either from the harbour, Cohasset, or Hingham. 
It is nine miles from the harbour to the four corners in 
Hanover. Union bridge with a draw has, within a few 

* 1C76. These persons, soldiers of Scituate, requested lands of the Colony 
Court for services, Lieut. Isaac Buck, Zachariah Damon, John Damon, Richard 
Prouty, John Buck, Jonathan Jackson, Thomas Clark, William Hatch, Watte* 
Briggs, Joseph Garrett, Richard Dwelley, Benjamin Woodworth. 

jfr'or the loss of Scituate in this war, see Hist. Coll. Vol. 6, series first. 


years, been erected on North River, at Oakman's ferry, 
connecting Scituate and Marshfield. 

Mackerel Fishery, The mackerel fishery has been 
pursued with great success from Scituate during a long 
series of years. As early as the vear 1680 Robert Stud- 
son of Scituate, with Nathaniel Thomas of Marshfield, it 
appears, hired the " Cape Fishery" for bass and mackerel 
of the colony. 

Subsequent to 1700 it was common for a vessel to take 
800 or more barrels during the season, within Massachu- 
setts Bay, which were worth in these early times about 
forty shillings, O. T. the barrel. It was common, we 
are told in later annals, at Boston and at Plymouth, &c. 
when making an outfit cargo for the Jamaica market, to 
floor a vessel, as it is termed, with an hundred or more 
barrels of Scituate mackerel. It is probable the packing 
out, so termed, was usually performed in Boston in 
all times.* 

In 1670, in Plymouth Colony, at the June court, 
this law passed, " Whereas we have formerly seen great 
inconvenience of taking mackerel at unseasonable times, 
whereby their increase is greatly diminished, and that it 
hath been proposed to the court of the Massachusetts that 
some course might be taken for preventing the same, and 
that they have lately drawn up an order about the same, 
this court doth enact that henceforth no mackerel shall 
be caught, except for spending while fresh, before the 
first of July annually, on penalty of the loss of the same, 
the one half to the informer, and the other to the colony." 
In 1684 on the motion of William Clark, a merchant of 
Plymouth, the court passed an order prohibiting the 
seining of mackerel in any part of the colony, when the 
court leased the cape fishery for bass and mackerel to Mr. 
Clark for seven years at /.30 per annum, but which 
he resigned, 1689. 

Dr. Douglas, who wrote on New England about 1750, 
says, of mackerel, " They set in the second week of 
May, lean, and seem to eat muddy ; some are caught all 

• 1730. George Morton, a cooper, removed from Plymouth to Scituate, ?? 
which period that trade was rare in the latter town. 


summer. There is a second setting in for autumn, fat 
and delicious eating. They are a north latitude fish, and 
are not to be found south of New England. Beginning 
of July for a short time, they disappear, or will not take 
the bait ; hook mackerel, for a market, are preferable to 
those caught by seines, which bruise one another." 

These fish, it seems, were formerly seined for the pur- 
pose of bait, a practice now disused, and all are taken by 
the hook.* 

They are a capricious and sportive fish. In cloudy and 
even wet weather they take the hook with most avidity. 
They are very partial to the colour of red ; hence a rag 
of that hue is sometimes a bait. A small strip of their 
own flesh, taken from near the tail, is used as a bait with 
most success. 

In early times the shores of our bays were skirted by 
forest trees quite to the water's edge. In the month of 
June, when all nature is in bloom, the volatile farina of 
the bloom of the forest trees then floats in the air, and 
occasionally settles on the smooth surface of the seas 
Then it is that this playful fish, attracted by this phe- 
nomenon, leaps and bounds above the surface of the 
water. So again, at a later period, in July and August, 
winged insects, carried away by the south west winds, 
rest and settle on the bosom of ocean, a welcome herald, 
it is said, to the mackerel catcher. Such are the habits 
of many fishes, and hence the use of the fly as a bait by 
the angler of the trout streams. 

Being at Plymouth, June 27, 1815, we made the fol- 
lowing notes on the dimensions and weight of round 
fresh mackerel of three several sizes, in the market. 

First size length in inches 18 ? . h 2 £ £ 

Circuit - - - 10 5 

Second size, length - - 16 ? • u , ,. " 
n ' .? > weight, 1 lb. 8 oz*. 

Circuit - - - 83 

Third size, length - - - 14 } w . , , ffi 
Circuit - - - 7 J weight, 1 id. 

* The people of Hull, it seems, first taught the Plymouth colonists to take there, 
at Cape Cod, by moou light. See Hist. Coll. Vol. VI. p. 127, 1st Ser. 


Those that succeed in August are not so large, but, as 
Dr. Douglass justly remarks, " much better and fatter." 

A mackerel fishery existed in former days at Ply- 
mouth. There were perhaps twelve small schooners 
thus employed in autumn, taking fifty barrels a week 
each, in the bay, about the year 1754. The people of 
Rhode Island and Connecticut were largely concerned in 
this fishery formerly, it being very common to see twenty 
or more small sloops from this section of New England, 
occasionally taking shelter under Plymouth beach in 
stormy periods. But the places where these fish are 
now taken are chiefly George's Bank, Nantucket Shoals, 
and Block Island Channel. 

In the year 1770, we are told there were upwards of 
thirty sail of vessels, in this branch of the fisheries, from 
Scituate ; but not so many since 1783 to 1812. War, 
the scourge of national prosperity, destroys or suspends 
ail exterior fisheries. We hope and trust a state of peace 
will revive and prosper them. 

A series of essays on commerce appeared in a Boston 
newspaper about the year 1784. One of them was de- 
voted in part to the fisheries, in which the writer,* with 
felicity of expression eulogized the mackerel fishery, 
saying " that it was of more value to Massachusetts than 
would be the pearl fisheries of Ceylon." 

The mode of taking these fish is perhaps well known 
to be while the vessel is under quick way, and the helm 
is secured, when, doubtless, all are engaged at the long 
veered lines, of which it is said one man will attend three, 
and it may be more. 

The aboriginal name for this* fish, wawwunnekeseag, a 
plural term, signifies "fatness;" but that species of fat 
peculiar to the belly, a very descriptive and appropriate 
name, its continued roundness even to the tail being a 
very striking feature. 

Ecclesiastical History. The Rev. John Lothrop, the 
first pastor of Scituate, arrived at Boston, September 18, 
1634, and came to Scituate the 27th of the same month. 

* Probably James Swan, Esq. a member of the General Court for Dorchester. 


Certain members of the church of Plymouth, among 
others, Anthony Annable, Henry Cobb, George Ken- 
rick, George Lewis, &x. were dismissed November 23, 
1634, " in case they joined in a body at Scituate," which 
they did January 18, following. 

Succession of pastors, in the First , North, or Lower 
Rev. John Lothrop, Jan. 18, 1635, removed 1639, died 
at Barnstable, 1653. 
Charles Chauncy, settled 1641, removed 1654, 

died at Cambridge, 1672. 
Nicolas Baker, died 1678, aged 68, at Scituate. 


Nath. Pitcher, ordained Sept. 1707, died 1723, 

Sept. 27. 
Shearjashub Bourne, ordained Dec. 1724, dismiss- 
ed 1761, August 6th. 
Ebenezer Grosvenor, ordained April, 1763, dis- 
missed April, 1780. 
Ebenezer Dawes, ordained Nov. 1787, died Sept. 
29, 1791. 
Nehemiah Thomas, ordained Nov. 1792. 
The north society has had three edifices for publick 
worship, erected in as many different places. When 
Mr. Lothrop went to Barnstable, there remained but 
about seven or eight male members of this church. 

Biographical notes. An history and character at large 
both of Mr. Lathrop and of President Chauncy is extant 
in the New England Biographical Dictionary by Dr. 
Eliot, and in the Historical Collections, the tenth vol- 
ume, series first, by Dr. Chauncy. 

Mr. Lothrop went to Barnstable with the greatest part 
of his church about 1639, and settled that town. Mr. 
Chauncy was elected President of Harvard College. 

Mr. Neal, in his history of New England, speaks of a 
Mr. Saxton, as a minister of Scituate, who returned to 
England. It is probable such a person, as well as oth- 
ers, did occasionally officiate in periods of vacancy. 
VOL. IV. 31 


Mr. Dunster, the first president of the college, retired 
to Scituate, 1654, where he died, 1657, and, it is said, offi- 
ciated in the ministry there. His remains were deposit- 
ed at Cambridge. 

It is also said that a Mr. Black, or Blackman, preach- 
ed in the first society after the departure of Mr. Lothrop, 
about 1640 ; whether settled or not is uncertain.* 

Mr. Nicholas Baker probably came in to Plymouth 
Colony from Hingham or Hull. He left a widow with a 
number of children, and a large estate lying chiefly in Mas- 
sachusetts Colony, in describing which these notices occur, 
" Allerton's hill, Strawberry hill, Sagamore hill, and Pe- 
tuck's Island, all in Hull." He was doubtless one of the 
first and principal proprietors of that ancient town, of which 
an accurate history should be written. In 1642, it ap- 
pears he was one of several of Hingham, who applied for 
lands at Secuncke (Rehoboth) ; but it seems he did not 
go there. Samuel, Nathaniel, and Nicholas were his 
sons, and Grace his widow. 

Mr. Pitcher graduated at Harvard College, 1703. We 
are without materials for any further account of this gen- 
tleman. We have been told, that he was a relation of the 
family of Cushiog. 

Mr. Bourne graduated at Harvard College, 1720. It 
appears from a contemporary diary, that his health became 
impaired by paralytic affections about 1755. His wife 
was Abigail, a daughter of the Rev. Roland Cotton of 

Mr. Grosvenor was born at Pomfret, (Conn.) where 
his father kept a well known tavern. He was a graduate 
of Yale College, 1759. After being the pastor of Scit- 
uate first church near seventeen years, says the Rev. Mr. 
Whitney in his history of Worcester county, he remov- 
ed to Harvard, June, 1782, where he died in the minis- 
try, May 28, 1788, aged 49 years. 

Mr. Dawes was born at Bridge water, and graduated at 
Harvard College, 1785 ; a very amiable character, whose 
death was a subject of tender and universal regret. 

* Adam Blackman, a minister, came over early, but he settled at Guilford and 
Stratford, Connecticut.— Eliot's Biography. 


Mr. Thomas, who yet survives in this pastorate, was 
a graduate of Harvard College, 1789, born at Marshfield. 
To his civility we are indebted for some of the dates and 
facts here detailed. 

As it respects precinct affairs, it may be subjoined, 
that in the year 1661, Mr. Hatherly, whose name we 
hope will, at some future day, become that of some town 
in Plymouth county, sold his house and homestead 
there, which he bought of Mr. Chauncy, to the first pre- 
cinct, for the use of the pastorate in perpetuity. 

Second, or South, or Upper Society. 
An examination of the colony records clearly shows, 
that a second church or society was in existence as early 
as 1658, and probably before that date. In the year 
1678 the colony court ordered an assessment of an /.100 
to build a new meeting house, and then prescribed the 
limits of the second precinct. It seems to have excited 
and brought into action all those animosities which gene- 
rally attend the formation of new parishes ; but they 
appear by the records to have been settled and harmoniz- 
ed in 1680, some of the first belonging to the second, 
and others of the latter to the former. Of this second 
church Mr. William Wetherell, who appears in Ply- 
mouth Colony, and resident on the Duxbury shore, as 
early as 1639, was the first pastor. 

Succession of pastors, Second Society. 
Rev. William Wetherell, Sept. 1645, died March, 1684. 
Thomas Mighill, March, 1684, died Feb. 1689. 
Deodat Lawson, dismissed Sept. 1698. 

Nathaniel Eelles, ordained June 14, 1704, died 

Aug. 25, 1750. 'j 
Jonathan Dorbv, ordained Nov. 13, 1751, died 

April 22, 1754. 
David Barnes, D. D. ordained Dec. 4, 1754, died 

April 27, 1811. 
Samuel Deane (colleague) ordained Feb. 14, 1810. 
" The second society has had four edifices for pub" 
lick worship, erected in three different places." 


Rev. John Cotton, who was a minister of Yarmouth, 
preached occasionally to the upper society in Scituate 
about 1690, perhaps between Mighill and Lawson. 

" Although there were two churches in Scituate, there 
were not two incorporated societies, it seems, until Nov. 
29th, 1673, when the boundaries of the second precinct 
were fixed by the Colony Court, the mill brook, with 
some subsequent exceptions in 1680, being the separa- 
ting line. The bounds of the north precinct remain un- 
altered. But in 1727, the southerly part of the south or 
second precinct became the incorporated town of Hano- 
ver. In 1773, a tract of two miles square, on the S. E. 
side of North River, was assigned, according to a petition 
of its inhabitants, by mutual consent of the south pre- 
cinct, to the west precinct in Marshfield," and consti- 
tutes, what in popular phrase is called in Marshfield, 
"the two miles." "With these exceptions, the south 
precinct continues as originally bounded, 1680." 

Biographical Notes. Mr. Wetherell, it is stated, was 
a member of the church of Duxbury before his settle- 
ment. His name often occurs in the colony records, 
having early grants on the north side the bay, about 
North River. It is stated that he had previously resided 
at Cambridge and Charlestown. The name, we believe, 
continues in Scituate, and Wetherell was also among the 
very early names in Taunton, about 1648. 

Mr. Thomas Mighill, a minister, it appears, graduated 
at Harvard College, 1663, and is probably the minister 
of Scituate. In his will he names S. Sewall and Isaac 
Addington of Boston, and John Wells, sen. of Rox bu- 
ry, (his cousin) as his overseers. He appears to have 
been concerned in trade, for this occurs in his inventory, 
"a quarter of a sloop, then estimated at L\5 the quarter 
at Scituate." The name of Mighill occurs again in 
Plymouth county about 1710, when a person of that 
name made very large purchases of lands about Hanover 
and Abington, and who erected what were called "Drink- 
water iron works" thereabout. 

Mr. Lawson. It appears that he left his people and 
refused to return, and was dismissed by a council of el- 
ders which met at Weymouth, Sept. 28, 1698. 


Mr. Eelles graduated at Harvard College, 1699. A 
contemporary diarist, noticing his death, remarks, " 1750, 
Aug. 25, Rev. Nathaniel Eelles died, aged about 73, 
suddenly, at Scituate, a minister much improved in coun- 
cils, laborious in his ministry, &c." He was confessedly a 
leading divine in this part of the Lord's vineyard, giving 
counsel by his understanding, during his long and useful 
ministry, being always in requisition at ordinations, coun- 
cils, &c. and generally presiding. We should conclude 
that he was a man of solid judgment, of intimate acquaint- 
tance with the usages of the churches, and great know- 
| ledge of human nature. His respectable relict survived 
until 1754 ; his son Nathaniel, who graduated at Harvard 
College, 1728, was a minister of Stonington, Conn, and 
Edward, a graduate of the same college, 1733, was also 
a minister of Middietown, Conn. Descendants of the 
minister of Scituate continue in Hanover, Mass. and in 

Mr. Darby, " a great loss," says the diarist, died at 
" Hingham, and was buried at Scituate." He graduated 
at Harvard College, 1735, and in the catalogue the name 
is spelled Dorby^ and is so written at Scituate. 

The Rev. Dr. Barnes was born, we believe, at Marl- 
borough, in Middlesex, and graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege, 1752, settled in Scituate, as we have stated, where 
he died 1811, aged 81 years. 

A biographical notice of this respected and beloved 
minister appeared in the Columbian Centinel, May 15, 
and is annexed to a late edition of his posthumous ser- 
mons. We shall not take the liberty to extract at large 
from this very excellent and characteristic sketch, but re- 
commend it to our readers as a just tribute to the memo- 
ry of an eminent divine, "who inculcated no lessons 
which he did not practise, and who in meekness may be 
compared to Moses." We add that he was a practical 
agriculturalist, one of the best, perhaps, in his vicinage. 
The late Hon. David L. Barnes, District Judge of Rhode 
Island, was his only son. 

Mr. Deane, his colleague and successor in the pasto- 
rate, is a graduate of Brown University, and is of Rayn- 


ham. To his politeness we are indebted for many facts 
and dates, particularly in the church and precinct notes. 

" The religious character of the people, it is remark, 
ed, has been sober, modest, and rational in general, not 
corrupted by metaphysical subtleties, nor distracted by 
sectarian zeal. Hospitality, charity and sociability, are 
characteristics of the state of society." 

It may be here subjoined that the Rev. Lemuel Bri- 
ant, who died at Hingham, 1754, and who had been a 
minister of Braintree, lies buried at Scituate, probably 
his native place. 

Saint Andrew's Church. 
Of Saint Andrew's Church in Scituate, the Rev. Ad- 
dington Davenport, who graduated at Harvard College, 
1719, was the first rector. At a subsequent period he 
removed to Boston, where he was assistant at King's 
Chapel, and rector of Trinity Church. In the year 1743, 
Mr. Davenport gave his estate in Scituate, being an 
house with several acres of land, to " The Society for 
propagating the Gospel in foreign parts, in trust toward 
the support of the ministers of St. Andrew's church in 
Scituate, in perpetuity," on which occasion he reverts to 
his having been " the first rector." 

Succession of Rectors. 
Rev. Addington Davenport, 


William W. Wheeler, 
Joab Goldsmith Cooper. 
Rev. Mr. Wheeler, born, we believe, in Middlesex, 
graduated at Harvaid College, 1755, and succeeded the 
Rev. Mr. Thompson, whose daughter he married, and 
who died at Scituate. 

St. Andrew's church in Scituate has, within a few 
years, been taken down, and another edifice, of larger 
dimensions, erected in Hanover, bearing the same name, 
near the poet ro;<d, and in which the Rev. Joab Gold- 
smith Cooper was die late rector. He left his place in 
April, 1816. A small church in Marshfield, which may 
date in 1745* hi evei been connected with St. Andrew's, 
the rector officiating there one sabbath in four. Another 



church in Taunton, was in the same way connected with 
St. Andrew's, and the rector officiated there one sabbath 
in four. 

Notes on the first freemen and townsmen of Scituatc. 

It is probable, from the testimony of the colony records 
as well as other authorities, that a considerable number of 
the first planters, though not all, of this ancient town, came 
from Kent, a county of England, situate on the south bank 
of the Thames. Several of them appear to have been of 
Tenterden, and its vicinity in that shire, while their first 
pastor, Mr, Lothrop, had been a minister, we believe, of 
Egerton in Kent, previous to his removal to London. 
A collection of houses, south side the harbour, the first 
planters named " Kent Street." 

This * mark, affixed to the subjoined names, denotes 
such as went to Barnstable. The date denotes the pe- 
riod of being made freemen, but not of their arrival in the 

First Freemen from 1633 to 1649. 

1 633 Mr. William Gilson 

* Anthony Annable 

Humphrey Turner 

William Hatch 

# Henry Cobb 

Samuel House 

# Isaac Robinson 

1634 *Mr. James Cudworth 

# Samuel Fuller 

# John Cooper 

# HenrV Rowley 

1 635 Mr. Timothy Flatherly 
— — George Kenrick 

1636 Ed ward Foster 

*George Levis 

^Bernard Lombard 

1637 *Mr. John Lothrop 

*Henrv Bourne 

Mr. Thomas Besbedge 






*Sarauel Hinckley 
John Lewis 
Richard Sillis 

* Ed ward Fitzrandle 
*WiSliam Caseley 

* Robert Linnet 
John Williams 

*Mr. Thomas Dimmack 

John Twisden 

Thomas Chambers 

John Hewes 

Mr. Charles Chauncy 

•William Parker 
Walter Woodworth 
Edward Eddenden 
Thomas Clap 
Edward Jenkins 
Isaac Stedman 

*John Alien 

Note. Mr. Cudworth staid at Barnstable a very short 
time, and soon returned again to Scituate. Mr. Twis- 
den and some others went to Georgiana, in Maine ; Mr. 
Kenrick to Rehoboth in 1645 ; Mr. House, a ship car- 



penter, to Cambridge. Mr. Fitzrandle went out of the 
colony, 1649. Messrs. Annable, Cobb, Kenrick, G. 
Lewis, Hewes, and several others, first abode at Ply- 

Beside this respectable list of names, there were a large 
number equally so, who were content, it seems, with ta- 
king the " oath of fidelity" only ; some of whom, how- 
ever, soon became freemen, and others not so. " The 
following persons took the oatli of fidelity at Scituate, 
February 1, 1638." This * mark denotes such as went 
to Barnstable. 

Mr. William Vassall 
*Henry Ewell 
* William Crocker 
^Robert Shelley 
John Crocker 
Joseph Coleman 
Nicholas Wade 
George Willard 
Thomas Hyland 
Thomas Pinchin 

Thomas Prior 
*Isaac Welles 

Wm. Holmes, sen. 

Henry Merick 

Thomas Chittenden 

William Perry 
^Robert Linnet 

Joseph Checkett 

John Stockbridge 

*Edward Casely 

But as those who are conversant with Scituate, will not 
find, even in this copious list, all their ancient names, and 
as it is the parent town of many others by successive em- 
igrations, we add these, some of whom were as early, and 
others rather later than the above dates, say from 1633 to 
1657 and 10»68. 

1633 Nath. Tilden and sons 
Thomas Bird 
Daniel Standlake 
Samuel Jackson 
William Willis 
George Moore 
Robert Studson 

Serjt. John Bryant 
Hercules Hills 

Lieut. James Tony, Town 

Thomas Weyborne 
Joseph Wermall 


Mr. Thomas King 
John Vassall 
John Turner, sen. and 

James Cushman 
Resolved White 
George Russell 
Stephen Vinall 



John Vinall 
Abraham Preble 
Thomas Lapham 
Rodolphus Elmes 
Jeremiah Hatch 
Henry Mason 
Isaack Buck, 2d Town 

Walter Briggs 
Humphrey Johnson 
William Barstow 
John Hollet 
William Brooks 
Gilbert Brooks 
Richard Curtis 
William Curtis 
Walter Hatch 
William Peakes 
John Sutton 
John Hanmore 
Ephraim Kempton 
Matthew Gannett 
Peter Collamore 
Michael Pierce 
William Randall 

1657 John Palmer, sen. and 

Thomas Oldham 

Nathaniel Rawlins 

George Pidcoke 

Daniel Hickes 

John Magoon 

Thomas Ingham 

Jonas Pickles 

Samuel Utley 

John Durand 

Robert Whetcombe 

Abraham Sutliffe 

John Whiston 

John Winter 

John Cowin 
1662 John Otis 

John Gushing 1 
1668 Charles Stockbridge 

Israel Cudworth 

John James 

Experience Lichfield 

Edward Wanton 

William Ticknor 

Brief Biographical Sketches. 
Mr. Timothy Hatheriy, one of the merchant adventur- 
ers, arrived at Plymouth in the Ann, 1623, where he soon 
suffered a loss by fire, which induced his return to Eng- 
land. He came back, however, in 1632, and arrived at 
Boston, whence he repaired to Scituate, of which town 
he must be considered, as we have suggested, the father 
and principal founder. He was successively an assistant 
of Plymouth Colony, 1636, treasurer, 1639, a commis- 
sioner of the United Colonies, and, from all concurrent 
testimony, a very useful publick and private character. 
He died 1666, leaving no children to bear up his respect* 
able name. He appears to have married Lydia, the 
widow of Mr. Nathaniel Tilden, who died in 1641 ; for 
32 VOL. JV. 


all Mr« Tilden's children, a large number, are noticed 
and considered by him with truly paternal care. His 
principal estate was situated near what was thus early 
called, " The old herring wear.'* There is a place 
in England called Hatherly, in Devonshire. 

Nathaniel Tilden, as we have noticed, died in 1641. 
This gentleman held an estate, it seems, at Tenterden in 
Kent, (England.) Among the items of his personal 
estate at Scituate were " ten stocks or swarms cf bees 
valued at ten pounds." This is the earliest and only no- 
tice of bees in the colony records. We deem it worthy 
of particular notice. We see one deed from Henry 
Merritt to Mr. Tilden, dated 1628, in which both are 
called of Scituate, and conveys improvements there, which 
it seems had been made by Thomas Bird. This does 
not appear a mistake of figures, and stands alone as much 
the earliest date in Scituate.* Mr. Bird, we believe, was 
one of Mr. Hatherly 's men. This plantation, there- 
fore, was early selected by the merchant adventurers, 
as appears from all testimony. We have noticed a 
Joseph Tilden among the adventurers in England 
in 1626 ; probably the common ancestor. Thomas Til- 
den arrived at Plymouth in the Ann, 1623, probably a 
son of Nathaniel. He settled in Marshfield. 

Joseph Tilden, eldest son of Nathaniel, was a very 
useful man in Scituate early annals. He died 1670. 
There were several brothers ; two, and perhaps more, 
settled in Marshfield, where it is (1815) a very common 

Mr. William Gilson is on the earliest list of freemen, 
1633, and then an assistant. He died in 1639 at Scitu- 
ate, without issue, Frances, his wife, surviving. He 
brought over two of his sister's children of the name of 
Damon, his heirs, which name continues in the place. 

Daniel Standlake, who died 1638, and Thomas Prior 
in 1639, are among the earliest deaths in this town. 
Each name remained. 

Humphrey Turner. This respectable man, one of the 
first committee for the disposal of lands, and by profes* 

* Colony Records, Vol. I. 


sion a tanner, we trace also as an early deputy to the 
colony court, &c. He died about 1673, leaving a nume- 
rous descent, John being the eldest son. Beside those in 
Scituate and various places of this lineage, those also, 
•who for several generations have taught the accomplish- 
ment of dancing in the metropolis, are of the same stock.* 
" 1681. Joseph Turner for having been an ensign in the 
Narragansett fight was excused from ordinary training by 
the colony court." 

Anthony Annable came to Plymouth in the Fortune, 
1621, where he resided with his family, until the settle- 
ment of Scituate, where he settled, and whence he re- 
moved to Barnstable, where he died, 1673. He was 
a leading man in both places, and an exemplary member 
of the church. This name is on the catalogue of Har- 
vard College in early times. 

Edward Foster, another of the fathers of Scituate, is 
entitled to respectful memorial. He died in 1643, a 
great loss to the town and colony ; Lettice, his wife, sur- 
viving, with an only son, Timothy, who emigrated to 
Massachusetts. This name continues in Scituate. 

William Hatch, sen. was frequently in civil office. 
He died in 1652, and is then called " sen. and elder." 
Hence, we conclude, he was an elder of the church. Thisr 
name is numerous in the old colony. 

James Torrey is not named among the early freemen, 
and probably came in from Weymouth, and we conclude 
was the second town clerk. He was the son in law 
of Mr. Hatch, the elder. 

John Cooper was among those who went to Barnsta- 
ble, and who, at his death, gave one third of his large es. 
tatc to the church there. He names Mrs. Alice Brad- 
ford of Plymouth as his sister. A marsh island in 
Scituate continues his respectable name. 

Hercules Hills of Scituate served in the Indian wars, 
about 1644; soon after which he returned to England, 
where we trace him in 1666, at Rochester in Kent, 
at which date he sold his Scituate plantation to Edward 

* The men of Kent, it seems, have been royally complimented for their pOj- former ages, in the annals of England. 


Goodwin of Boston, Mass. a shipwright, who was of 
Chatham in Kent. Our object in these minute details is 
to illustrate our early history. We believe the art of 
shipbuilding so early established at North River and 
Boston may be traced to the dock yards of Chatham on 
the Medway. No liberal reader, therefore, no true New 
Englandman, we trust, will view with indifference these 
our early annals, and unwisely say, "it is ail barren!" 
when so much fruit has been produced. 

Mr. William Vassall,* one of the assistants and plan- 
ters of Massachusetts, emigrated thence, it seems, to 
Scituate in Plymouth Colony, as early as February 1, 
1638, where he continued on his extensive planta- 
tion, which he called the " West Newland," until about 
1650, when, having acquired great estates in the West 
Indies, he went there, and died in Barbadoes, 1655. His 
place of residence there was in St. Michael's parish in that 
island. As he was of the church of England, and adhered 
to its ceremonies, we do not meet with him in civil office ; 
but the immediate government of Plymouth Colony evi- 
dently held him in just and deserved estimation, and on 
emergent occasions his worthy name occurs, as of the 
council of war. He was clearly a publick- spirited man, 
liberal in his opinions and views, though somewhat rest- 
less, and we should conclude the wealthiest person at 
that period in Plymouth Colony, even before the ac- 
quirement of the West India estates. Two of his 
daughters, Judith and Frances, married at Scituate and 
Marshfield ; the former in 1640, to Resolved White, an 
elder brother of Peregrine, and the latter, in 1646, to 
James Adams, a son of John Adams, one of the Ply- 
mouth planters, who came over in the Fortune, 1621, 
and died in 1633. The son James died at sea 1651, on 
board the James of London. 

John Vassall, named in this history, was, we conclude, 
a son of William. 

* Mr. Vassall came over, it appears, to Massachusetts very eatfy, returned 
soon to England, and came back again to Boston, 1634. Mr. Hubbard, in his histo- 
ry, is complimentary and severe on Mr. Vassall. See Hubbard's History, and 
the unpublished manuscript of Gov. Winthrop. 


Michael Pierce was not one of the earliest settlers, but 
he merits particular notice. We have seen his impres- 
sive and affecting will, made under peculiar circumstances, 
" going forth in defence of the country," and in which 
service, while commanding a party of fifty English and 
twenty friendly natives, he was siain, March, 1676. See 
our annals. Also a letter from the Reverend Mr. Noah 
Newman of Rehoboth to the Rev. Mr. Cotton of Ply- 
mouth, now in the hands of Hay ward Pierce, Esq. of 
Scituate, his respectable descendant. 

John Stockbridge was the ancestor of Dr. Charles Stock- 
bridge, the father and son ; both eminent as physicians, 
and the latter also in scientific musick. Their family seat 
was, as we have suggested, a garrison house in early 
days. This part of the mansion, we are told, has been 
carefully preserved. 

Robert Studson was always in requisition in military 
service, as a " cornet of the troopers," and on prudential 
committees throughout his long and useful life. He was 
one of the agents for running the colony line in 1662, 
and was living 1675, 

Samuel Clap was, we are told, the great ancestor 
of Thomas Clap, a president of Yale College, and 
of Thomas Clap, a minister of Taunton and subsequent 
judge of the pleas in Plymouth county. The late Sam- 
uel Clap, Esq. many years treasurer of the town of Bos- 
ton, was, we believe, of the same lineage. 

Edward and Michael Wanton, shipwrights, were of 
Scituate about 1670, perhaps before. The former went 
to Rhode Island, and, it is said, is the common ancestor 
of several governours of that state. 

Rev. Charles Chauncy. We have referred the reader 
to other authorities for memoirs of this illustrious man ; 
yet we shall subjoin a few notes, trusting they will 
be acceptable to many readers. 

Something has been said of his sufferings, while/ at 
Scituate. The situation of first colonists is ever that of 
privation. Whatever adversities, therefore, were expe- 
rienced, and they were great and trying to tho fortitude 
of man, necessarily grew out of the state of the first col- 
onists. Men of letters would feel these perhaps With 


more acuteness than others ; but all felt and experienced 
enough. That Mr. C. was much respected, cherished 
and beloved by the people of the church of Plymouth, 
where he first resided awhile, is abundantly evident, by 
their wishing him to remain there, although differing 
from him in some particulars of church practice. When 
he removed to Scituate, it appeal's, that he did not unite 
all the church there. Mr. Vassall, a gentleman of influ- 
ence and of different views, was, it seems, (by their re- 
cords,) the leader of an opposition, which excited much 
Inquietude both to the church and to the government of 
the colony, (about 1643) and finally issued in the ori- 
gin of a second church in that ancient town. This sum- 
mary is sufficient, and it is, we believe, correct. Here 
therefore is another source of sufferings developed. The 
town at that period was not competent to more than one 
religious society : when therefore they became so soon 
divided, they of course became weakened. The church 
of Plymouth, with the colony court, interfered, and were 
instrumental in a subsequent reconciliation of these 

We shall subjoin for the gratification of the curious, a 
schedule of Mr. Chauncy's worldly riches, recorded 
at his request in 1649, not only as an evidence that 
he was comparatively a wealthy man, but as an exemplar 
of the progress of the settlement. 

1. The house of Mr. Hatherly, bought of Mr. Vas- 
sall, with the enlargements, a new building, and barn, 
and other out houses. 

2. All the ground about it, being six acres. 

3. An enclosed stony field, near the marsh. 

4. An orchard behind the house. 

5. The barn close, compassing the ground. 

6. 20 acres upland, ten of it enclosed, called the 

7. 12 acres Conihasset marsh. 

8. 20 acres at Hoop-pole island, with undivided 
lands among Conihasset purchasers. 

In the average chances of human affairs it falls to the 
lot of but few men in any walk, and at any time, to pos- 


sess so goodly a share of the things of this world. Two 
of Mr. C.'s sons, twins, Nathaniel and Elnathan were 
born to him at Plymouth, before his removal to Scituate. 
It is very evident he had many warm friends in both 
places, while we hope and trust his opposers in Scituate 
were not his enemies. There were, however, sharp re- 
criminations on subjects upon which men in subsequent 
periods have agreed to differ. 

Elder Henry Cobb probably came to Plymouth, with 
others, as early as 1629, where he resided with his fami- 
ly, and where his two eldest sons were born, until the 
settlement of Scituate, when he removed there, and 
thence to Barnstable, where he died 1679, leaving seven 
sons and four daughters. The promise to Abraham has 
been fulfilled in this man ; his posterity are as numerous, 
figuratively, as the sands of the sea shore, that is, they 
cannot be numbered. Patience, his wife, died in Barn- 
stable, 1648. His second wife was Sarah, a daughter of 
Samuel Hinckley, and sister of the governour. Ger- 
shom, his son, settled in Middleborough, and died there, 
1675. John, the eldest, returned to Plymouth (where he 
was born) about 1660 ; others remained at Cape Cod, and 
one or more settled in Taunton ; but there was also an Ed- 
ward Cobb in Taunton in 1657, who, we conclude, was not 
of this lineage. The elder was often a deputy to the court, 
and always on prudential committees, civil and military, 
in Barnstable early annals. 

Abraham Preble was in Scituate as early a^ 1643, a 
son in law of Mr. Tilden. He probably went to Maine 
(Georgiana) soon after this date, with others. In Alden's 
epitaphs we have noticed an Abraham Preble in York, 
about 1700. The Scituate man is doubtless the com- 
mon ancestor of this very respectable family. 

Samuel Hinckley, father of the governour, died at 
Barnstable, 1662. Thomas, the son, must have been 
born in Plymouth or Scituate. 

William Willis. When the removal took place to 
Barnstable, there was a very general alienation of estates, 
about 1642. This man, as well as others,* made large 

• Walter Brig^j aad Thomas Kobjnson held large landed estates in Scituate. 



purchases in Scituate, and must have been a person 
of some consideration in his day. While tracing old 
colony history, some towns seem to form a chain of in- 
dissoluble and intimate connexion of families and kin- 
dred in the following progression : Scituate, Barnstable, 
Marshfield, Falmouth. Rochester, and Abington, in part, 
as we shall hope to make appear in the history of all 
these towns respectively, with the exception of Fal- 
mouth, already given. 

George Lewis, clothier, resided at Plymouth, Scituate, 
and Barnstable. It is pleasing to remark a wise and ju- 
dicious balance of the useful trades among the first colo- 
nists ; for without them the city cannot be built, nor the 
plantation abide. Mr. Lewis is the common ancestor, 
doubtless, of many families on the cape, and in Con- 

Henry Bourne. There were three of this name among 
the Plymouth planters ; Thomas, at Marshfield, Rich- 
ard, at Sandwich, and the subject of this article went to 
Barnstable. The descendants are in all these places, 
in Rhode Island, and elsewhere. All of them came ear- 
ly, and resided first at Plymouth. 

The respectable names of Otis and of Cushing first 
appear in Scituate, about 1662, in the persons of John 
Otis and John Cushing, who both came in from Hingham. 
Mr. Otis died about 1684, leaving several sons and 
daughters. The eldest son John became a freeman, 
1689, and settled in Barnstable, the common ancestor of 
civilians, statesmen, and orators of celebrity ; also of Mrs. 
Warren, a lady of literary fame. Descendants of the 
other sons are in Scituate and many other places. 

Mr. Cushing was a selectman in 1676, a deputy to the 
court, and in the latter days of the colony, about 1690, 
an assistant. His son, and grandson have been judges 
of the supreme court of this state, and the latter of the 
United States.* Matthew Cushing of Hingham, it is 
said, was the common ancestor of this family, from whom 
also the late Hon. Nathan Cushing was probably collate- 
rally descended. 

* The late Hon. William Cusljiug. 


It would exceed the reasonable limits of an article for 
even the Historical Collections further to pursue these 
details. Many yet remain unnoticed, who well deserve 
it, as first colonists, arid in other respects. But tradition 
is generally faithful on this head, while the town records 
(which we have never seen) speak for themselves. In 
the second volume of the Collections, page 48, is a list 
of the merchant adventurers. Some of these names oc- 
cur in various parts of Plymouth Colony very early. 
Thus Kean, Bass, Mote, Colson, Pointing at Scituate, 
Knowies at Plymouth, 1640, &c. &c. These persons, 
or their immediate descendants, doubtless came over. 
When a new country is first colonized, those trades 
which deal in furs, are among the earliest adventurers. 
We have traced some of this profession among the colo- 
nists to their shops in Bermondsey street, Southwark, 
London. Such was Mr. Robert Hicks, merchant and 
feltman of Plymouth. Another class of men were the 
botanists of the old school. In " Pulteney's Progress of 
Botany" among the names enumerated as early botanists 
is that of u Hanbury." This also is an early name 
in Plymouth. Mr. Shirley, in his letter, speaks with af- 
fection of •'' his kinsman," in the care of Gov. Bradford. 
We cannot trace this kinsman with certainty, but only 

Saw -mill regulations of the year 1656. (An extract 
from the Colony Records,) 

" At a full town meeting of the town of Scituate, Nov. 
10, 1656, free liberty was this day granted to any man 
or men of the town to set up a saw-mill upon the third 
herring brook, as near the North River as conveniently 
it may be, on these conditions, viz. That in case any of 
the townsmen do bring any timber into the mill to be 
sawed, the owners of the mill shall saw it, whether it be 
for boards or plank, before they saw any of their own 
timber, and they are to have the one half for sawing 
of the other half" 5 ' 

" And in case any man of the town, that doth not 
bring any timber to the mill to be sawed, shall want any 
vol, iv. 33 


boards for his own particular use, the owner of the mill 
shall sell him boards for his own use, so many as he shall 
need, for the country pay, at three shillings and six pence 
an hundred inch sawn ; but in case the men of the town 
do not supply the mill with timber to keep it at work, 
the owners of the mill shall have liberty to make use of 
any timber upon the common to saw for their benefit. 
The said saw mill to be built within three months from 
this date ; otherwise this order to be void." 

James Torrey, Town Cleric. 

Topography and History of Rochester, Mass^ 


ROCHESTER, a maritime town of the county of Ply- 
mouth, is situated in latitude 41 p 42 7 N. longitude 70° 
40 y W. from Greenwich. It is bounded south on Buz- 
zard's Bay eight miles, * west on Fair Haven and Free- 
town twelve miles, north on Middleborq' eight miles, and 
east on Wareham four or five miles, distant from Ply- 
mouth twenty miles, S. W. from New Bedford twelve, E. 
and from Boston fifty two miles, S. S. E. It is an origi- 
nal corporation of the Old Colony, June 4, 1686, and 
contains the Seipican and Mattapoiset of the aborigines. 
Irregular in outline, it may be an area of near eight miles 
square, or an excess of it. 

Topography. The Original growth was walnut, oak, 
birch, white and pitch pine. In this respect, and of 
course as to its soil, it comes under two natural divisions : 
the west, the wider section, moist, swampy, and some- 
what rocky, affording the hard wood growth ; the east, 
a lighter and sandy soil, exhibits the resinous trees. 
Such, too, are its civil divisions : the latter, where the 
early settlements were made, being the first precinct, 
is the Seipican, from a stream within it, and which in 
early times gave name to the township ; the former, Mat- 
tapoiset, more modern as to settlement, now rivals the 
parent village in some points of view, hereafter to be no- 

* The first grant gave it eight miles on the shore. 


In passing through this town on the main road from 
j Plymouth to New Bedford, the traveller sees nothing 
| that indicates a maritime situation, the usual route being 
from two to six and more miles from the shore. There 
are, however, deviating branches from this road which oc- 
casionally present a prospect of the sea ; such is that 
which leads to Seipican, or Rochester harbour, and 
another in continuation through the second precinct 
to Fair Haven. These deviating roads are said to be, in 
some parts of their course, rough. There is a cross post 
road from New Bedford to Sandwich through the town, 
in another direction. 

The greater and more valuable portion of the remain- 
ing woodlands are, it is said, in the western section of 
the town, though it may be subjoined that pine groves 
are yet a feature of its north-east section. 

Agriculture was doubtless the principal concern of the 
first planters of this place, and yet continues to be that of 
many of their descendants. The best arable lands are 
said to be a tract in the vicinage of Monchauset, in the 
central part of the town, contiguous to the meeting- 
house.* Rye is cultivated more than any other grain, 
and with success, the soil being evidently best adapted 
to it ; yet there may be many places in a whole township 
which are not so. Remarks of this nature should be re- 
ceived in a qualified sense, with reference to what may 
happen to be the peculiarities of situation and of aspect. 

Harbours. Seipican, or Rochester harbour, setting up 
from the south more than two miles, in the centre of its 
shore line, is formed by Great Neck on the east, and 
Charles' Neck on the west, expanding to more than 
a mile in width. There may be three wharves here, 
which afford nine feet of water in common tides, but at 
the extremity of the necks there is sufficient for vessels 
of burthen. f Those of 200 and more tons are built at 

* Equally applicable, perhaps, and it may be in a superiour degree, in some 
respects, to some farms at Mattapoiset. 

f In June, 1814, the British gun-brig Nirnrod came to off one of these points, 
Charles' Neck, and a number of barges from her, proceeded against Wareham, 
.seated further up the bay. She was of a large class, carrying, we belief 20 
,gurn. The bay at large affords a depth of water of several fathom. 


the ship yards of this harbour. A ship of 230 tons load- 
ed and departed from the lower wharf with timber. This 
is the ancient suburb, where there is a number of houses, 
also a meeting house, appendant to the first church. 
There is also, we are told, a wharf landing at Great 
Neck, The situation of this harbour is the best in the 
place as to shelter. The south-east, south, and south- 
west are the sea winds here. Their force is broken by 
the chain of the Elizabeth islands, and the projecting 
points. Wood's hole may be four leagues distant in a 
south direction. Nashaun island the same. 

Mattapoiset- harbour is a more exposed and far less 
capacious haven on the south west extreme of the shore. 
Being further down the bay, a greater depth of water is 
attained. It is at the outlet of a small stream of the same 
name, which traverses the whole western line of the 
town, it may be nine miles, in a south direction, to min- 
gle with tide waters at this place ; alewives in their season 
seek it, for the sake of its fountain, Senepetuit pond. 

At this harbour there is an increasing village of per- 
haps forty houses, three or four wharves, a rope walk, 
and ship yards, where, in 1811, it is said, upwards of 
8000 tons of shipping were constructed. Five vessels 
were ship rigged, and of the burden of 300 and more 
tons. The same business is now, with the return of the 
blessings, and arts and employments of peace, revived. 
Four or five ships are now building here for Nantucket. 
The proximity of this village to Fair Haven and New 
Bedford identifies it, as it were, with the maritime enter- 
prizes of those places. There may be perhaps twelve or 
more feet of water at this harbour. The shores in this 
vicinity are rocky, and the tides in the bay rise about six 

A coasting trade to Nantucket, Newport, New York, 
and places south of it, exists from this town. It is an- 
nexed to New Bedford in the revenue collection district, 
with Wareham. The whaling business was partially 
pursued from it before 1775, but not then to distant re- 
gions ; and it has also, before the late war, had its 
freighting ships. 


Islands. There are two large enough to have names, 
(Bird and Rum Island, both very small, the former alone 
jof size sufficient to admit of cultivation. It is situated 
jat the mouth of Seipican- harbour, and the other within it. 
|Some small islands lie near the Mattapoiset shore and 

Ponds. Senepetuit, on the north west corner of the 
[town, is four miles in circumference. A brook, running 
prom it, N. W. near a mile, connects it with the east 
Quittaquas pond ; a very large pond, partly in this town, 
but chiefly in Middleborough. Iron ore, hvis said, ex- 
ists in this vicinity. Here is situated another village and 
a meeting house, common to a precinct formed from sev- 
jeral border towns. 

The pond we have just now noticed is reputed to re- 
ceive alewives from an inlet and outlet respectively from 
Buzzard's Bav side, and also from the verv circuitous 
tributaries to Taunton river. Let the reader trace this 
on the map, and be amused by the research. 

Merry's Pond,* so called, without any outlet, a round . 
pond, a mile in diameter, of shallow waters, in an open 
space, near to the main road, has an entire margin of re- 
markably white sand, which, contrasted with the adjacent 
verdure, the rural hamlets, and a smooth hill, beyond it 
in the distance, will detain the traveller a few moments. 
It is, we think, one of those resting places, which, though 
it may be often seen, pleases still, and is recollected to 
the journey's end with the same emotions. Snow's 
pond and Little Long pond, are in the N. W. section of 
the town, and all contain fish. 

Brooks. Seipican brook, arising from small sources, 
called there "black water," on the confines of Middle- 
borough, is formed by two or more branches, which, 
running southerly, seem to unite in the eastern section 
of the town, when, turning easterly, it meets tide waters 
in the vicinity of great neck, not far from Wareham 
west boundary. From this little stream, of few miles 
length, the plantation, or proprietary in early annals, took 

* A Mr, Merry, itis said, formerly lived in the vicinity of this pond* 


its name. Mattapoiset brook, perhaps of greater volume of 
water, meandering along low swampy grounds, parallel to 
Fair Haven line, has already been noticed. There may 
be some other small brooks and ponds, but not of mag- 
nitude sufficient to be described. 

Hills. Great hill, or Great Neck hill, apparently a 
smooth pasture hill, is situated not far from the shore, 
on the great neck. It must, we think, present an unin. 
terrupted view of the back shore of Sandwich and Fal- 
mouth, together with the pleasant bay of Manomet, five 
or six miles over, formed by the approach of this neck 
to within three miles of that of Wenaumet neck, in Sand, 
wich. It is a sequestered bay, always near to, yet sep- 
arate from, that of Massachusetts or Cape Cod bay, by 
the short distance of nine miles. We have noticed this 
hill as a conspicuous and distinct object, when at Wood's 
hole. Quittiquash hills are in the north part of the town, 
near the pond and brook of the same name. 

Mills and Manufactures. Besides a number of grist 
mills, there are fourteen saw mills in this town, with two 
forges, one of which has a trip hammer, and one furnace. 

It must be understood that many of these mills are in- 
termittent. Several are suspended in the summer to 
prevent the flowing of meadows, while others may not, 
at that period of the year, have a supply of water. 

The business of making marine salt, as at Cape Cod, 
is pursued here in more than one place, we believe, with 
success ; to the amount of 20,000 bushels in a year, or 

As this township was at first granted to herd cattle, so 
a compensation for their subsistence, during our long 
winters and late vernal seasons, is found in the grass of 
its salt meadows, skirting the shores and inlets in lesser 
and in greater portions, in all their extent, coming in aid 
of an occasional failure of upland hay in arid summers. 
3,000 or more sheep are subsisted in Rochester. A 
portion of the good soil and farms exists also in the north- 
erly part of the township, near Freetown and Middle- 
borough. There are farms in the place estimated at 
near $9,000. ; 


It may be here remarked that there are two roads lead- 
ing from Plymouth to New-Bedford. The first, thirty 
two miles by Rochester, passes much woods, with but a 
few scattered settlements, is yet a pleasant route, except 
that cross roads, in obscure situations, may mislead an 
entire stranger. The second, thirty six miles by Mid- 
dleborough, is a more open and obvious route, with con- 
tinued settlements. These roads diverge about two 
miles from Plymouth, on the summit of " Sparrow's 
hill ;"* the first being to the left hand. 

Divisions of the town. It remains entire, with the ex- 
ception of a small portion on its eastern border, which 
was annexed, with its inhabitants, to Wareham, on the 
forming of that town, 1739. 

It is proper to notice that Rochester, when first incor- 
corated, was annexed to the county of Barnstable, and so 
continued, until about 1709, when' it was placed at the 
county of Plymouth. The first arrangement was proba- 
bly found, from location, to be very inconvenient. Why 
it took place at all, we cannot state ; probably from the 
small population of that county, having then, with- 
out this, only five incorporated towns. There was an in- 
timate connexion, too, between the people of both places, 
having similar/ origin. Mattapoiset village, the most re- 
mote, is distant from Plymouth about twenty six miles. 
Such too is that, with a trifling excess, of other remote 
parts of the county in any direction, a distance which can 
be travelled in part of a day, and which, therefore, affords 
general county convenience ; to which add, that some of 
the remote towns, north, are on the main post road. Cer- 
tain terms of the probate court are held in this town, 
which, in military affairs, is annexed to the fourth regi- 
ment, fifth division. It furnishes three companies and 
part of a troop. 

Fish. Tataug, scauppaug, eels, are the most common 
fish near the shores, with alewives in their season. At 
several places of resort, oysters have become less com- 
mon; the quahaug and lesser clam are found in the 

• So named from Jonathan Spajjrow, a yary eaxly settler of Plymouth, who 
we nt to EastiuiB, 1645, 


place. Without the harbour, the bay affords a greater 
variety ; but not the cod-fish, nearer than Gay Head. 

Fowling, Birds of passage doubtless frequented these 
pleasant shores in former days ; and hence probably the 
name of the little island, we have already noticed, while 
the deer walked unmolested in the boundless forests of 
pine. This animal has now become rare within the lim- 
its of this town, though common a few miles south-east, 
in Wareham and Sandwich woods. Wild pigeons* an- 
nually seek these woods, and are very common in this 
town in August. Patridges abide. Plymouth, in for- 
mer days, derived its greatest supply of poultry and 
of the best kind from this town and vicinity. The re- 
cent and rapid growth of New Bedford, with its proxim- 
ity, has probably diverted it in that direction. 

Air. Something may be said under this head, because 
of its humidity in the summer season, occasioned by the 
salt water fogs, arising from the^ bay, with a south and 
south-west wind, mitigating the heats, and giving cool- 
ness to the summer nights. It applies to a long extent 
of shores. These southerly winds, however, so grateful 
in summer, being here a sea wind, have a chilling effect 
at some seasons. In the month of July, 1811, there were 
five days of extreme heat from the 2d to the 6th. We do 
not know what the temperature was at this place ; but it 
was at Cambridge on the 6th at 103, at Plymouth 96, at 
Boston, 101, &c. and at Nashaun island,f twelve miles 
or more south of Rochester, the thermometer, as noticed 
by the late Mr. Bowdoin, then at his seat there, stood 
at 88, at 3 o'clock, P. M. and but a few moments so 
high ; perhaps, therefore, the coolest and most grateful 
situation, in the hottest months of any part of New-Eng- 
land. This remark, for obvious reasons, would not ap- 
ply to any place on the main land. These notes may 

* Some of the peculiarities of this hird, it is said, are to visit marshes for 
mud, very early in the morning. They fly, it is computed, at the rate of a mile a 
minute, leaving the sea coast, by 8 or 9 o'clock, A. M. going with this rapidity, 
occasionally restiug in intervening forests far into the interiour of the country. 
This habit is well known about Medford, where they are caught on the marshes 
by live pigeon decoys. 

t Lat. 41. 30 N. 


have their use. Insular situations are probably most fa- 
vourable to the health of sheep ; for, says the poet of the 
" Fleece," 

" Thus to their kindred soil and air iuduc'd, 
Thy thriving herd will bless thy skilful care, 
Thai copies Nature, who, in every change, 
In each variety, with Wisdom works, 
And powers diversified of air and soil, 
Her rich materials • — " 

4C Hence Zembla's icy tracts no bleaters hear ; 
Small are the Russian herds, and harsh their fleece : 
Of light esteem Germanic, far remote 
From soft sea breezes, open winters mild, 
And summers bath'd in dews." 

There are no general rules, without exceptions. Open 
winters seem to be peculiar, generally, to the south sicle 
of New England, extending to Long Island. There are 
many well adapted situations within these limits for 
sheep, none perhaps more so than the islands in Narra- 
gansett Bay.* But our winters have a very different 
character from those of England, to which the poetic 
quotations more peculiarly apply. 

In the winter of 1314-15, the following remarks^ were 
made at Edgarton, Martha's Vineyard, which lies in lat. 
41° 22'. long. 70° W. 

" The most snow ever recollected here from the 22d 
January to 19 February. The thermometer at Edgar- 
ton January 31 was 5 below 0, the coldest for 10 years 
past. Many sheep died by cold and want of food." Tne 
snow was deeper this winter in the south-east part of 
Massachusetts than is common, three feet on a level, 
about Plymouth and Sandwich. 

Population. The earliest list of freemen will be no- 
ticed under the historical head. The United States' cen- 
sus of 1790 is 2644 ; 1800, 2546 ; 1810, 2954. In 1790 
the heads of families were 427, and the census of that 
year includes under the head "all other free persons, 54." 

* Shelter Island also, east end of Long Island, Martha's Vineyard, Nonian T s 
Land, &c &c. places bare oi wood, are too exposed, and we regret to see the 
Elizabeth Islands so naked of trees. 

34 vol. iv. 


This town has of late years sent three representatives 
to the General Court. 

History of Rochester. 

An early as the year 1638, it appears that the colony 
court of Plymouth " granted lands at Seipican to a com- 
mittee of the church of Scituate for the seating of a town- 
ship and a congregation, &c." This occurred at a period 
when, it is well known, that church removed, a part of it, 
and settled the town of Barnstable. It seems, however, 
they had the option of this place, then an exposed frontier, 
and perhaps for that reason, chiefly, not it seems accept- 
ed. This tract of territory, therefore, continued unoccu- 
pied until the year 1651, when it was granted in these 
terms : " For the continual support of the township of 
Plymouth, for the place and seat of government, to pre- 
vent the dispersing of the inhabitants thereof, it was or- 
dered that Seipican be granted to the town of Plymouth, 
to be a general help to the inhabitants thereof, for the 
keeping of their cattle, and to remain for the common use 
and good of the said township, and never to be alienated 
to any other use, and none to enjoy any right or benefit 
therein, l^ut the inhabitants of the town of Plymouth, &c. 
only except such as are the common herdsmen of the said 
town ; and the bound thereof to extend itself eight miles 
by the sea side, and Tour miles into the land, provided it 
be bounded by ****** next."* 

The town of Plymouth directed it to be purchased of 
the natives the same year, which probably took place 
about 1655, and in 1661, it w T as, in January, bounded 
and laid forth by a joint committee of the colony court 
and of the town. 

In 1672 enlargements of unpurchased lands were made 
of the natives by the town. , 

At this period, (1672) Mattapoiset is described by the 
natives, " as extending from Dartmouth by the sea side, 
to a place called Wesappicoasset, thence to the woods 6 or 
7 miles, and to certain described rocks on the path from 

* The blank town intended to be expressed, was, from the order of expression, 
probably Middleborough. 


Sandwich to Dartmouth and so to Dartmouth line west, 
(now Fair Haven) which place is called Mattapoiset."* 

In 1679 certain agents for thirty partners made a fur- 
ther purchase of the colony of lands hereabout for /.200 
" to be settled in four years, with an orthodox ministry, 
Sec. Indian lands and former grants to Plymouth except- 
ed," thus generally described, " between Dartmouth on 
the west, Plymouth purchase on the east, and Middlebo- 
rough and Plymouth on the north, &c." These agents 
were Joseph and Barnabas Lothrop of Barnstable, Kenelm 
Winslow of Marshfield, and William Clarke of Plymouth. 
This purchase, we conceive, elucidates the present shape 
of the town on our maps, being an extension northerly of 
the " first four miles into the woods," already recited. 
This, with many other tracts, was sold by the colony at 
this time, to defray the charge of the war of 1675 and 6. 

These several grants and purchases account for nearly 
all the township of Rochester, with the exception of some 
small tracts, which may then have been held by friendly 
natives, for their subsistence, and now extinguished. 

Name. The town doubtless takes its name from the 
ancient city of Rochester in Kent, England, a shire from 
whence many of the first planters of Scituate (and of 
course Rochester) emigrated. " That ancient city had 
the jurisdiction of the oyster fishery, and it appears in 
history that these oysters were celebrated by the Romans 
for their excellence."! 

Settlers from the old corporations soon entered upon 
the premises we have just described, about 1680. The 
earliest list of freemen in 1684 exhibits these names, 
1684 Mr. Samuel Arnold Joseph Dotey 

* Peter Blackman Jacob Bumpus 
*John Hammond ^Joseph Burges 
*Moses Barlow John Haskell 

Samuel White Sprague v 

Samuel Hammond Abraham Holmes 

1689 to 1690 *John Wing Job Winslow 

* Aaron Barlow 

* A pond called ** Masqunnipash" is mentioned in the description of these 
bounds, and is probably the same we have described as Merry's Pond. 
j Chatham, also, probably derives its name from emigrations from Kent. 



Those with this * mark annexed were from Sandwich, 
and ihe others from Marshfield,, Haskell excepted. In 
1690 Aaron Barlow was a deputy to the colony court, 
and he, with S. Hammond and S. White were selectmen 
the same year. It continued to receive other accessions 
of settlers of whom were Job Winslow, Abraham Holmes, 

Snow, * Sprague, Sec. &c. from Marshfield, 

Church, Briggs, and others from Scituate, also Mr. John 
Haskell, who about this period (1683) emigrated from 
Salem, of which place also he was an early settler* as well 
as this town. 

An examination and comparison of the census of 1790, 
with early Old Colony names, clearly shows that Roches- 
ter was chiefly settled by Sandwich, Marshfield and Scit- 
uate. The following tables may be gratifying to many 
readers, . 

Sandwich JVames. 


Hammond Blackmer Wing 



Swift Ellis Black 



Willis Bessey Hamblin Allen 




Winslow Holmes Sprague 



Snow Sherman White 






Barstow Foster Keen 



King Cowin 
Pit/mouth and Middleboro\ 



Tinkham Morton Sturtevant 



Clarke Pierce 


Lombard Annable Chase 


Sears Rider Hiller 

Eastham. Higgins. 


M Haskell's Cove" is a name in Ancient Salem. 


(Beside there are a few Rhode Island names, with those 
(of Pease, Luce and Norton from the vineyard. 

Hon. John Sprague, a graduate of Harvard College, 
1765, was born at Rochester, where he first settled as an 
attorney, but at a subsequent period, removed to Lan- 
caster. He was a senator of Worcester county, 1785, 
jand high sheriff of the same from 1789 to 1792, when he 

Major Elnathan Haskell, an officer of the revolution, 
and now resident in South Carolina, is a native of this 
place ; a descendant of a very early settler, whose name 
appears in this history. 

Many of the inhabitants are mariners. Capt. Black- 
mer, who for many years has been in the Cape de Verd 
Island trade, is of this place ; while a considerable num- 
ber have received a collegiate education, among whom 
were Timothy Ruggles, 1732; Samuel West, 1761; 
John Sprague, 1765 ; Zephaniah Briggs, 1767 ; Benja- 
min West, 1768 ; Thomas Hammond, Samuel Mead, 
1788; Tristram Burges, 1796; Elijah Dexter, 1806; 
the three last are of Brown University, in which Mr. 
Burges is a professor of oratory. 

Ecclesiastical History. As this settlement began sub- 
sequent to Indian wars within the colony, it soon became 
a respectabre and populous town, being also early favoured 
with the blessings of a settled ministry. The gentleman, 
whose name stands at the head of the list of earliest free- 
men, was the first pastor. His father, Mr. Samuel Ar- 
nold, the third minister of Marshfield, was, it appears, 
before his permanent settlement there, first a resident at 
Sandwich, and then at Yarmouth, where his son Samuel, 
the subject of this article, was born, 1649; who, it has 
been said, had not a liberal education ; but he had doubt- 
less all the advantages of excellent parental instruction. 
We are told that he was one of the thirty partners in the 
purchase of this territory, 1679. His respectable name, 
therefore, deservedly stands at the head of the list of the 
civil and ecclesiastical founders of the town of Rochester, 
where his name continues. 

The site of the first meeting house ever built there, 
was nearer Seipican harbour by three miles than the 


present. The same is true of the oldest burial place. 
Hence the first settlers, it is probable, planted there. 

Succession of Pastors ', first church. 
Rev. Samuel Arnold, ordained 1684; died 17 — 

Timothy Ruggles, ord. 1717; died 1769, ae. £4. 

— Jonathan Moore, colleague, ord. 1768 ; dism. 1791, 

33. 75. 
— — Oliver Cobb, ord. 1800. 

Mr. Ruggles graduated at Harvard College 1707, and 
was born at Roxbury. His son, the Hon. Timothy 
Ruggles, born at Rochester, graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege 1732, and first settled as an attorney at Sandwich. 
At a subsequent period, he was in military command ; 
being a brigadier in the war of 1755. Having removed 
to Hard wick, Worcester County, where he was first 
judge of the pleas from 1762 to 1770,* at which period, 
taking the loyal side in political opinions, he finally de- 
parted the country, and lived to advanced years, in Nova 
Scotia. Many anecdotes are related of this gentleman, 
of the sagacity of his mind, the shrewdness of his wit, 
and his military hardihood and bravery. The family- 
name continues in Rochester, descendants of another 
branch, one of whom, Eiisha Ruggles, esq. has frequent- 
ly represented the town in the General Court. > 

Mr. Moore was born at Oxford, Worcester County, 
graduated at Harvard College, 1761 ; of which seminary 
he was librarian. Previous to his ordination he sup- 
plied the pulpit in Brattle Street, Boston, several months, 
during the indisposition of Dr. Cooper, who attended 
his ordination at Rochester. 

The latter days of Mr. Moore were embittered by dis- 
putes and law suits with his parish ; finally issuing in 
his dismission, subsequent to which, he continued to 
preach to a part of the society more than two years, in 
his dwelling house ; but in his closing years, renewed 
his communion with the churdh, of which he had former- 

* He was made an associate justice of this court, 1757, and president of the 
Congress which met at New York, 1765. 


I ly been pastor. Mutual forgiveness of injuries Is a chris- 
I tian virtue strictly enjoined on all ; in a peculiar manner 
I those who make profession of the christian naiijc. 

It is proper to state that, in 1794, when Mr. M~ sued 
I for arrears of salary, the Supreme Judicial Court gave 
I the cause in his favour, but the jury returned a verdict 
I otherwise. 

Mr. Moore died at Rochester in 1814, aged 75.* 
I His first wife was a daughter of the Rev. Mr. Parkman, 
I of Westborough : he preached the anniversary discourse 
I at Plymouth, Dec. 22d, 1780, (not printed.) His son 
I continues in Rochester. 

Rev. Mr. Cobb, his successor, graduated at Brown 
I university, 1796, and is of Kingston, Mass. 

Second Church. 

A second church was formed in the southerly part of 

I Rochester, Mattapoiset, about the year 1740, the suc- 

I cession of pastors in which has been as follows. Rev. 

I Ivory Hovey, ordained October, 1740, and dismissed, at 

I his request, 1769. Rev. Lemuel Le Baron, the present 

pastor, a graduate of Yale, 1768, and native of Plym- 

I outh, was ordained 1770. For notices of Mr. Hovey, 

[ the reader is referred to the Historical Collections, vol. 

I 3d, series second. The meeting house in this society 

was materially injured by the gale of Sept, 23, 1815. 

A third congregational society was formed from sev- 
eral border towns, about the year 1748, of which the 
Rev. Thomas West, who was born at the Vineyard, and 
who graduated at Cambridge, 1730, was for many years 
the pastor; and here he died in the ministry, 1790, in 
very advanced years. He was a good classical scholar, 
and fitted several young men for the university. He had 
been colleague missionary at the Vineyard some years. 
The meeting house, which is situated at the north west 
angle of the town, near the great ponds, is now vacant f 

* Mr. Moore was a man of constitutional fearlessness of heart The face of 
man in any garb had no terrors for him. It is said he shouldered his musket, and 
marched to MarshfiV.d and to Wareham during the revolution, 
t Mr. Chad wick, now of Hanover, was settled in this precinot a few years* 


The Friends, of whom there has ever been some in 
the place, have a meeting house, not far from the sea 
shore. There may be fifteen families now in the town. 
Those of the Baptist denomination have a modern edi- 
fice on the confines of Fair Haven, but within this place.* 

The first or old church is in fact, at the present date, 
two incorporate societies, with one minister and two pla- 
ces of worship, as we have stated, dividing his time, in 
certain allotted sabbaths, to each. 

We are not furnished with any bills of mortality of 
Rochester. Mr. Moore, we are told, was very accu- 
rate and minute on this head, as well as on the tempera- 
ture, and many other topics, for several years. His man- 
uscripts are in the hands of his descendants in Roches- 
ter. Mrs. Snow,' whose maiden name was King, is liv- 
ing at the great age of ninety seven. 

A mortal fever prevailed in Rochester, in the early 
part of 1816. It spread from Fair Haven, where it ap. 
peared in Sept. last. 

Fifty deaths are stated to have occurred in its bills of 
mortality, since February ; but the fever is now abating, 
in the month of May. Near 200 deaths are stated in the 
circle of contagion, say Fair Haven, Rochester, east of 
Freetown and borders, since Sept. 23, 1815, to May, 1816. 

Anecdotes of the gale and tide , Sept. 28, 1815. 

Theophilus Pease, of Rochester, aged 73, having re- 
paired to a small island at Mattapoiset during the gale, 
to preserve some hay, soon saw his dangerous situation. 
Having a pitchfork in his hand and a line in his pocket, 
he lashed the fork across the limbs of a tree, which he 
selected, and stood upon it about six hours, partly in the 
water, until the tide ebbed. There were only three or 
four trees on the island, all of which were carried away 
by the flood, but the one he selected ; a remarkable in- 
stance of preservation. 

A store containing West India goods, situated at 
great neck, was floated entire to Wareham, perhaps a 

* The Baptist church in. Rochester may date about 1793, according to Mr. 


itoile, where it remained with its goods in perfect preser- 

The damage sustained at Mattapoiset was great. Ves- 
sels floated from the stocks ; two ropewaiks, several 
stores and houses were destroyed, and a great amount of 
salt lost. The total of less in Rochester is stated at 
250,000. The tide there rose fourteen feet above low 
water mark, and four feet higher than ever known there 
before ; the ordinary tides being about six feet. 

A notice of Indian names and claims. 

In the year 1682, (after the sale of Rochester) a na- 
tive brought forward a claim to all the land " from Sep- 
aconnet, alias Cowasset river, to Wancenquag river, and 
so to Plymouth westerly bounds," wTiich claim the col- 
ony court, on due inquiry, admitted, and quieted by a 
grant of lands elsewhere ; probably at Manomet ponds, 
in Plymouth. 

It appears by the words of this claim, that Seipican 
bore two names. The word Sippiqunnet evidently 
signifies " long river ;" the word Cowasset is applied to 
many places. Kawassa is " to hunt," and Cowesuck, 
is " pines," synonymous terms, because it is in pine for- 
ests the deer are generally found. 

Mattapoiset. This name we find here, also at Swan- 
sey, and at Middletown, in Connecticut ; in each place, 
doubtless, having the same meaning. Mattapash, a plu- 
ral term, signifies to " sit down ;" a courteous colloquial 
expression. How shall we apply it here ? Perhaps at all 
these places there was that intermixed growth of wood, 
which afforded the materials for their "sitting mats," 
called probably Mattapash, giving name therefore to such 

Monchauset was the name of the central part of the 
town. The word Monchisses is used in the sense of 
"much food;" probably the natives had planted where 
the colonists first settled. 

Quetequas, it appears, was the name of certain hills 
in this town, and of the great pond in that vicinity, and 
of the little brook, connecting the ponds. In the year 
35 vol. iv. 


1672, " the island of Quetequas was let by the colony to 
a Mr. Palmer, to plant and to sow." This island was in 
one of the great ponds, in Middleborough, and Aquete- 
quas appears also to be, a proper name, and is the same 
word. As to the island, it is probably one of those points, 
which, when the pond is full, become insulated, having 
a low neck. The meaning of this aboriginal word, in 
our opinion, wherever it is applied, has affinity with 
planting, and specifically, in many instances, means 
u squashes" 

About the banks of ponds, and certain points of fertile 
land, the natives frequently selected to plant ; and per- 
haps tradition will come in aid of our solution on the 

1 There was also an island in one of these great ponds, 
which, in 1680, the colony court gave in perpetuity to 
William Bradford, the deputy governour ; if it still ex- 
ists, it should, at least, be called u Governour's Island." 
A great many other aboriginal names occur in the vicin- 
ity ; but we shall not go further into explanations, only 
remarking that Anequeasset, a place somewhere there, 
denotes the striped squirrels ; and Senepetuit, the name 
of the pond, seems to denote " rocky water ;" and We- 
wensett, " young bucks," a place, probably, where they 

A fac simile of an original drawing made by Philip 
the Sachem, 1668, copied from the records of Plymouth 
Colony, and inserted here, because the described land 
seems to fail within Rochester, on the sea shore. 

" This may inform the honourable court that I, Philip, 
am willing to sell the land within this draught, but the 
Indians that are upon it may live upon it still ; but the land 
that is mine may be sold, and Watashpoo is of the same 
mind. I have put down all the principal names of the 
land we are now willing should be sold." 

Philip : p ; his mark. 

From Pacanaukett, the 
24th of the month, 1668. 






This is a path. 





_ " Know all men by these presents, that Philip has 
given power unto Watashpoo and Sampson and their 
brethren, to hold and make sale of to whom they will by 
my consent, &c. &c." "Witness my hand that I give 
it to them." 

The mark p of Philip, 1668. 

John Sassamon is a witness. 

History and Description of Plympton, 1815. 

JL LYMPTON, an interior town of the county of Plym- 
outh, Mass. lies in latitude, 41° 59' N. longitude, 70° 
43 ' W. It is bounded north by Halifax, east by Kings- 
ton, south by Carver, and west by Middleborough and 
Halifax. Of irregular but circumscribed boundaries^ it 
may be an area of three or more miles square. It is dis- 
tant from Plymouth nine miles, W. and from Boston 
thirty two, S. S. E. Incorporated 1707. 

Description. The original growth of forest trees was 
rather superior, in size and variety, to any within the lim- 
its of ancient Plymouth town- ship, to which it pertain- 
eth. Upland and swamp oak, and maple, walnut, white 
pine, white cedar, pitch pine, were common. 


In the north part of the town, where the roads are 
somewhat rocky, and occasionally miry, stone walls form 
a feature of the topography. In the south, a sandy tract 
is marked with pitch pines. 

It has been said, occasionally, that the husbandry of 
this place was not so good as the soil. This remark, if 
it were admitted, is equally applicable, doubtless^ to all 
places, where iron works are established, and where saw- 
mills are common, which is peculiarly descriptive of this 
place, in past and in present times, as well as of its vicin- 

Rivers, Brooks, Ponds. The Winnatuckset, a stream 
of great utility, passes through the western width of this 
town, and of Halifax, to a junction with Teticut River. 
The source of it is in Muddy Pond, in the north section of 
Carver, where it was the " Six Mile Brook" of the first 
planters, in their first " path to Namassket," where there 
is upon it a mill. It has also another source in Carver, both 
streams being of the same length in that place, about 400 
rods, and three small brooks ; but in its progress, N. W. 
through Plympton and Halifax, attains width and volume ; 
yet in dry summers, deficient sometimes in a supply, °f 
water for the mills seated upon it. The natural meadows 
of the banks of this stream (of which its name may be an 
indication) had early attractions, and first led to the set- 
tlement of these then " westerly precincts of Plymouth." 
There is upon it a number of mills. It may be six miles 
long in all its course, but may not merit the name of riv- 
er until it attains the limits of Halifax, where it is not 
more than 24 feet wide. 

Annisnippi Brook, in the S. W. section of the town- 
ship, a small brook, issues from meadows of the same 
name. Its source is in the vicinity of springs. 

Colchester Brook is common, probably, to Plympton 
and Kingston ; and the source may be in the latter town. 
It is, probably, a tributary to Jones' River from the south. 
Jones' River Head Pond is common to several towns, 
whose lines terminate on its margin. Plympton has a 
Very short bound upon it. 


Indian Pond, on the east section of the town, is com- 
mon also to Kingston, without any outlet. 

The situation of Plympton, relative to the county, is 
central, being nine miles from Plymouth and Bridgewa- 
ter, east and west, and fifteen from .Rochester and Scitu- 
ate, south and north of it. Hence th<; monthly probate sit- 
tings are held here, with occasional periodical removes at 
Rochester and Scituate. There is considerable travel 
through the place, particularly by those who attend the 
market at Plymouth, to which it has, in times past, furnish- 
ed some supplies, such as butter and cheese, the soil afford- 
ing better pasturage than tillage. A great proportion of 
fresh meadow hay is made in the place, and its orchards 
have, in former years, yielded a surplus of cyder. There 
are farms which keep from twenty to twenty five head 
of cattle. 

In military affairs, it is annexed to the first or Plym- 
outh regiment, fifth division. In 1815, Sept. 20th, the 
first and second regiment were reviewed in Carver ; the 
day was pleasant, when the people, spectators inclusive, 
were, probably, 1500. 

Manufactures. There are four grist mills, five saw 
mills, one trip hammer forge, a cotton factory, erected 
1813, and a cotton and woolen factory, erected 1814.* 
Many of the proprietors of the factories are non- 
residents. Fulling mills were early erected ; also iron 
works (now extinct) by Mr. Joseph Thomas, as early as 
1730 ; afterward owned by Mr. Joseph Scott, a merchant 
of Boston, and subsequently by Mr. Beacham of the 
same place. 

Saw- mills were early erected on the numerous streams 
in the vicinage of Plymouth, and found ample employ ; 
diminished of late years, by the rapid increase of the 
settlements in Maine ; yet occasionally employed for 
oak, plank, and cedar stuffs. 

Birds. Wild turkies, so common to North America, 
formerly abounded. There is a place (near Loring's 


* In 1814, about 15,000 lbs. of wool was worked at the woolen factory ; but 
this quantity has diminished since the peace. 


tavern) yet called Turkey swamp and island, being some- 
times an insulated place in winter. 

Roads. The longest limit of the town> in any direc- 
tion, does not exceed five miles, the northern section 
being a narrow gore ; a mile and a half only of the road 
from Plymouth to Bridge water passes it in this part, 
where there is a reputable tavern, kept for many years 
past by Mr. Loring. A fine specimen of the Carolina 
walnut tree of delicate foliage may be noticed opposite 
this house. Other cross roads to Carver, Wareham, 
Middleborough, and Kingston, intersect the towi), in va- 
rious directions, rather narrow than otherwise. Some of 
these roads are over elevated ground, because Milton hills, 
twenty miles distant, N. W. are incidentally brought in- 
to view. 

Population. By the United States census, it is as fol- 

1790, souls, 956 ; heads of families, 162. 
1800, „ 861 ; houses, 123. 
1810, „ 900. 
Religious Societies. There is one Congregational So- 
ciety, the succession of ordained ministers in which has 
been as follows : 

Rev. Isaac Cushman, ord. 1698, died 1732, aged 84. 
Jonathan Parker, „ 1731, died 1776 „ 71. 
Ezra Sampson, (colleague) ord. 1776, resigned 

Eben. Withington, ord. 1798, resigned 1801. 
John Briggs, installed 1801, dismissed 1807. 
. Elijah Dexter, ordained 1809. 
Mn Cushman, a son of the elder, and a deacon of Ply- 
mouth church, had not a liberal education. He was, be- 
fore his settlement, sometimes a representative for Ply- 
mouth in the General Court. This name continues here. 
Mr. Parker, a native of Barnstable, was a graduate of 
Harvard College, 1726. Some of his descendants re- 
main in the place. 

Mr. Sampson, a native of Middleborough and a graduate 
of Yale College, 1772, removed to Hudson, New York, 
and is the editor of several well known useful works, and 
yet survives in that vicinity in civil office. 


All the others were graduates of Brown University. 

1732-3 a second church was formed in Plympton, of 
which an history will be given under Carver. Mr. 
Downham was the first deacon of the first church. 

We have no bill of mortality of Plympton, but we 
should assume it as presenting an average rather above 
that of Carver. 

Description of Carver, 1815. 

v^ARVER, in the county of Plymouth, is bounded 
north by Plympton near four miles ; east by Kingston one, 
and by Plymouth six miles ; south also by Plymouth, a 
brook line, four miles ; south-west by Wareham three or 
more miles ; and west by Middleborough near eight miles. 
It lies in latitude 41°, 55 7 N. longitude 70°, 39' W. dis- 
tant from Plymouth seven miles, S. W. and from Boston 
thirty-eight, S. S. E. It was incorporated June, 1790, 
being then the second parish in Plympton, and derives its 
name from that of the first governour of Plymouth colo- 

It comprises the greatest and the poorest territorial 
part of the town from which it was taken, the original 
growth being chiefly pitch pine, though there is a good 
proportion of red and black oak, with a large tract in its 
S. E. section of low, sunken, swampy grounds, not well 
adapted to improvement. The arable lands produce In- 
dian corn, yet not in quantity equal to the consumption 
of its own population, but of rye a surplus. So different 
are these two contiguous towns in their productions ; the 
rivalries b dog butter and cheese in the one, and corn and 
rye in the other, when described by the residents* 

Hwers, Brooks, Ponds. The shape of the town is 
an oblong square. Three copious brooks cross its 
whole width in a S. W. direction, with many lesser 
brooks, while its S. W. limit on Middleborough, and on 
Wareham is, for several miles, a river boundary, being 
first the " South Meadow," and then the " VVeweantic 
River" (having received two and more of the brooks 


first named) from two to three rods wide. This S. W. 
part of Carver, being in autumn and winter lowed land, 
has much fresh meadow grass. Wankonqu, g Brook, 
the south line of the town on Plymouth, meets tide 
waters at Wareham village. " Beaver dam Brook and, 
Falls" and " Cedar Brook" are early names in this 

Ponds. There are at least twelve ponds, the principal 
of which, " Samson's Pond," a mile and a half long, by a 
mile or more wide, has been, in times past, very prolific 
in iron ore of a good quality.* It is a source of one of 
the described brooks, and is resorted to by ale wives. 
This pond is in the centre of the town. " Charlotte fur- 
nace" is seated at the mouth of it. 

Wenham Pond, a beautiful piece of water with a 
small island, is in the north section of the town, near the 
main road. Ale wives also seek this pond. The name 
is derived from the circumstance of an early settler hav- 
ing married at Wenham in Essex county. 

" Mohootset Pond" is intersected by the Middleborough 
line near the N. W. corner of this town. A brook from 
it passes into that town,Hbut soon enters Carver, and joins 
South Meadow brook. " Pope's Point furnace," an an- 
cient establishment, perhaps of 1730, is on the Mohoot- 
set Brook. It was built by the late Coi. Lothrop, Dr. 
Le Baron, a Mr. Shaw, and others. 

On " Crane Brook Pond," intersected by the Plym- 
outh line, is situated Federal Furnace in this town, a 
modern erection, seven miles from that place. The oth- 
er ponds, known by various names, and less in size, are 
chiefly without brooks. 

Cedar Swamp. There is a tract of white cedar swamp, 
of several hundred acres, in the east section of the town, 
which has, for a long series of years, yielded large sup . 
plies of that valuable wood, not only as posts and rails, 
but in various sawed materials. It is an employment of 
the winter season to get out these trees, and that of the 

* It now, 1814 and 15, yields 80 tons annually. This pond is private properly, 
and may be worth $3000. 


advancing spring to saw them. At the present period, it 
is remarked that the swamp maple, white pine, and hem- 
lock trees, are coming in where, formerly, an entire 
growth of white cedar only existed. Twenty years since, 
posts and rails wUe sold at about 20s» the hundred, but 
now at eight and nine dollars. There is here a " rocky 
neck," of several hundred acres, which bounds on this 
swamp, and there seems to be a rocky tract near the 
south meadow meeting house. 

Furnaces. There are three furnaces, as we have sta- 
ted, in this town. The ore, now made use of here, is 
chieSy procured in the state of New-Jersey, Ware, of 
a good quality, and various castings, furnished from 
these establishments, is vended in various parts of the 
United States.* 

The pine forests, by which these erections are sur- 
rounded, afford the wood which is preferred fr.r coal.f 

Coal is generally made from the middle of August to 
the middle of November, or later. The wood is cut five 
and a half feet long. A cord and an half is estimated to 
make eighty bushels of coal, for which the furnaces al- 
low, on delivery, fifteen shillings for a load of 80 bushels ; 
twenty four shillings is allowed at certain works in Ply- 
mouth for an hundred bushels* 

Six men may make two hundred load in three months 
under favourable circumstances, An acre of well wooded 
land may afford twenty load, the average being much 
less. The men employed, together with a team, say two 
yoke of oxen and two horses, must be supported. Con- 
tingencies must be kept in view. It is easy to see that 
the profit, if any, in making coal, must depend on the 
nearness of the place where it is prepared to the place of 

* The caM; iron tea kettle xva3 first cast at Plympton (now Carver) between 
1760 and 1765. So modern is tins very common utensil in N w England. 
Wrought iron imported tea kettles were used before a capper tea kettle was first 
used at Plymouth, 1702. 

•j" The first growth, after a pine lot has been felled, we have remarked to be as 
follows : ferns, brakes, pines, shrub oak, iaure', cross-wort, whortleberry, box- 
berry, parti ulge-berry, mullein, wild-sumach The birds noticed ihereab >ut are, 
the crow, thrush, wood-pigeon, partridges, whetsaw (a bird of the cuckoo kind, al- 
ways heard, but seldom seen in the groves,) grous. 

35 vol. iv. 


delivery, and to contiguity, too, to a populous town, af- 
fording an incidental market. 

The division of labour in the arts and employments of 
men in society is an instructive subject of inquiry. Un- 
der this impression, these details are 4 submitted to the 

Mills. There is in Carver, beside the three furnaces, 
four saw mills, and several grist mills. 

Fish, birds. The ponds afford pickerel and perch, and 
the brooks trout and alewives. A place called " Swan 
Holt" by the first planters, a little southeast of Wenham 
Pond, denotes the former visits of that bird, the earliest 
harbinger of spring ; for before the ice is yet broken up, 
the swan finds an open resting place among the ozier 
holts, while the kildee,* flying over the land from the sea 
shore, soon after confirms the vernal promise. How 
pleasant therefore, though a seeming cry, is its welcome 
note : it awakens and brings back a thousand associa- 
tions of vernal life. Here too, on the confines of the 
Wanconquag, among the high trees of the impenetrable 
forest, the eagle, the crane, and the bittern buiid their 
nests.- " As for the stork, the fir trees are her house," is in 
the accurate language of biblical ornithology forever true. 

With what inimitable truth, too, has the author of the 
Seasons marked the yet doubtful appearances of spring, 

" So that scarce 
The bittern knows his time, with bill inguift 
To shake the sounding marfch, or from the shore 
The plovers when to scatter o'er the heath, 
And sing their wild notes to the listening waste." 

The rude nest of the eagle, several feet in diameter, 
built of sticks, may be seen hereabout. This bird, with 
wide spread flapping wings, may be daily seen in the 
summer months, steering a north west course to the flats 
in Plymouth harbour for food, and soon returning. It is 
probably the brown, or " fisher eagle," we have no- 
ticed in the winter season, when it visits the place on the 

* A species of plover, probably the ** que ce qu'il dit, M of the French, it may 
be added that kildee is the Danish word for a spring. 


ice ill Plymouth harbour, where eels have been taken. 
As it passes over, its neck and a part of its tail appear to be 
white. It does not take the aboriginal generic name Mick- 
asew (denoting the talons) but VVompissacuck, "white 
head birds." The bittern and the lesser heron are com- 
mon and partial to the swamps and brooks, in the south 
part of Carver, while the Aumkuck, " painted bird/' 
or grous, has now become rare; wood pigeons, par- 
tridges, and quails are common. The skins of furred 
animals were formerly collected hereabout for exporta- 
tion, as well as domestic use ;* rabbits, minks, and mis- 
quash are yet taken, as well as foxes and racoons ; the 
otter, occasionally seen in ponds, has become very rare. 

Mohootset, " the owl," giving name, as we believe to 
a brook, even now makes excursions, late in autumn and 
winter, to the gardens in the town of Plymouth. Deer, for- 
merly common, have become rare. The records speak 
of a place at South Meadows, called " Beaver Brook and 
Falls ;" also " Popos Neck," probably " Partridge Neck ;" 
also " Polypody Cove," a place of " brakes." In this sec- 
tion of the town is also " Horse Neck," a place where the 
colonists "depastured horses ;" also " Rocky Neck." 

As to the cedar swamp, we have never heard any abo- 
riginal name for it, unless " Woncen quag," applied to the 
brook, was intended to designate that. Onnaquege is 
one of the names for " bark," and Woenuncke is " a 
ditch." The brook partakes of this character. As to 
Annisnippi and Winnatuckset, the names for the brooks 
within Plympton, and giving name to the place, Noos^ 
nippif has the meaning of "beaver water, or pond;" 
and Taggoskit, " to shake," is the name applied to 
" fresh meadow," that is, " shaking meadow." Winna 
is an epithet of approbation in all its uses ; hence Winna- 
taggoskit would be a name given to good meadows of 
that description. 

The Craneberry is a very plenteous production of the 
low wet meadows, in the south of Carver and of Middie- 

* Furs, collected in the vicinity, were exported from Plymouth to Loudon, 
down to 1774, and in less quantities, since 1783. 

f Noosup, beiugone of the names for the beaver in the dialects of N. F,ng:land, 


borough. Of some tracts it is the most profitable pro- 
duction, whence they are furnished in quantity to a wide 
vicinage, even to Boston. 

The wild cherry is a common native fruit tree, some- 
times yielding abundantly an autumnal fruit. 

Of cultivated fruits, the apple, button and orange pear 
were common, but have become scarce. 

Among its manufactures, that of baskets, of an excel- 
lent kind, and of every variety of form, is entitled to no- 
tice. These are made solely by Mr. Jacob Vail, a for- 
eigner, who resides here ; and finds, among the ozier 
holts, and other places, the flexile woods, suited to his 
useful art, which it is desirable may be perpetuated. 
Many of these, such as bottle baskets, ckc. are sold in 

The early employment of the people of Carver, next 
to agriculture, was making tar and turpentine in very 
considerable quantities. This has ceased for mcny years. 
Supplying the furnaces with coal, and Plymouth with fuel, 
together with the sale of a surplus of rye, and some few 
other productions, are the usual resources of the inhabi- 
tants, most of whom are farmers, with some mechanics ; 
and in the summer months furnishing a few fishermen from 
Plymouth. In 1790, there were 150 families; and in 
1800, 124 houses, many of which are of one story only. 

On a pleasant green, near the first meeting house, in 
which plain and humble edifice the swallow (in time 
past) has literally found an house,* there are a few 
houses in close neighbourhood ; also near the second, 
with a few stores, near the several furnaces ; but the 
small population is spread over a wide surface, so that it 
may be truly said, in all time, when speaking of the re- 
spectable village pastor, in the words of the oldest of the 
English poets, 

<v Wide was his parish ; not contracted close 

li In streets, but here and there a straggling house." 

The people of this place arc, almost wholly, descen- 
dants of the first planters of Plymouth. The most nu- 
merous names, by the census of 1790 were, Shurthff, 

* We hope the sun of 1816, will shine on a new edifice. 


■Cobb, Atwood, Shaw, Cole, Ransom, Dunham, Lucas, 
■Vaughan, Sherman, Burrows, Savory, Hammond, Til- 
Ison, Murdock, Crocker, Ellis, and formerly Ward. 
|Of the three first names, there were then about fourteen 
Imales of each over 16 years of age. Many have attain- 
led great age in this village. Mr. Issachar Fuller is now 
1(1815) living, about 90 years old, and a female yet older. 
C 1790, souls 847, includes 12 of colour. 
Census. 3 1800, „ 863, 
( 1810, „ 858, 
Those of the name of Shaw are descendants of John 
■Shaw, who arrived at Plymouth about 1627. Those of 
[Cobb, probably, from Gershom Cobb, one of the earliest 
[settlers of Middleborough, and son of Henry Cobb. 
[Those of Savory,* from Thomas, who came from Slade, 
lin Devonshire. Those of Atwood, from Henry and Ste- 
Iphen Wood. Those of Shurtliff, from William, who 
Iwas a surveyor and selectman at Plymouth, and an early 
isettler of Lakenham. Vaughan and Sherman were ear- 
ily Marshfield names, and came in here from Middlebo- 
| rough. 

Succession of Ministers. 
In this second church of Plympton, now first at Car- 

Rev. Othniel Campbell, ord. 1734, dism. 1744. 
John Rowland, ord. 1746, died 1804, as. 84. 
John Shaw, ord. 1807. 
Mr. Campbell, who was born in Bridge water, entered 
Harvard College, it is said, when near thirty years old, 
where he graduated, 1728. He removed from this par- 
ish of Tiverton, about 1747. A contemporary manu- 
script, taking notice of the period of 1744, says, "La- 
kenham, (the name of the parish) dismissed Mr Camp- 
bell for giving way too much to itinerants, though it 
is doubtful whether his friends or enemies are the great- 
er number. It is thought he has had hard measure, be- 
ing in the main an honest and good man." He has a 
daughter, (Mrs. Ellis) who survives in Plympton, which 
place he visited about 1772. 

* Thomas and Anthony £avory came before 1640; the latter settled aborc 
Boston, near Haverhill. 


Mr. Rowland, who graduated at Harvard College 1741, 
the son of John Howland, was born in the parish of Great 
Marshes, Barnstable. This exemplary pastor, of hum- 
ble desires, of primitive simplicity of manners, of cheer- 
fui and of hospitable disposition, after having lived to see 
his parish become a town, and surviving that era fourteen 
years, died, Nov. 4, 1804, in his 84th year. 

<" At church, with meek and unaffected grace, 

His looks adorned the venerable place." 

Mr. Howland's wife was a daughter of the Rev. Mr. 
Lewis, of Pembroke. Four sons and three daughters 
survived him. One of the latter is the wife of the Rev. 
Mr. Weld, of Braintree. One son, John, a promising 
young man, educated a merchant at Plymouth, died in 
the West Indies, early in the revolution. The youngest 
son continues on the paternal farm in Carver. This 
family is lineally descended from John Howland, who ar- 
rived at Plymouth, 1620, whose four sons settled, John 
at Barnstable, Joseph at Plymouth, Isaac at Middlebo- 
rough, and Jabez at Bristol ; from whom, and many 
daughters, the lineage, like that of Abraham, is spread 
over the land in countless numbers. 

Mr. Shaw, the present pastor, is a graduate of Brown 
University, 1805, and officiates one sabbath in three at 
the South Meadow district, or precinct, where, also, Rev. 
Abraham Cummings, (baptist) a graduate of the same 
university, preaches the interval sabbaths. Baptists be- 
gan to appear in this section of the town about 1761. 

In the old meeting- house, before Mr. Howland, it was, 
that Mr. Nathaniel Gardner, an usher of a school in Bos- 
ton, a scholar and a wit, occasionally preached. His sab- 
bath was passed here ; but his social week at Plymouth, 
to and from which he usually travelled on foot. The 
late Rev. A. Crosswell, cf Boston, also, supplied the pul- 
pit at the South Meadows, incidentally, during the revo. 
lution. In the vicinity of tl is latter place of worship, 
there is a pleasant view of Samson's Pond ; it is near the 
centre of the town, on the Rochester and Wareham road. 

Carver is an healthy town. The annual bill of mortal- 
ity varies from three to twenty deaths ; the last number 


applies to 1815. The average is stated at twelve. Con. 
[sumption is the prevalent disease. Of the influenza, 
which has prevailed, (autumn of 1815,) several aged peo- 
ple have died. This last remark applies also to Ply- 
mouth, in a peculiar manner, in November, where there 
were fifteen deaths in that month, chiefly aged ft males. 
IThose on the poor list in Carver are few, sometimes not 
one, partially six or more. 

Notes on Halifax. 

ABOUT the year 1733, some of the inhabitants of the 
north of Plympton, the north-east of Middleborough, 
and the south of Pembroke, built a meeting-house, and 
became incorporated as the town of Halifax,* July, 1734. 
It is bounded northerly by Pembroke, east and south by 
Plympton, south by Middleborough, and west by Bridge- 
water ; twelve miles distant from Plymouth W. and from 
Boston by the shortest route, thirty-two S. S. E. Hav- 
ing a large pond in these bounds, with much swamp and 
low meadow, the population is not in proportion to the 
given contents* which may be near four miles square. 
Its outline, however, is irregular, insulating, as it were, 
whole farms on the Plympton border, the result doubtless 
of diversity of sentiment as to location in 1734. The 
original growth was walnut, oak, much white pine, some 
pitch pine, and white cedar. 

King's cedar swamp, cf 200 acres, is in this town, 
with a part, say 60 acres, of the Pembroke great cedar 
swamp, which contains 1000 acres. Saw mills were ear- 
ly erected, and the first generation were not so much an 
agricultural people as otherwise. Sawing boards and 
plank, procuring masts, ranging timber, and the making 
of shingles for exportation,- were early employments, and 
are yet pursued, modified and controlled by circum- 
stances. Jones' River Landing, Plymouth, Duxbury, 

* There was a period in colonial history, when many towns in British Ameri- 
ca adopted this name, probably in compliment to the Earl of Halifax, or, it may 
be, iu some instances, from a tow a of that name iu England. 


North River, have been and are places of delivery for the 
productions of Halifax. 

Of the white pine and other forest trees, very large 
tracts have been prostrated by the gales of Oct. 1804, 
and Sept, 1815. On this last occasion the saw mills 
are not sufficiently numerous, or supply of water copious 
enough to convert them into boards and plank, without 
detrimental delay. Fuel on the spot sells in Halifax, oak 
J§2, 50, and pine $2 the cord. The arable lands, easier 
of tillage than those of Plympton, yield an average of In- 
dian corn, 15 bushels, rye 10, and oats 20 bushels the 
acre. There are farms in this town which keep twenty 
head of cattle, and orchards that in good seasons yield 
25 barrels of cider, but in 1813, only one barrel of cider 
was made in the town.* So various and uncertain are 
fruit bearing seasons, and so destructive is the canker 
worm to the apple tree. Cider, butter, and cheese, with 
other articles, are carried to market. Of sheep there 
may be 700 or more kept in the place. 

Rivers, Brooks, and Ponds* The Winnatuxet stream, 
after passing Plympton, crosses the S. W. section of this 
town two or more miles to its junction with the Bridge- 
water or Teticut Great River. Crooked, sluggish, ford- 
able, and liable to freshets, it varies from fourteen to 
thirty feet in width. \ Its borders afford much fresh 
meadow. Raven's and Lucas's Brooks are tributaries. 
Small as the Winnatuxet is, we are told of three vessels 
having been built on it within the limits of this town, 
which passed to the sea at Newport ; one as early as 1754, 
built by a Mr. Drew.f Yet in the summer there is, at 
times, a deficiency of water for a grist mill on this stream, 
across which are several small bridges. 

Moonponset Pond, in the north section of the town, is 
two miles long and more than half a mile wide. It has 

* Cider has been often sold for one dollar the barrel, the liquor only. At Ply- 
mouth, hi 1813 and 14, a period of war, it was ^7,50, tmd more; and we have 
known oranges to be as plenty, and nearly as cheap, at Plymouth, as apples were 
at that period. 

f John Drew, a native of Wales, came to Plymouth as early as 1660, and was, 
probably, a ship carpenter. In 1670, he possessed a fishing shallop. Three of his 
sons settled in Plymouth and two in Duxbury. He has numerous descendants m 
these towns and other places, many of whom have been of the same profession. 


an inlet from White's Pond in Pembroke, and an outlet 
through that town and Bridge water to the sea by Taun- 
ton River, by which route alewives pass into both ponds. 
It contains, also, other small fish. A neck, which may 
contain thirty acres, intersects the Moonponset north and 
south, and a bridge connects the shores, so that it seems 
to be two ponds. A part of the northern extreme and 
outlet is in Pembroke limits. Iron ore has abounded in 
this pond, and 100 tons, annually, continues to be pro- 
cured. The road from Plymouth to Bridgewater passes 
the south west margin of this pleasant pond, from which 
point of view one of its sections is scarcely seen, so that 
the traveller mistakes, doubtless, the south shore of the 
neck or peninsula, we have described, to be the extent of 
the pond, which is not the fact. Another point of view 
must be attained to embrace its whole surface. The 
word Moonponset is not easily explained ; we believe it 
a collective or augmentative term. It may be " much 
nets," or " many ponds." It gave name to the territory.* 
Moonponset Pond covers 1000 acres. The sandy neck 
that intersects it is, in places, thirty feet high. 

White's Pond in Pembroke, and Jones' River Head 
Pond are about a mile apart. The waters of the first, as 
we have stated, pass to Narragansett Bay, and those of 
the latter through Kingston to Plymouth harbour. 

Mills. There are four saw mills, two grist mills, one 
blowing furnace, one air furnace, one cotton factory, and, 
formerly, a windmill. 

C 1790, souls 662 ; families 124. 
Population, A. Z>. < 1800, „ 642 ; houses 95. 

(1810, „ 703; taxable polls 120. 

There is, in military affairs, one uniformed light infant- 
ry company (which marched to Boston, 1814) and one of 
militia, and both are annexed to the first regiment, fifth 

Many of the inhabitants of this small village have at- 
tained great age. As many as five or six, of those who 
have died in twelve years past, were ninety years old* 

* Halifax has a north east boundary of a mile and a half on Jones' Rirer Head 

36 vol. iy. 


Mrs. Briggs, the mother of the late minister of the place, 
died, two years since, aged 94, and Mr. John Briggs, 
aged 98, is yet living. The people of Halifax are, with a 
few exceptions, direct descendants of the Plymouth first 
planters. Some few names, such as Thomson, Water- 
man, Bosworth, Briggs, Sturtevant, make nearly half the 
population. Of Thomson there were, in 1790, thirty 
two males over 16 years of age. The name of Bos- 
worth, however, spread over Plymouth Colony, and 
thence to Rhode Island. We trace it to Nantasket in 1670, 
when persons of this name emigrated 'thence to Ply- 
mouth. There are evidently a few Hingham and Wey- 
mouth early names, also, in Halifax and its vicinity. 

Among those, who have passed off the stage of human 
life with reputation and credit, we may, with propriety, 
notice Thomas Croade, Esq. a magistrate and merchant, 
who abode and died at Halifax. He lived, also, at Ply- 
mouth. Much of the recording in the probate registry, 
at one period, appears to be in his hand- writing, 
which is elegant for the period in which he lived. The 
late Mr. Croade, a merchant of Warren, Rhode Island, 
was of the same lineage. This name is not to be traced 
among the first colonists. 

Church history* There is one Congregational religious 
society in Halifax. The meeting-house, a small edifice, 
is situated on elevated ground on the road from Ply- 
mouth to Bridgewater, and the prospect from it, south- 
erly, is commanding, Monts Hill, in Kingston, being in 
full view, seyen miles distant, S. E. 

Succession of Ministers* 
Rev. John Cotton, ordained 1735, resigned 1756. 
William 'Patten, ord. 1757, dismissed 1768. 
Ephraim Briggs, ord. 1769, died 1801, aged 72. 
Abel Richmond, ordained 1801. 
Mr. Cotton graduated at Cambridge, 1730. His voice 
became impaired, which alone led to his resignation ; 
and even with this infirmity the people wished for his 
continuance. He died in civil office in his native town, 
Plymouth, 1789, aged 77 years. His printed works are,, 


u Seasonable Warnings to the Churches of New Eng- 
land," " Tracts on Infant Baptism," " History of Ply- 
mouth Church." He was a member of the convention for 
forming the state constitution, town and county treasur- 
er, register of deeds, a man of method, of few words, of 
much reading on historical, religious, and also medi- 
cinal subjects. His library, chiefly of ancient literature, 
was considerable.* 

Mr. Patten, who graduated at Cambridge, 1754, was 
born at Roxbury, and, it is stated, was at Halifax 
about ten years, and subsequently at Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, about four years. He was an eloquent and popular 
preacher. He died at his native place, leaving a son, the 
Rev. Dr. Patten, settled in the ministry at Newport, 
Rhode Island. 

Mr. Briggs, who graduated at Cambridge, 1764, was 
of Norton,! and served as a sergeant in the war of 1756, 
at Crown Point. 

Mr. Richmond, the present pastor, is a graduate of 
Brown University, 1797. 

History of Plympton, (Carver and a part of 
Halifax inclusive.) , 

IN 1637, " Lakenham Farm," then so called, situate 
east side Six Mile Brook, on the path to Namasket, was 
granted to Mr. Jenny, of Plymouth, who was an assist- 
ant. He held it by the same tenure as similar grants, 
no longer than while resident at Plymouth ; if he remo- 
ved, it reverted ; a necessary policy of that early period 
to keep the people together, and thereby prevent the dis- 
solution of an infant colony, then, on all sides, exposed 
to danger from indiscreet dispersion. This farm 
falls within Carver. The name, from several small lakes, 
is applicable to the place, particularly Wenham Pond, in 

* Mr. Cotton, before his settlement, kept sohool at Billingsgate, (Cape Cod) 
Rochester, and Middleborough, and prea«hed at Manoraet Ponds and Wareham. 

f That part of Norton now Mansfield, where he has a son settled iji the minis* 
fry, another at Chatham, and another in Maine. 


its immediate vicinity ; still it is a name which may have 
been in use in England. 

1640, " Colebrook South Meadows" and " Lakenham 
West Meadows," were granted divers persons. At this 
early period, some scattered cottages began to extend on 
the western precincts of the township of Plymouth, " on 
the path to Namasket," and successively in 1650 and 
1662. " Winnatuxet, or the New Found Meadows," 
began to be granted to persons, whose lineal descendants 
now dwell there.* In 1664 } South Meadows were pur- 
chased from the natives. About 1700, settlements ex- 
tended, when lands there sold at 2s. the acre. 

In 1702, "a burial ground, training field, ministerial 
lands, as near the meeting house as may be convenient," 
was laid out in the upper society, now Plympton. 

The south part of the territory was then called " Sam- 
Son's country," from the sachem of it, for whom and his 
wife a reserve of 200 acres was made, 1705. Their 
privileges were "fishing in the brooks and ponds, to 
make tar and turpentine, and to hunt on any undivided 
lands ; to cut poles, and to get bark in undivided cedar 
swamps to make houses," &c. This man was a mighty 
hunter in days of yore. Tradition says, " a number of 
deer had come to a little brook to drink, when he killed 
so many at a shot, (too many to be here stated) as ac- 
quired for him immortal fame among the huntsmen of 
the forests. His real name was Assoomsin-ewet, literal- 
ly, " he gives food," doubtless conferred for these heroic 

In conclusion it may be remarked, that the corners of 
Carver, Wareham, Rochester, and Middleborough, where 
they unite, were not much settled until about the year 

* Bradford, Cushman, Sturtevant, Morton, King, Wright, &e. &c. / 

f Sporting Anecdote. — About the year 1730, John Rider of Plymouth killed 
three deer at a shot in that town. It was in the summer season, in a rye field ; 
tradition still designates the place on the South Pond road. It was out of season 
by law to kill deer. The superiour court, then in session in that town, excused 
the man on the spot, it being in protection of his standing grain. This anecdote 
was related in England, by the late General Winslow, in very high circles. It 
excited the smile of incredulity in that isle of hark! forward ! Yet no event is more 
tt*Qe. They were shot in range, reaching across the fence to the rye heads,. 


1754 ; so much was this part of our country then in pri- 
meval forest, and so in a great degree yet continues. 

Biographical Sketches. Thomas Loring was in Ply- 
mouth before 1700, and was, probably, among the first 
planters of Plympton. Some of the best farms in that 
town are held by his descendants. The name probably 
came into the place from Hingham, as also that of 

Isaac Lobdell, another early planter of Plympton, ap« 
pears in Plymouth, about 1680. 

Capt. Simeon Samson, a naval commander, during the 
revolution, under Massachusetts and the Congress, passed 
his latter days at Plympton, where he died, 1789, aged 53. 
He was born in Kingston, and in early life was in the 
merchant service, from Plymouth, where he resided 
many years. He successively commanded the state brig 
Independence, (built at Kingston) brig Hazard, and ship 
Mars, also the packet brig Mercury, which was built at 
Plymouth, by Mr. Peck, for the Congress, and, with 
other packets, plied between the States anjd Nantz, at cer- 
tain periods in the war of the revolution. 

Thomas Lazell was in Plymouth as early as 1680, and, 
probably, was among the early planters of the north of 
Plympton, which fell within the limits of Halifax. His 
descendants at the present period, are chiefly in Bridge- 

The late Hon. William Bradford, of Bristol, Rhode Is- 
land, was born in Plympton ; his ancestors being among 
the earliest settlers of this place, as well as of the colony. 

Topography and History of Wareham, 1815. 

WAREHAM, a maritime town in the county of Ply- 
mouth, Mass. lies in latitude, 41° 46' N. longitude, 70° 
37' W. and is situated at the head of Buzzard's Bay. It 
is bounded south on the bay, an indented line of necks 
and inlets, six or more miles ; east, north, and west on 
Plymouth, three sides of a square, several miles ; north, 


also, on Carver, and south west on Rochester, several 
miles. Distant from Plymouth fifteen miles, south, and' 
from Boston, by Bridgewater, forty eight, S. S. E. It 
was taken chiefly from Plymouth, and partly from Roch- 
ester ; incorporated 1739, and comprises the Agawaam 
of the aborigines.* 

Topography. A great proportion of this small town- 
ship remains in the native forest of pitch pine, interspers- 
ed with occasional tracts of oak. Salt meadows, of which 
there is a good proportion, skirting its shores and streams, 
are a compensation of great value for the deficient pro- 
ductions of a light and sandy soil. 

What is termed Indian neck, near the shore, exhibits 
a better soil, and contains some good farms. A tract of 
upland meadow, where the surface is rocky, near the 
narrows, falls within the same description. On the Ag- 
-awaam too, as it approaches tide waters, there are esti- 
mable farms. 

The average produce of arable lands to the acre may 
be, Indian corn, from ten to fifteen bushels ; rye, more 
cultivated, from eight to ten bushels. There are, doubtr 
less, exceptions, not however forming a rule of estimate. 
All the arable lands do not, ordinarily, produce sufficient 
for the annual sustenance of its small population. It is, 
therefore, the maritime intercourse, in peaceable periods, 
with distant places, by wood coasting, and by iron man- 
ufactures, which sustains the inhabitants of this seques- 
tered village. 

Rivers, Brooks, and Ponds. The Weweantic, the 
sources of which are in Carver, attains the name of river 
on the south western borders of Wareham, where it may 
be three rods in width. Crooked and rocky within this 
town, it affords little if any maritime uses : small vessels 
may enter it near a mile. Alewives ascend this stream to 
two ponds in Carver. It has a sandy beach without, at 
the confluence with tide waters. Its course is south. 

Agawaam Brook, issuing from a pond in Plymouth, 
may be eight or nine miles long ; yet the latter part of its 

* " Wareham, in Dors "tslitre, England, is seated on the channel. It wa& 
formerly a cou&idcrable place ; but the harbour has become ohoked by sand." 


course in Wareham being through flat meadows, it doc3 
not afford mill seats in proportion to its length, and co- 
pious and unfailing supply of water. 

Fearing's Mills/ an old establishment, are seated on 
this brook ; near to which, small vessels, at full tide, 
may approach, and where it is very serpentine. Above 
this there are, at present, no mills, except within the 
limits of Plymouth. Between these, however, nearly on 
the line of the two towns, there is a mill site, yet unoc- 
cupied, where there is sufficient fall of water, twenty feet, 
to supply a forge and furnace, day and night, through 
the year. A part of its course, above this, traversing 
meadows abounding in cold springs, it is ever a full 
and uniform stream below. A mill wright surveyor 
pronounced it the best mill seat between Plymouth and 
Passamaquoddy. Trout, which abound, are very partial 
to this stream, doubtless loving its cold sources. The 
general course of this brook is south west, up which the 
alewives have ever ascended, in vast numbers, to Half 
Way Pond, Plymouth. 

Red Brook, a stony brook, very small, is the east boun- 
dary of the town on Plymouth, over which is a bridge, 
on the Sandwich road. Its course is south. There are 
some few yet lesser brooks. 

Wanconquag Brook, coming from Carver, meets tide 
waters at the Narrows, in the central and most popu- 
lous part of Wareham. It is a small stream, affording, 
formerly, a forge mill seat, within Plymouth bounds, and 
for many years, mill seats in Wareham. The course of 
this brook is also south. 

Narrows is the salt water tide inlet, at the outlet of the 
brook just described, of two miles in length before the 
open bay is attained. Here is situated the principal set- 
tlement, precluded from a view of the bay by intervening 
land of some elevation, abruptly terminating on the bay. 
There are several wharves, six in the whole, at which, at 
the Narrows, there is occasionally twelve feet of water. 
The common tide, it is well known, has but little ebb 
and flow south of Cape Cod ; usually six feet. 

A Congregational meeting house, with several hand- 
some private dwellings and stores, have here a pleasant 


south aspect. At the yards, ships of 300 tons have been 
constructed, and ship-building is, in propitious times, a 
steady employ at this place. 

The whale fishery in the West India seas, and on the 
coasts of the United States, has been formerly pursued 
with that precarious success, incident to the employ, 
probably before the revolution, and much more so since. 
Many of the people are mariners in this, as well as the 
merchant service, from other ports. Capt. Kendrick, 
the navigator in remote seas, an early adventurer to the 
North West Coast, who there lost his life^ lived at this 
place. He was born at the Vineyard. 

A connexion, by the coasting trade, exists with Nan- 
tucket, New Bedford, (to which it is annexed in the rev- 
enue collection) Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, 
and New Jersey ; to the latter chiefly for iron ore ; and 
there may be from six to ten small coasters. 

The depth of water, at the mouth of the Narrows, may 
be fourteen feet ; in the middle of the bay, opposite, there 
is several fathoms. 

Ponds. The north line of the town intersects two ; 
White Island, and Small Long Pond, without outlets, 
common to this town and Plymouth. The first affords 

Hills. A rocky neck, of some elevation, is situate at 
the mouth of the Narrows, to which we have already al- 
luded. This neck it was, that concealed the approach 
of a detachment of barges from the Superb and Nimrod, 
British vessels of war on this station, June 13, 1814, 
rendering the expedition as unperceived, as it was unex- 
pected. The destruction by burning was, one ship, one 
brig, (on the stocks) and several schooners and sloops. 
The ship, being afterwards extinguished, suffered a par- 
tial loss, as did the the brig and a cotton factory, into 
which a " Congreve Rocket" was thrown, and also ex- 
tinguished. The estimated loss was 40,000 dollars. The 
detachment conisted of six barges, and 200 men, which 
arrived in the morning, and departed in a few hours.* 

* Several of the vessels destroyed belonged to Falmouth, and one to Plymouth. 


Islands* Hog Island, so termed, and which is very 
small, is appendant to this town. It may, perhaps, be per- 
tinent here to notice, that in early colonial annals, th< re ap- 
pears to have been several little islands in Manomet Bay, 
on the Sandwich side, some of them, marsh islands, 
probably, within its necks, thus denominated ; Panoket, 
(little land) Chuppateest, (coney island or neck) S,uan- 
nequeest and Mashne ; while Unset and Quanset were 
little bays or coves on the Wareham side. A place in 
Sandwich, called Pacheweset, is written in the colony 
records " Chcpachewest," a phrase with a diminutive 
tern ination. 

Fishes. The fish, common to this bay, are found at 
Wareham, such as tataug, sheep's head, (now become 
rare) rock and streaked bass, squitteag, scuppeag, eels, 
with the migratory fish, manhaden, and alewives* One 
cod-fish having been caught within the Narrows, (say 
thirty .years since) is the only instance of this fish nearer 
than the open bay, or Gay Head. The quahaug claiu 
is common, and the oyster is taken in two or more places. 
The latter,' which is of small size, is frequently carried 
for sale over land to Plymouth. 

Roads and Distances. From Wareham it is thirteen 
miles to Sandwich, seven to Rochester, and seventeen to 
New Bedford. The old road to Boston through Carver 
and Plympton was sixty miles ; but by Plymouth it is 
now fifty one miles.* The face of the roads within the 
fown is generally sandy ; but around the Narrows, and 
also approaching Sandwich line, incidentally rocky. 

Mills and Factories. There is one furnace on the 
Weweantic stream, owned by the Messrs. Leonards. 
A cotton factory, a trip hammer, and a fulling mill, at 
the Narrows. Four grist mills and a saw mill dispersely 

Population. The United States Census presents these 

* The most direct route, however, is by Bridgewater, and so on to Wey* 
mouth ; yet the traders, freighting their goods from Boston to Plymouth, some- 
times find it convenient to take that route. 

37 vol. iv. 


! D. j 

1790, souls, 754 ; heads of families, 135. 

1800, 770. 

1810, 751. 

The number of families, judging from the heads of 
families, may be an hundred, or more. 

In military affairs, Wareham is annexed to the 4th 
regiment, of the fifth division, furnishing two small com- 

Marine bearings and distances, To Rochester har- 
bour, it is 4 miles, S. W. to New Bedford, 4 leagues, 
S. W. to Quick's Hole, 7 leagues, S. S. VV. to Gay 
Head, 9 leagues, S. S. W. and to Saconet Point, ^12 
leagues, S. W. To Wood's Hole and Nashaun Island, 
it is 4 leagues, S. which is the usual route for coasters 
from this place to Nantucket, distant, it may be, 16 
leagues, S. E. It may be added that the packets, from 
Rochester and New Bedford, with the back shores of 
Sandwich and Falmouth, pursue the same course for the 
same destination, passing Wood's Hole. 

Sheep, The pine commons of Wareham, Sandwich, 
and Plymouth, are very extensive and contiguous, af- 
fording a wide range for sheep. They have, also, ever 
been the favourite haunt of the fallow deer, where, even 
now, this timid animal finds some sequestered dells, 
some secret recesses ; a covert from his enemy man, 

"He bursts the thicket, glances through the glades, 
And plunges deep into the wildest woods." 

As to sheep, and this mode of keeping them, it may 
be remarked, that it is not considered the best mode. 
The fleece is diminished by exposure to the tangling un- 
der brush- wood, while the flock is liable to many casual- 
ties, from woods' fires, from dogs, and wild animals. In- 
closed lands, old cow pastures, peculiarly those which 
admit of occasional exchanges and visits to salt marshes, 
are the suited ranges for sheep. Over-stocking, it should 
seem, is an error (and it must operate its own remedy) 
in a climate, whose long winters and late springs exhaust 
the sustenance destined to their support. In conclusion 


it may be remarked, that there is now 2,000, or more, 
sheep in this place. 

Air. The south east, south, and south west winds, 
being here sea winds, are grateful and refreshing in sum- 
mer, and humid at all seasons. It is remarked, in the 
sea shore towns, that the south east wind, which usually 
brings rain in winter, as the spring advances, sometimes 
is accompanied by a heavy fall of snow in the southern 
section of New England, even in April. Saturating the 
aperient soil, it takes the popular name, " poor man's 

Manomet Bay. It is but a mile across, from a part of the 
Wareham shore, to Manomet River, on the back shore 
of Sandwich. That rivulet was visited by Gov. Brad- 
ford as early as 1622, to procure corn, and was the 
Pimesepoese of the natives. This compound phrase 
signifies, u provision rivulet." What a remarkable co- 
incidence in the aboriginal name and the colonial voy- 
age ! We do not assume this explanation without sub- 
stantial and tenable grounds. The first part of the phrase, 
pime, is, in its uses, "food," "provision;" the latter, 
" little river." There, too, it was, that a barque was 
built, by the Plymouth colonists, in 1627, and a trade 
opened with the Dutch at New Netherlands, (N. York.) 
It was, in fact, the Suez, while Plymouth was the Alep- 
po, of our ancestors. The traveller, therefore, as he 
passes on his way, may here make a pause, erect a pillar, 
and muse on the swift flight of ages, " how changeful 
and how brief." 

The shores of this secluded and pleasant little bay, 
indented by many necks and inlets, and embosoming 
islands, must have been the chosen haunt of aquatic birds, 
The waders yet seek it, tracing up its marshy creeks. 
On the Sandwich side was Penguin River,* where that 
singular bird resorted, in the breeding season, in great 
numbers. The manner in which the natives took them 
was, to erect stakes, or a wier, across an inlet, drive them 
into it, and when the tide receded, strike them down 
with clubs. This bird, it is well known, dives at a flash : 

* Wesquobs, v/as another name for the same place. 


hence its significant name, Wantoowaganash, " ears," 
that is, they "hear quick/' The English settlers, it 
seems, without knowing the meaning of this name, have 
used and transmitted the plural termination only, Wa- 
gans, which has no meaning, but a plural merely. We 
shall seek this bird now, at this spot, in vain ; but it ap- 
pears and is taken, now and then, in the salt ponds, near 
Ellis' tavern, Plymouth. The name given tnis bird, with 
trifling addition, is a watch word, or an alarm ; as much 
as to say, hark ! listen ! These explanations awake a 
dead language without alarming us. 

Historical Anecdote. 1741, Sabbath, March^30. 
The town of Plymouth was alarmed, during divine ser- 
vice, by Joseph Wampum, a native, who gave informa- 
tion that eight Spaniards had landed at his house, situate 
four miles distant from Buzzard's Bay. War existed at 
this date between England and Spain. This notice, 
therefore, justly excited an universal panic. The drums 
beat to arms, and the militia were ordered out. It prov- 
ed, however, to be a false alarm, and has ever been call- 
ed " Wampum's war." Old people have now almost 
Forgot it ; but, when questioned, memory revives it, dis- 
armed, however, of all its terrors. At this period, seve- 
ral vessels had been captured by the Spaniards in the 
West Indies, belonging to New; England ; and, in Nov. 
1742, a Spanish prize, estimated at £800,000, O. T. was 
sent into Boston.* 

Note on the tide and gale of Sept. 23c/, 1815. The 
jdamage sustained by this storm and, tide here, may be 
estimated at $3000. Upwards of 200 tons of salt hay 
was lost, much cord wood drifted away, and some salt 
works destroyed. A vessel, of some size, was left on 
the top of the mill dam at the Narrows, while the water 
entered the houses there situated. 

Church history. There is one Congregational society 
in Wareham, made a precinct 1733, die succession of 
pastors in which is as follows : 

Rev. Rowland Thacher, ordained Nov. 1740, died 
1773, aged over 60. 

* Private Diary. 


Rev. Josiah Cotton, ordained 1774, resigned 1782, 
Noble Everett, ordained 1784. 

Rev. Mr. Thacher, a graduate of Harvard College, 1733, 
was born at Barnstable. One of his sons abides in Roch- 
ester, while two others removed, a few years since, to 
Lee, in Berkshire. 

Mr. Cotton, a graduate of Yale, 1771, entered into 
civil office at his native place, Plymouth. 

Mr. Everett, a graduate, also, of Yale, and of Con- 
necticut, yet survives in the pastorate. 

Bills of Mortality. The annual average of deaths, in 
the whole town, for a long series of years, is stated at 
from ten to twelve, total. Dr. McKee, long a resident 
physician, pronounces it an healthy town and vicinage. 
In the first three months of 1816, only one death (a child) 
has occurred. Mr. Thomas Bates, who died within 
three or four years since, was the greatest instance of 
longevity in this town since its settlement, having attain- 
ed ninety four vears. 

History of Wareham. In the year 1655, Ackanootus, 
with two other natives of Aquetnet, at Skauton neck, 
Sandwich, sold Agawaam to Thomas Willet,* George 
Watson, and others, a committee in behalf of the town of 
Plymouth ; subsequent to which period it continued to 
be leased by the town for a term of years, until Decem- 
ber, 1682, when it was sold, in six shares, for /.200 to 
Joseph Warren, William Clark, Joseph Bartlett, and Jo- 
siah Morton of Plymouth ; Isaac Little of Marshfield, 
and Seth Pope of Dartmouth. Settlements soon com- 
menced. Warren and Clark took up farms, but, we be- 
lieve, returned to Plymouth. 

The earliest permanent settlers were from Hingham, of 
whom Israel Fearing was the leader, and his descendants 
have ever been among the principal inhabitants to the 
present day. Several other settlers came in, chiefly from 
Sandwich and Plymouth, while those of Rochester, al- 
ready on the confines, were annexed, when it became a 
town in 1739. 

* Mr, Willet, it would seem, was yet in Plymouth, 1655, 



A mill was built on the Agawaam, at a much earlier 
date ; a bridge erected in 1719 ; a constable chosen in 
1727, under Plymouth, and made a precinct within the 
same, 1733, where Mr. John Cotton, afterwards settled 
at Halifax, occasionally officiated as minister, the same 
year ; and, March 1, 1739, Plymouth " voted and con* 
seiited to their separation as a town, adjoining with the 
inhabitants of the easterly part of Rochester, according to 
the purchase deed of the town of Plymouth." 

Classes of names — shewing their origin. 


Fearing Bates Norris Chubbuck \ Jones 

Dartmouth. Hathaway 

Barnaby Savory Churchill Sturtevant 

Bosworth Faunce Samson Morey 

Gibbs Hammond Saunders Blackmer 
Nye Bessey Bassett 

Marshfield and Rochester. 

Briggs Bourne Winslow Bumpus Howland 

White Crocker 
There are a few names from Middleborough, Yarmouth, 
the Vineyard, and Long Island. 

Alewives. Having collected a few notes, physiological 
and historical, on the alewife fisheries, we have thought 
this a proper place to arrange them in one view. 

Of the alewife, there are, evidently, two kinds, not on- 
ly in size, but habit, which annually visit the brooks pass- 
ing to the sea at Wareham. The larger, which set in 
some days earlier, invariably seek the Weweantic sour- 
ces. These, it is said, are preferred for present use, 
perhaps, because they are earliest. The second, less in 
size, and usually called " black backs, 5 ' equally true to 
instinct, as invariably seek the Agawaam. These are 
generally barrelled for exportation. In the sea, at the 
outlet of these streams, not far asunder, these fish must 
for weeks swim in common, yet each selects its own and 



peculiar stream. Hence an opinion prevails on the spot, 
that these fish seek the particular lake where they were 

Another popular anecdote is as follows : alewives had 
ceased to visit a pond in Weymouth, which they had 
formerly frequented. The municipal authorities took 
the usual measures, by opening the sluice ways in the 
spring, at mill dams, and also procured live alewives from 
other ponds, placing them in this, where they spawned, 
and sought the sea. No alewives, however, appeared 
here until the third year;* hence three years has been 
assumed by some, as the period of growth of this fish. 

These popular opinions, at either place, may, or may 
not, agree with the laws of the natural history of mi- 
gratory fish. 

The young alewives w r e have noticed to descend about 
the 20th of June and before, continuing so to do some 
time, when they are about two inches long, their full 
growth being from twelve to fifteen inches. We have 
imbibed an opinion, that this fish attains its size in a 
year ; but if asked for proof, we cannot produce it. 

These fish, it is said, do not visit our brooks in such 
numbers, as in former days. The complaint is of old 
date. Thus, in 1753, Douglass remarks, on migratory 
fishes, " The people living upon the banks of Merrimack 
observe, that several species of fish, such as salmon, shad, 
and alewives, are not so plenty in their seasons as for- 
merly ; perhaps from disturbance, or some other disgust, 
as it "happens with herrings in the several friths of Scot- 
land." Again, speaking of herrings, he says, " They 
seem to be variable or whimsical as to their ground." 
It is a fact, too, that where they most abound, on the 
coast of Norway and Sweden, their occasional disappear- 
ance is a subject of remark also of early date in a com- 
parative view.f 

* This anecdote was related in a circle of the members of the general court, 
at Boston, when a member from Maine remarked, that a similar event had 
occurred in his vicinity. 

f " Previous to the year 1752, the herrings had entirely disappeared seven- 
ty two years, on the coast of Sweden ; and yet, in 1782, 139,000 barrels were 
cured bv salt, at the mouth of the Gothela, near Gottenbur^." Studies ofjYatnre, 


The herring is essentially different from the alewife 
in size (much smaller) arid in habit. It continues 
we believe, in the open sea, and does not seek pond heads. 
Attempts are sometimes made, by artificial cuts, to in- 
duce them to visit ponds which had not before a natural 
outlet. These little cuts, flowing in -the morning, be- 
come intermittent at noon, as the spring and summer 
advances. Evaporation, therefore, which is very great 
from the surface of the pond, should, probably, be con- 
sidered in the experiment, making the canal as low as 
the mid-summer level of the pond, otherwise it may be 
that the fish perish in the passage. This may, in other 
respects, have its inconveniences, at seasons when the 
ponds are full. 

The town of Plymouth, for a series of years, annually 
voted from 1000, to 500 and 200 barrels of alewives to 
be taken at all their brooks, in former years. 

In the year 1730, the inhabitants were ordered not to 
take more than four barrels each ; a large individual sup- 
ply indeed, compared with the present period, (1815) 
when it is difficult for an householder to obtain 200 ale- 
wives, seldom so many. 

In 1762, at a vendue, the surplus appears to have been 
sold in 25 barrel lots, which sold -at'Ssl and 4s the bar- 
rel. In 1763, Plymouth and Wareham took 150 barrels 
at the Agawaam brook ;* 200 barrels was the usual vote, 
down to a modern date, perhaps 1776. Manhaden were 
also taken in quantity, at Wareham, and barrelled for ex- 
portation in former years. 

Agawaam appears to have been a name for several 
places, where migratory fishes resorted. Thus at Ips- 
wich and Westfield River as well as this place. Wood, 
in his " New England Prospect," writes the word Igo- 
wam. At the season of fishing, the whole population of the 
country was, doubtless, in motion, resorting to these 
places. Hence we incline to the opinion that this ex- 
pression became, in several places, a fixed and perma- ' 
nent name, and was, in some way, typical of it. We 
think " abundance of food" is understood. 

* Plymouth retains a fishing privilege in. this brook within Wareham. The 
alewives, we are told, were morfe numerous in 1815 than for some years. 


Original paper respecting the Episcopal 
Controversy in Connecticut, mdccxxii. 

[In the second volume of these collections, second series, were insert- 
ed, " Some original papers respecting the Episcopal Controversy in 
Connecticut, 1 722." A third letter on that subject, which was then 
mislaid, has since been found, and is here inserted* John Davenport 
was minister of Stamford, Stephen Buckingham was minister of 
INorwalk, Joseph Moss, writer of one of the letters before published, 
was minister of Derby, Joseph Webb was minister of Fairfield.] 


Very Reverend Sirs* 

have taken it, that yourselves were consulted up- 
on the first erecting a collegiate school in our colony, 
nor can we account it improper, that yourselves and our 
reverend fraternity in the principal town of our country 
be apprized of the dark cloud drawn over our collegiate 
affairs, a representation whereof may already have been 
made by some of our reverend brethren trustees : But if 
not, and the case being of general concern, we are willing 
to make our mournful report, how it hath been matter of 
surprize to us (as we conclude it hath been or surely will 
be to you) to find how great a change a few years have 
made appear among us, and how our fountain, hoped to 
have been and continued the repository of truth, and the 
reserve of pure and sound principles, doctrine and educa- 
tion, in case of a change in our mother Harvard, shews 
itself in so little a time so corrupt. How is the gold be- 
come dim ! and the silver become dross ! and the wine 
mixt with water ! Our school gloried and flourished un- 
der its first rector, the Rev. Mr. Pierson, a pattern of pi- 
ety, a man of modest behaviour, of solid learning, and 
sound principles, free from the least Arminian or Epis- 
copal taint : But it suffered a decay for some years, be- 
cause of the want of a resident rector. But who could 
have conjectured, that its name being raised to Collegium 
Yalense from a Gymnasium Saybrookense, it should 
groan out Ichabod in about three years and an half under 
its second rector, so unlike the first, by an unhappy elec- 
tion set over it, into whose election or confirmation, or 
' 38 vol. iv. 


any act relating to him, the senior subscriber hereof 
(though not for some reason, through malice or mistake 
bruited) never came. Upon the management of our 
college three years and an half, how strangely altered is 
the aspect thereof ! that its regents, sc. rector and tutor 
are become such capable masters of Episcopal leaven, 
and in such a time so able to cause how manv to partake 
of it ! 

It appears surprisingly strange, that it should so diffuse 
itself into our ministry, and many of them not of the least 
note now appear in the company, viz. Mr. Hart of East 
Guilford, Mr. Whittlesey of Wallingford, and Mr. Eliot 
of Killingworth ; these, perhaps, not much' short of the 
rector's years. And two societies, branches of the famous 
New Haven, one on the north, and the other on the west, 
are mourning because of their first ministers, in so little a 
time after their ordination, declaring themselves Episco* 
pal, and their ordination, lately received, of no value, be- 
cause a non habentibus potestatem. 

Upon our commencement, Sept. 12, the rector distin- 
guished his performance by the closing words of his prayer, 
which were these, viz. and let all the people say, amen. 

On the evening of said day, it was rumoured there, 
that on the next day the gentlemen become Episcopal, 
designed to propound to the trustees three questions. 
1. Q. Whether ordination from such ministers, whose or- 
dination was from the leather jacket, be valid ? 2. Q. 
Whether ordination from ministers, who are only presby- 
ters, be valid ? 3. Q. Whether an uninterrupted succes- 
sion from the apostles days be not absolutely necessary 
to the validity of a minister's ordination ? But these were 
not so propounded. 

But the day following the commencement after dinner, 
these gentlemen appeared in the library before the trus- 
tees, where many other ministers were present, and first 
declared themselves viva voce, but after that, on the di- 
rection of the trustees, declared themselves in writing, a 
copy whereof is not with us. But the substance thereof 
is this. sc. 


Some of us doubting the validity of Presby terial ordi- 
nation in opposition to Episcopal ordination, and others 
of us fully persuaded of the invalidity of said ordination, 
shall be thankful to God or man helping us if in an er- 
rour. Signed Timothy Cutler, John Hart, Samuel 
Whittlesey, Jared Eliot, James Wetmore, Samuel John- 
son, Daniel Brown. The persons doubting were Mr. 
Hart and Mr. Whittelsey. 

Consequent to this declaration, the trustees advised, 
that the doubters continue in the administration of the 
ministry word and sacraments, but that the fully persua- 
ded forbear sacramental ministration, until the meeting 
of the trustees, which was appointed on the Tuesday- 
evening at New Haven, following the opening of our 
General Assembly there, the said Tuesday being the 16th 
of the next month. The trustees also advised, that the 
said ministers would freely declare themselves to their 
respective congregations. 

It may be added, that Mr. C. then declared to the 
trustees, that he had for many years been of this persua- 
sion, (his wife is reported to have said that to her knowl- 
edge he had for eleven or twelve years been so persua- 
ded) and that therefore he was the more uneasy in per- 
forming the acts of his ministry at Stratford, and the 
more readily accepted the call to a college improvement 
at N. Haven. 

But then if he knew the college was erected for the 
education of such as dissented from the church of Eng- 
land, (and how could he no,t know it) and knew himself 
not one : w T ith what good fakh could he accept said call 
and the considerable encouragement he had, and the rath- 
er if he disseminated his persuasion so contrary to the 
very design of its erection, and the confidence of those 
that called him. Indeed he hath said, that 1 he hath la- 
boured only with one to be of his persuasion : Were it 
so, there would, in one instance, be a foul frustration of 
the confidence reposed in him, but what a number above 
one of the students have been leavened by him, who can 
be assured, but coming time may discover the unhappy 
instances of it. ' 


Further, Mr. C. then also declared it his firm persua- 
sion, that out of the church of England, ordinarily, there 
was no salvation. 

To the last we only say, mj* yemro for we dare not so 
offend the generation of the righteous, nor disturb the 
ashes of the myriads, that have slept in Jesus, of the 
Catholick professors of the orthodox faith in the three 
kingdoms, yea, and all reformed Christendom, and in 
New England particularly, who have not been of the 
communion of the church of England. 

It must be acknowledged to the divine goodness, that 
all the trustees then present (and of the whole number 
wanted only three, sc. of Lime, N. London, Stamford) 
shewed themselves constant to your principles, and af- 
fected to the trust committed to them : yet desirous that 
the meeting of the trustees might (if possible) be fuller, 
and also their doings might be in the face of the colony, 
represented in General Assembly, they took care, that 
Mr. C. might have the use of the house they had hired 
for him until the Wednesday next after the opening of 
the General Court, viz. October 17. 

No wonder that it is said in all our towns on the sea- 
side, and probably in our inland towns likewise, the talk in 
every one's mouth is the surprising conjuncture, wherein 
such a number, who are now said, at least for a year past, 
to have distinguished themselves by their frequent meet- 
ing together, the design whereof the late declaration is 
accounted to open, appear fond of that way, an unembar- 
rassment from which moved our predecessors to so vol- 
untary an exile into a then rude wilderness. And in 
the vagrant surmises of people, others of our principal 
men are by way of question or affirmation talked of, to 
belong to this set of deserters ; of whom, until time shew 
otherwise, better things are hoped. 

One of us subscribing, who was then absent, could 
have the above account only by report, when the other, 
being present, bare a part with the trustees at N. H. 

Reverend sirs, having thus bemoaned the dark provi- 
dence over us, we may not doubt of your christian sym- 
pathy, nor of your prayers, which yet we earnestly ask, 



unto Him, that holdeth the stars in his right hand, and 
walketh in the midst of the golden candlesticks : We 
ask also your assistance, what you may think proper, in 
a conjoined testimony in the cause of Christ to our gov- 
ernment and people, and the encouragement of the trus- 
tees, and the recovery (if possible) of those that are gone 
from us. And with sincere prayers, that how grievous 
soever our sins have been, and how much his anger hath 
been kindled against us, it may please the Lord, who is 
God and not man, yea the God of pardon, not to give us 
up, cast us off, forsake us, nor to call our name fiErn K7 
but that his gracious- blessing-presence may be, and con- 
tinue in your and our churches, 

We subscribe ourselves, 
Reverend Sirs, 
Your unworthy fellow-partners 

in the ministry of the gospel. 

John Davenport, 
S. Buckingham. 
The very Reverend, 

Increase Mather, D. D. 
Cotton Mather, D. D. 
Stamford, Sept. 25, 1722. 

Sacred Musick. 

VvE are in possession of an anecdote which seems to 
fix the era when singing by notes was first introduced 
into the churches at Boston. Mr. Timothy Burbank, 
who died in Plymouth Oct. 13, 1793, aged 90, (precise- 
ly to an hour) was born in Maiden, and during his 
apprenticeship at the tailor's trade in Boston, attended 
Dr. Colman's meeting. He was always uniform in 
relating that he attended the first singing school* and re- 
ligious society which introduced singing by notes, at 
Boston. This era, therefore, must have been between 
the years 1717 and 1724. 

* Mr. B. was a chorister many years at Plymouth, also an officer in the mi- 
litia. He kept a bill of mortality in Plymouth for many years, which is in pos- 
session of his descendants. 

302 addenda to several articles. 

Correction of an errour in Notes on 

IN our last volume, p, 201, from information, then sup« 
posed to be correct, the number of the aborigines within 
the limits of Plymouth was stated as about one hundred. 
Mr. Hawley, one of their overseers, from whose judg- 
ment there can be no appeal, reckons them at from thirty 
to forty, or at the most fifty souls. 

Addenda to several preceding Articles oit 
towns in the County of Plymouth. 

Rochester. SaMUEL PRINCE, Esq. (father of the 
annalist of New England) was the first representative 
from Rochester, under Massachusetts, 1692 ; also the 
first in the commission of the peace in this town.* Oth- 
er early representatives have been John Wing, Nathaniel 
Sprague, Nathaniel Ruggles, Noah Sprague, Elisha 

Samuel Sprague, 1767 to 1772, who is yet living 
at Fair Haven, in advanced years, (since the death 
of Dr. Hoi ten of Dan vers) is said to be the oldest person 
on the stage, who has been a member of the General 

Col. Ebenezer White, 1773 to 1787, and again >793 e 
He died 1804, aged over 80. He was a lieutenant col- 
onel, at the battle of Rhode Island, 1778, where he ac- 
quired credit as an officer and brave man. The chain 
of his sword-hilt was taken off by a musket ball on that 
occasion. His relations are said to be in Yarmouth. 
Among the first planters of Yarmouth was Emanuel 
White, 1643, of whom he may have been a descendant. 

Saw mills in Rochester. There are, on a strict enu- 
meration, eighteen, viz. 

On the Mattapoiset - 6 (also a tide grist mill.) 
On a brook uniting with it, 2 

* Mr. Prince, who was of Hull and of Boston, first appears in Plymouth Colo- 
ns at Sandwich, about 1680, or before, where lie was a member of Mr. Cot- 
Jon's church. He removed from Rochester to Midtlleborough, where he died, 



NearWareham 2 

In various places - 8 

A small brook in the centre of the town affords trout 
of large srse. 

Epidemic of 1815—16. From Nov. 1, 1815, to 
June 1, 1816, sixty three persons died in Rochester, 
chiefly adults, being a 49th part of its population,* in 
these proportions, viz. 

Of the epidemic, 43 

Of other disorders, 20 

Among them were seven men with their wives ; Col. 
Charles Sturtevant, Jonathan Church, Joshua Sherman, 
Isaiah Standish, Col. Noah Dexter, Nicholas Crapo, 
were among the victims to the fever. It is stated, as a 
fact, that this epidemic followed the course of rivers, 
tracing up the Accushnet and Mattapoiset, to the great 
pond in Freetown, and not extending but very little be- 
yond the meeting house in Rochester, which has ever 
been one of the most healthy spots in New England, and 
where it is dry and sandy. Dr. Mann further states, we 
are informed, that scarce a person escaped this fever, 
who lived within a mile of the great pond in Sharon, 
where it also mortally prevailed. Six persons, of the 
family of Ashley, died in one house of this fever, situate 
near the great pond in Freetown: This singular disease 
seems therefore to have a choice of location humid and 
swampy situations. 

Addenda to Scituate. u Hewes' Cross Brook" appears 
on the records to be a place in Scituate, the lands of 
Peter Collamore lying near it. This is the place men- 
tioned by Gov. Winthrop, in his journey to Plymouth, 
in early annals. John Hewes is on the list of first set- 
tlers, Scituate. 

Biography. Mr. Barnabas Lothrop, a son of the Rev. 
John Lothrop, was born about the year 1636, most prob- 
ably at Scituate. He married, 1658, Susannah Clark, at 
Plymouth. He was an assistant of Plymouth Colony, 
and we believe a counsellor of Massachusetts. He died 

* The annual average bill of mortality, is about twenty , in ordinary seasons of 


at Barnstable, 1715, aged near eighty years. A cloak 
which he usually wore on public occasions, was in the 
Sturgis family, in Fairfield, Conn, until an early period 
of the x\merican revolution. John Lothrop, his young- 
est brother, also married at Plymouth, 1671, Mary, the 
daughter of James Cole jun. Her father went to Swan- 
zey, when first settled. 

Further on Scituate Church. Rev. Ebenezer Thomp- 
son, rector, died at Scituate, Nov. 28> 1775*, in advanced 

Rev. Willliam W. Wheeler, died also there, Jan. 14, 
1810, aged 74. 

Acknowledgement of Donations. 

I HE thanks of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
are presented for the following donations. 

A. Holmes, Corresponding Secretary. 

_ Thomas Hariot, American Settlements of Raleigh, 
Grenville, &c. transl. into German, with plates. Frank- 
fort, on the Maine, 1600, large folio; J. J. C. Timaeus' 
North American States Calendar, in German. Ham- 
burgh, 1796, 8vo. pp. 544 ; John David Schopf Trav- 
els in United States, Florida and Bahama, in 1783 and 
1784, in German. Erlingen, 1788, 8vo. 2 vols. pp. 644 
+551 ; Peter Loefling Travels in Spain and Spanish 
America, 1751 to 1756, in German, with a Latin cata- 
logue of plants in Spain and America. Berlin and Stral- 
sund, 1766, 8vo. pp. 406 ; Remarks on North America 
and the British Colonies, translated from Dr. Franklin, 
Wesley, &c. by Gottfrced Achenwall, in German. 
Helmstad, 1777, 8vo. pp. 54+27 ; Letters on America, 
from a citizen of Basle to a friend in Switzerland, in 
German. Basle, 1806, 8vo. pp. 127 ; News from Penn- 
sylvania. London, 1703, 12mo. pp. 36 ; M. Frezier 
Voyage de la Mer dn Sud au cote du Chili, &c. 1712, 
13, 14. Amsterdam, 1717, 12mo. 2 vols. pp. 600 ; 
Histoire de la Jamaique, trad, de l'Anglois. a Londres, 


1751, 12mo. pp. 248 ; Voyage a la Martinique par J. 
R#*# ? General de Brigade, a Paris, 1804, 8vo. pp. 194. 
Johanni Curui Semmedi Variorum simplicium exoti- 
corum historia. cura Abr. Vateri. Vitembergae, 1722, 
4to. pp. 88 ; Thomas Campanius Holm, Novae Sueciae, 
seu Pennsylvaniae descriptio. Stockholm. 1702, 4to. pp. 
190. C. D. Ebeling Memoriae Joh. Alb. Henr. Reimari 
S. Hamburgh, 1815, 4to. pp. 50. 

Presented by Professor Ebeling, of Hamburgh. 

Hon. Timothy Pitkin's Statistical View of the Com- 
merce of the United States of America : its connection 
with Agriculture and Manufactures : and an account of 
the Public Debt, Revenues, and expenditures of the 
United States. 1816. The Author. 

Bibliothecse quam vir doctus, et admodum reveren- 
dus Daniel Williams, S. T. P. bono publico legavit, 
Catalogus. Londini : m.dccci- &: Appendix, m.dccc 
xiv. The Trustees of Williams'* Library. 

The New York Spectator. 

The Editors, Lewis and Hall. 

Massachusetts CentineL 1815. Benj. Russell, Esq. 

Boston Gazette. Russell, Cutler, &P Co, 

Memoir of births, marriages and deaths, in Woburn, 
(Mass.) for 41 years, commencing 1654, and History of 
Billerica ; Sermon at ordination of Thomas Beede, at Wil- 
ton, by Wm. Emerson, ch. Goodrich, f. Jer. Barnard ; 
Sermon at ordination of St. Chapin, at Hillsborough, by 
Dr. Nath. Emmons, ch. John Bruce, f. Moses Bradford ; 
Caleb Emerson's Discourse on Music, at Amherst ; 
Nathan Bradstreet's Election Sermon, New Hampshire, 
1807 ; Mather Byles' Sermon, public thanksgiving, 6 
March, 1760, imp. Mr. John Farmer, of Amherst. 

Sermon on National Fast, by J. Foster, Jan. 12, 1815, 
8vo. The Author. 

Seventh Report Phila. Bible Society, 8vo ; Minutes 
of General Assembly, 1815, 8vo; Constitution of the 
Phila. Orphan Society, with Bishop White's Sermon, 
8vo ; Communications on progress of Bible Societies, 
8vo. Ebenezer Hazard, Esq* 

Trial of Moses Adams for Murder. Mr. E. B. Tileston. 

39 VOL, IY. 


Three vols. Transactions of the Society for the pro- 
motion of Agriculture, &c. New York, 2 ed. Society. 

Address (De Witt Clinton's) to benefactors of free 
school ; Report of the Commissioners appointed by joint 
resolutions of Sen. and Ass. of New York, to explore the 
route of an inland navigation, Feb. 1811 ; Account of 
the free school Society in New York ; Memorial of the 
New York Historical Society to the Legislature ; View 
of the New York State Prison. Mr. Thomas Eddy* 

American Unitarianism, or a Brief History, &c. 

Mr. Nathaniel Willis. 

Review of American Unitarianism ; Worcester's Let- 
ter to C banning on Unitarianism, / 

Mr. Samuel T. Armstrong. 

Channing's Letter to Thacher on do : Channing's 
Remarks on Dr. Worcester's Letter to him. Wm. Wells. 

The language of scripture respecting the Saviour; 
Remarks on American Unitarianism, by Amana. 

Mr. T. G. Bangs. 

Sixth Report of the Connecticut Bible Society, May, 
1815 ; Sketches of the Hist, of Dartmouth College and 
Moor's School, with a particular account of some late 
remarkable proceedings of the Board of Trustees, from 
1779 to 1815. Rev. Dr. Mc. Clure. 

Specimens of minerals, 27 in Number, from Maine. 

Professor Cleaveland. 

More last words to these churches, 1746, by Eben- 
ezer Morton. Miss H. Mason. 

Oration on late John Warren, by Dr. Josiah Bartlett. 

The Author. 

The lock of the gun with which King Philip was 
killed. Rev. Dr. Lathrop. 

Captain John Smith's Historie of Virg. N E. and the 
Summer Isle. Widow of Francis Wright > Esq. 

Collection of American Epitaphs, by T. Alden ; 
Gaiatorsera, &c. Spelling Book of Iroquos nations, 
by Eleazer Williams, 1813. 24 pp. 12mo. 

Rev. Timothy Alden. 

History of the Civil Wars in Eng. York, and Lancas- 
ter ; transl. from the Italian of Fr. Biondi, by Henry, 


Earl of Monmouth, 1641 ; Romish Fisher caught and 
held in his own net, or a true relation of Prot. Confer- 
ence, and Pop. Difference, by Daniel Featly, D. D. Lon- 
don, 1624. Frederick Tudor, Esq. 

Bibliotheca Ant. Collins, for sale at auction, ; Webb's 
Election Sermon, 1738 ; 34 Nos. of Journal General de 
a Litt. de France, 1806, 7 and 8 ; Mayhew's Sermon, 
access, of Geo. HI. ; Thacher's Sermon and Welsh's 
Eulogy on Hon. Nath. Gorham ; Cuming's Thanksgiv- 
ing Sermon, 1798; Morse's Sermon on death of Hon. 
Fames Russell ; do. on death of Mary Russell ; Whole 
proceedings of (Burke's) contested elect, at Bristol, 
1774 ; Beauties and Deformities of Burke, Fox and 
North, 1784; What think ye of Congress now? and 
others. Rev. Charles Lowell. 

Coe's Valedictory Discourse, 1806; Whitcomb's 
Discourse at dedication at Saco, 1806 ; Nason's Ad- 
dress at opening Academy at Gorham, 1806 ; Rand's 
sermon, ord. Fr. Brown, 1810; Appleton's sermon, ord. 
Reuben Nason, 1810. Rev. Reuben Nason. 

Camden's Remains, 1 vol. 4to. Dr. JV. Noyes. 

Twelve Articles, viz. Coins, Fossils, Indian Tools. 

Mr. Samuel H. Jenks. 

Synopsis of the genera of American plants. 

Obadiah Rich, Esq. 

Historical sketch of Northampton, in Solomon Wil- 
liams' sermon. John H. Henshaw, Esq. 

German Almanack, Phila. 1815. Mr. Timothy Swan. 

Dana's Historical Discourse at Marblehead, 1816. 

Mr. Thomas Walcott. 

Story's Sketch of the life of Samuel Dexter; Dis- 
course at Cohasset on the death of his wife, by Jacob 
Flint ; Tribute to Memory of Rev. Samuel Cary. 

Mr. John Eliot. 

Elements of Logick, by Levi Hedge. The Author. 

Discourse at Plymouth, anniversary of landing, by 
Rev. James Flint. Samuel Davis. Esq. 

Bill of Mortality of Boston, for 1815. 

Board of Health, 


Answer to " Exposition of the Catholic doctrine of 
penance," by Ch. Wharton, D. D. 1814, pp. 130, 8vo. 
First Report of the Bible Society, in the County of Mid- 
dlesex, with, the constitution, members, donors, &c. 
1816, pp. 36, 8vo ; Report of the Society in Portland 
for suppressing vice and immorality, 1816, pp. 10, 
12mo. Report of a Missionary Tour, by Messrs. Mills 
and Smith, 1815, pp. 64, 8vo. Report of Bible Society 
of Massachusetts, 1816, 4 pp. 8vo. The Examiner. By 
Hon. B. Gardenier. New York. Part of Vol. IV. and 
Vol. V. A Friend. J. M. 

Century Sermon, Hopkinton, 24 Dec. 1815, by Rev, 
Nathaniel Howe, pp. 31, 8vo. y The Author. 

Sermon before the Antient and Honourable Artillery 
Company, 1816, by Rev. Paul Dean, pp. 17, 8vo. 

The Company. 

Discourse of the glory to which God hath called be- 
lievers by Jesus Christ. By Mr. Jonathan Mitchell, late 
pastor of the Church in Cambridge, N. England, with a 
preface by Increase Mather, D. D. 12mo. 1732. 

Miss Martha Thayer.